Home, sweet home.
Our project is about our native town. We decided to call it “The Brief Historical Outlook of Kalininsk”. We are interested in the history of our town, therefore we choose this theme. The main idea of the project was to get as much information as we could. We wanted to get the best out of the Past.
Looking forward to the nearest future we want to make friends with English-speaking pupils, who would be interested in the history of our town. We put the information about our town into the site of our school for those people who will show the interest to this theme. We worked on the project during two months.
At our first meeting we distributed our duties. Some of us went to the local museum; the others were busy at the city library. When the information was complete we started to make the project’s presentation.
It is not yet finished, because we got a lot of new information the last few weeks. We found the people who still remember the Past very well as they were born at the beginning of the 20th century. We decided to continue our project, but it will be a little different to this one. May be we will call it “The Past in the old postcards”.
Kalininsk (the first name was Balanda) is situated in Nizhniy Povolzhie, in 121 km to the West from Saratov. It is located on the western part of Privolzhskaya Highland, on the banks of Balanda River. It is a focal point on the highway from Balashov to Saratov. The area of Kalininsk district is 3.200 sq.km, the population is nearly 41.500 people.
In 1662, it was first mentioned as Balandinskiy Yurt (it means “the place full of wild honey, berries, mushrooms, fish and furry animals”). There lived Turkic-Iranians and Turkic-Kipchaks. From their languages “Balanda” means “The Fish River”. The first Russian settlers were Cossacks, fugitive convicts and the peasants from the Central part of Russia. They settled along the river banks. Chebotarevs, Sukhovs, Kuznetcovs, Sheshnevs were among them. The settlement Balanda was founded in 1680.
There were some deep lakes, among them are: Bobrovoje, Trostovoje, Podgornoje and Lebiyazhie. There were a lot of animals, fish and birds at that time. The valley along the river was covered with trees and bushes; the steppe was wide and wild.
In the 18th century, Balanda (38.185 sq.km) together with the peasants was gifted to Count Sheremetev B.P. by Ekatherina II. He replaced his own peasants (Ukrainians) from his homesteads in Mallorossiya (Kharkov, Chernigov and Cherson). From this time Balanda developed itself very quick.
At the foot of the hill (“Popova Shishka” by name) the Sheremetev’s homestead was situated. In the past it had a small wine factory, stables, kennels (there were more than 2000 hunting dogs) and small farmhouses. Such farmhouses as Zhuravka, Tabunniy, Plaksyn, Nizniy and many others also belonged to Count Sheremetev B.P. On the wide pastures there were a lot of horses, cattle and sheep. This homestead is the historical and architectural memorial of the past.
In September 1774, the army under the rule of Emeliyan Pugachjev went through Balanda to Voronezh. The population of the settlement supported his movement; some of the peasants took part in it.
In 1780, when Saratov region was formed, Balanda became the part of Atkarsk district. The population was over 7.000 people. The settlement was divided by “tenth». There were 8 Russian “tenths” on the eastern side, at the western side there were 23 Ukrainian ones. The houses were covered mostly by the straw. By the middle of the 19th century there were some streets, such as Gorodok, Repyahovka, Kiselievka, Krasavka, Bolshaya and Yarmarochnaya. In 1858 the population of Balanda was 6663 people, there were 4391 Ukrainians and 2272 Russians.
The population mostly worked in agriculture. Agriculture was the most important sector of economy. The peasants had horses and oxen to prepare the fertile land. They used wooden harrows and coulters, iron sickles and threshing chains. The boot makers, saddlers, coopers and some other crafts appeared at this time.
In 1853 the first State School for boys was opened, there were 222 pupils. In 1872 the Elementary School for girls was opened too (there were 51 pupils). In 1897 the first Ministry Vocational School began to work (now it is the Secondary School №2).
The mortality was very high, especially children, so it was necessary to build a hospital. It was opened in 1878.
There were no fire-brigades that time, so the fires happened very often. Thus, in 1878, the whole street Gorodok and a part of Repyahovka were burnt completely. In 1907 more than 60 houses in the western part of the settlement were burnt too. The fire-brigade was formed in 1907.
In 1885, the rail-road by Ryazano-Ural’s society helped a lot to the development of the town. The rail-road goes through Kalininsk from Rtishevo, Atkarsk to Saratov.
Balanda became the biggest trading centre. Bread and cattle trades brought the most fame to the settlement around Saratov region. During spring and autumn time Balanda was crowded by the peasants from Don, Astrakhan, and Samara. They brought their cattle to the fairs for sale. That time there were a lot of merchants who made their business during the fairs. Krasylnicov’s, Chepenkov’s, Kuznetcov’s, Gannenkov’s, Krukov’s, Kalimin’s, Shishkov’s and Tolmachev’s were the most well-known families of merchants.
The manufacture developed very quickly. There were 14 windmills, 1 watermill and 4 steam-engine mills, the agricultural workshop, churns and 20 forges. The ware-houses and granaries (to keep the wheat), several manufacturing stores, food, ironware and haberdashery shops were built in a very short time.
In 1900 the population of Balanda was over 10.000 people. There were 80 manufactures and trading companies, 3 public-houses, 28 shops, 1889 private farms. Annually more than 2.000 tons of flour went to the other regions. By this point, Balanda took over the importance from Atkarsk.
The merchants brought big contributions to the architecture of the town. Some beautiful buildings were designed and built at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century. They are still decorated our town. The houses were built in the classical Russian style of that time. Each of them is a small masterpiece of the past. Among them are:
1.The bank (which is on Chapaeva Street). During the Great Patriotic War there was the hospital № 3288. In 1945–1946 the Secondary School № 1 got the first pupils there.
2.The Secondary School № 2. In 1897 there was a Ministry Vocational School. From 1946 it is the Secondary School № 2.
3. The Primary School № 2 (at the Market Square). At the beginning of the XXth century there was Bulduchenko’s Public – house.
4. The Sport School. At the early 20-s of the XXth century – it was «People”s House». In 1919 Mikhail Kalinin visited Balanda on the agitating – train («The October Revolution» by name) twice. It is written on the memory board, which is fixed on the front wall of the building.
5. The Pensioners’ Fund. In April 1921, Balanda was attacked by the Popov’s band. In the courtyard of this building, on 6th of April in 1921, 32 communists were shot by this band. Later, their relics were buried in another place. Nowadays there is a monument «The Oath».
6. The book – keeping house of Communal Service. It was the house of merchant Shishkov.
7. Merchant Ganenkov had his Grocery, Haberdashery and food shop at the Market Square.
8. The Culinary shop. It was the merchant Sklemenov’s house.
9. The Chemist’s shop. It was the merchant Gromov’s house.
10.The Church. It was opened in 1988. It was the merchant Ganenkov’s house.
11. The Post – office. It was the merchant Kuzhetcov’s house.
12. The Hunter’s house. It was the merchant Nevolin’s house.
At the beginning of the 20th century the cinema was built there too. The films were brought from Atkarsk once a week.
It was that time when the local newspaper was published too.
At the turn of the XIX – XXth century three churches were built in Balanda.
The Chrestovozdvizhenskaya church was built in 1829. The Church of the Virgin Mary was built in 1892. The Church of God the Son (Jesus) was built in 1902. They had parochial schools.
Before the Great October Revolution the population of Balanda was 35621 people. There were 37110 square meters of fertile lands; 14 churches, 1 hospital and 1 hospital-orderly and a midwifery house.
In 1928 the Balanda’s district was formed.
In 1919 Mikhail Kalinin visited Balanda on the agitating – train («The October Revolution» by name) twice. In 1962 Balanda was renamed after him.
The final product of our project is the e-mail letter at the site of our school. We shared the information about our town and wanted to know about the history of some small towns. We will continue the historical research of our town. We think that by this communication we will get a lot of interesting, useful information, to know new things and make progress in learning English.
Возрастнаякатегория – 10 класс.
Темаработы: « The Brief Historical Outlook of My Motherland».
Проект проводится в рамках цикла уроков: английского языка, истории и краеведения. Учебная тема: “TheBriefHistoricalOutlookofKalininsk”. Самостоятельные исследования учащихся помогают изучить краеведческий материал в полном объёме, использовать первоисточники, знакомится с особенностями развития своего города, участвовать в исследовательской работе с историческими материалами. При подготовке проекта были использованы материалы Калининского краеведческого музея, городского архива. Данный проект был выполнен учащимися на английском языке в рамках прохождения программного материала по теме: “MyHometown”. Работа над данным проектом помогает расширить знания учащихся по истории родного края, совершенствоваться в английском языке.
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