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The presentation is made by KUZHELEVA V.V., a teacher of English, school 1, Kirsanov The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Parts of the UK and their capitals: 1. England (London) 2. Scotland (Edinburgh) 3. Wales (Cardiff) 4. Northern Ireland (Belfast)
The National Flag of the United Kingdom The national flag of the UK is one of the main symbols of the country. It is called “Union Jack”. “Jack” is an old word for “sailor”. It explains the name of the flag. King James III (1566 – 1622) ordered the Union Flag to be flown on the main mast of all British ships. Union Jack is a mixture of several flags. It combines flags representing England, Scotland and Ireland. These flags are the crosses of the Patron Saint of England (St. George’s Cross – red cross on a white ground), the flag of the Patron Saint of Scotland (St. Andrew’s Cross – white diagonal cross on a blue ground), and the flag of the Patron Saint of Northern Ireland (St. Patrick’s Cross – red diagonal on a white ground).
Floral Emblems of 4 parts of the UK England A red Rose Scotland A thistle Each country in Britain has its own floral emblem. The national flower of England is the red rose. The flower has been adopted as England’s emblem since the time of the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485). In the 15-th century two Houses were struggling for the English throne – the Lancastrians and the Yorkists. The civil wars between the royal house of Lancaster (whose emblem was a red rose) and the royal house of York (whose emblem was a white rose) ended when King Henry VII, the Lancastrian, married Princess Elizabeth, the daughter of the Yorkists. Since then the red rose has become the national emblem of England. The national flower of Scotland is the thistle, a prickly-leaved purple flower which was first used in the 15th century as a symbol of defence. There is a legend that explains why it became the Scottish emblem. According to it, ancient Scandinavians wanted to plunder the land of Scotland and settle there. So, they landed on the east coast of Scotland. The Scots gathered their army to defend the land. They made up a camp to have rest after a long march. The Scots were sleeping and didn’t expect the enemies. When the Norsemen decided to attack the Scots, they took their shoes off not to make noise. But one of the Norsemen stepped on a thistle, and that sudden and sharp pain made him scream. So, the Scots heard the “alarm” and put the Norsemen to fight. That is how the thistle became the Scottish emblem.
Wales A daffodil or a leek Northern Ireland A shamrock The national flower of Wales is the daffodil, which is traditionally worn on St. David’s Day. According to the legend, during the battle against the Saxons, St. David advised his soldiers to wear leeks in their hats so that they could be easily distinguished from their enemies. The vegetable called leek is also considered to be a traditional emblem of Wales. The national flower of Northern Ireland is the shamrock, a three-leaved plant similar to clover. An Irish tale tells of how Patrick used the three-leafed shamrock to explain the Trinity. He used it to represent how the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit could all exist as separate elements of the same entity. His followers adopted the custom of wearing a shamrock on his feast day.
The national coat of arms of the United Kingdom The main National Royal symbol is the Royal Coat of Arms, which identifies the person who is the head of State. The Royal Coats of Arms reflects the history of the Monarchy and the country, because it comprises various Royal emblems of different parts of the UK. In the centre of the emblem a heraldic shield is situated. It is divided into 4 parts: 3 gold leopards or lions on a red ground is the English emblem, a red lion on a gold ground is the Scottish emblem, yellow harp on a blue ground is the Irish emblem. The shield is supported by 2 Royal Beasts – the Lion with the crown on the left and the Unicorn on the right. The lion represents pride, bravery, valour. It is also the symbol of power and royalty. The Unicorn is a mythical animal. It has appeared at the British and the Scottish coats of arms and is the symbol of purity. They are surrounded by a Royal Crown. Around the shield there is a garter with a motto of the Royal family ”Honi soit qui mal y pense” (French for “Evil to him who evil thinks”), which symbolises the Order of the Garter, an ancient order of chivalry of which the Queen is Sovereign.
London is the capital of the UK London is an ancient city. It was founded more than twenty centuries ago. When the Romans began invading the country it was a small village. The Romans built London, which they called Londinium. It was a large and rich city with clean streets, beautiful palaces, shops and villas. In the 5-th century the Romans left Britain, but other invaders came to the British shores. They almost ruined the city and it remained in this state for almost 400 years. Only in the 9-th century the Saxon kings began to rebuilt the city. They started building of West-minster Abbey. In the 17-th century London suffered 2 awful tragedies – the Great Plague in 1665 and the Great Fire in 1666. After the Fire, which destroyed almost 3,000 houses and 97 churches, London was reconstructed. The commission of six architects was organized for the rebuilding, and Sir Christopher Wren was the most talented of them.
British Monarch – Her Majesty the Queen of the UK Elizabeth II The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch(a king or a queen) as its Head of State. The monarch reigns with the support of Parliament. The powers of the monarch are not defined precisely. Everything today is done in the Queen’s name. It is her government, her armed forces, her law courts and so on. She appoints all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister. Everything is done however on the advice of the elected Government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision – making process.
London’s 4 main parts are: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. Westminster area is often called the City of Westminster. It is the most important part of London, where Parliament and most government offices are located: the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, Trafalgar Square. Many famous streets – Whitehall, Downing Street, Fleet Street are also situated in Westminster area.
The City The City is often called the commercial and business heart of London. This is the area with lots of banks and offices. Very few people live there: only 5 thousand people live permanently in the City today, but nearly a million works there. The Royal Exchange, the Stock Exchange, Mansion House, the Central Criminal Court and the Bank of England are in the City. The Tower of London and St. Paul’s Cathedral are also situated in this part of the capital.
The West End The West End is not far from the City and is a part of Westminster. Life never stops in the streets and squares here. The West End is a symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, the most expensive restaurants, clubs, theatres, cinemas, shops and supermarkets are located here. It is also full of museums and galleries. Hyde Park, St. James’s Park, Regent’s Park and Kensington Gardens are in the West End. The most famous and busiest streets of this part of London are Regent Street and Oxford Street. Piccadilly Circus is the heart of the West End.
The East End The East End used to be a purely working district where working- class families lived. We still can find a great number of factories, workshops and docks here. The Thames is a natural boundary between the West End and the East End of London. On the south bank of the river there is the South Bank Arts Centre which comprises the Royal National Theatre, the Royal Festival Hall and Queen Victoria Theatre(Old Vic).
Unofficial symbols of London When somebody says “England”, what famous things first come to your mind? Of course, these might be London, Big Ben, Stonehenge, Shakespeare, the Beatles, Wimbledon… But lots of people probably will name red double – deckers, black taxi cabs, red postboxes and telephone boxes. They have become an integral part of London and the UK .
Both - the red postbox and the red telephone box - have a picture of a crown on them. The crown on the post box also has the monach’s initials underneath. There are postboxes with “VR”(Victoria Regina – Queen Victoria) and “GR”(Georgeus Rex – King George). The red telephone box The red postbox
This is a famous London double – decker bus. There are also open – top double – deckers, which are very comfortable for seeing London sights.
Black Taxi Cab Black Taxi Cab is another distinctive feature of London city life as double – decker buses. All black cab drivers must pass a strict test known as the “Knowledge” before they are licensed to operate a taxi. This tests their knowledge of London’s streets and the quickest traffic roots.
Презентацию "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" можно использовать при обучении учащихся английскому языку по различным учебно - методическим комплексам в разных классах для ознакомления c реалиями страны изучаемого языка или обобщения страноведческого материала о Соединенном Королевстве Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. Она дает наглядное представление о стране в целом, её частях, флагах, гербе, столице, районах Лондона, его достопримечательностях, королеве, символах, связанных с историей государства, неофициальных символах Лондона.
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