Theme of the lesson: Types of computer system.
1) Educational- to present new lexical theme: Types of computer system.
2)Developing- student’s speech, memory, logic thinking, word source, students outlook, increasing interests in learning language.
3)Bringing up-humanism, friendly conditions in working at the lesson.
The type of the lesson: Fixed
Methods:answer the questions, reading, translating
The visual aids: cards, lecture
Procedure of the lesson
I. Organization moment: Good morning? Glad to see you! How are you? What date is it today? Who is absent today? What problem has he (she)? Are you ready for the lesson? Let’s start!
II. Phonetic drill.
► tion, sion ▪ preparation, election, protection, inspection, injection, destination, computerization, condition, reduction, demagnetization, contamination, introduction, contribution, attention, stationary, acceleration, dictionary, detection,
33 application, gravitation, deviation, ignition, competition, mention, motion, civilization, conventional, constructional; ▪ session, conversion, compression, permission, confession, dimension, suspension, depression, expansion, transmission, extension, professional, collision, precision, decision, confusion, fusion, corrosion, division, explosion, adhesion, abrasion, occasional.
► ar, er, or, ur, ir ▪ discard, cargo, artery, compartment, depart, charter, debark, barge, enlarge, apart, arc, charge, hardly, parking, starter,
article, alarm, parcel; ▪ BUT: warm, warn, award, warrant; ▪ internal, terminal, transfer, alert, berth, concern, serve, service, emerge, personal, commercial, convert, permanent, defer, advertisement, converge, per, alternative, certain, refer, mercury, reserve; ▪ perform, formula, reinforce, ordinary, extraordinary, ore, accord, enormous, retort, cordon, absorb, border, corporation, disorder, forward, incorporate, record, normally, transform, support; ▪ BUT: worth, word, worm, world; ▪ urgent, surface, turbine, furnace, occur, disturb, surname, interurban, suburban, curve, turn, return, further, purpose, survey, furbish, burst, spur, absurd, burden, cursor, curb; ▪ firm, circuit, birth, circular, swirl, confirm, first, third, birch, shirk, smirk, affirm.
III. Check up the homework
IV. Memorize the following words and wordcombinations:
Digital – цифровой;
physical quantities – физические величины;
device – прибор, устройство, механизм;
to measure – измерять;
numerical value – численное значение;
incredible – невероятный, немыслимый;
to add – прибавлять, складывать;
to subtract – вычитать;
to multiply – умножать;
to divide – делить;
human brain – человеческий мозг;
solution – решение;
in order to – для того, чтобы;
circuit – электронная схема, микросхема;
to clock – заводить, запускать
V. Read and translate the text “TYPES OF COMPUTERS”
The two basic types of computers are analog and digital.
Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers. Many business, scientific, and industrial computer applications rely on the combination of analog and digital devices.
Basically, today’s analogue computer is a device for measuring such physical quantities as lengths and voltages and, through a mechanical linkage, exhibiting the measurement as a numerical value. However, the analogue computer is limited to special classes of problems and when most people say “computer” today, they mean the digital computer which is a marvel of precision and accuracy¹, for it works with specific units rather than approximations.
The modern electronic digital computer counts with incredible speed using only two numbers — the one and zero what mathematicians call the binary system. The counting ability of the computer is used to feed it information. But first the information is translated into a code.
The information is then stored in a memory bank made of magnets. The direction in which electrical signals run through the magnets means one or zero, yes or no, off or on. Each magnet contains one piece of information called a bit. A large computer system can store hundreds of millions of such information bits.
But information by itself is useless. The computer must be told what to do with it — to add, subtract, multiply, or divide the coded pulses stored in its memory. Parts of that memory contain instructions, prepared by a human brain, that provide the computer with the road to follow in order to solve a problem. These instructions are called the program.
What makes the computer different from an adding machine is that the computer can modify its instructions. If a problem cannot be solved by following one route, the computer can search its memory for another set of instructions until a solution is found. And it does all this at superhuman speeds. The on-off switching of the computer’s logic circuits has been
clocked at a billionth of a second. That is to one second what one second is to thirty years.
But the computer cannot actually think. It performs all of its functions by route². Once an answer is achieved, another program within the memory tells the computer how to display the solution, to type it out on paper, display it as pictures or words on a television screen, or perhaps even to speak the answer in words a man can hear.
¹A marvel of precision and accuracy – чудо четкости и точности.
²It performs all of its functions by route. – Он выполняет все свои функции по программе.
Types of computer system.
FROM MAINFRAMES TO WEARABLE COMPUTERS.
A mainframe is the most powerful type of a computer. It can process and store and large amounts of data. It supports multiple users at the same time and can support more simultaneous processes than a PC. The central system is a large server connected to hundreds of terminals over a network. Mainframes are used for large-scale computing purposes in banks, big companies and universities.
A desktop PC has its own processing unit (or CPU) , monitor and keyboard. It is used as a personal computer in the home or as a workstation for group work. Typical examples are the IBM PC and the Apple Macintosh. It”s designed to be placed on your desk. Some models have a vertical case called a tower.
A laptop (also called a notebook PC) is a lightweight computer that you can transport easily. It can work as fast as a desktop PC, with similar processors, memory capacity, and disk drives, but it is portable and has a smaller screen. Modern notebooks have a TFT ( Thin Film Transistor) screen that produces very sharp images.
Instead of a mouse, they have a touchpad built into the keyboard -a sensitive pad that you can touch to move the pointer on the screen.
They offer a lot of connectivity options: USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports for connecting peripherals, slots for memory cards, ets.
They come with battery packs, which let you use the computer when there are no electrical outlets available.
A Tablet PC looks like a book, with an LCD screen on which you can write using a special digital pen. You can fold and rotate the screen 180 degrees. Your handwriting can be recognized and converted into editable text. You can also type at the detached keyboard or use voice recognition. It’s mobile and versatile.
A personal digital assistant or PDA is a tiny computer which can be held in one hand. The term PDA refers to a wide variety of hand-held devices, palmtops and pocket PCs.
For input, you type at a small keyboard or use a stylus- a special pen used with a touch screen to select items, draw pictures, etc. Some models incorporate handwriting recognition, which enables a PDA to recognize characters written by hand. Some PDAs recognize spoken words by using voice recognition software.
They can be used as mobile phones or as personal organizers for storing notes, reminders and addresses. They also let you access the Internet via wireless technology, without cables.
A wearable computer runs on batteries and is worn on the user’s body, e.g. on a belt, backpack or vest; it is designed for mobile or hand-free operation. Some devices are equipped with a wireless modem, a small keyboard and a screen; others are voice-activated and can access email or voice mail.
VI. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the two types of computers? 2. What is today’s analog computer? 3. What device do most people mean when they say “computer”? 4. How many numbers does the so called binary system use?
5. Where is information stored inside a computer? 6. What do we call a magnet containing one piece of information? 7. How many information bits can a large computer system store? 8. What does the computer use its counting ability for? 9. Is information useful by itself? 10. Who prepares instructions for the computer? 11. What is program? What makes the computer different from the adding machine? 12. Explain the word combination “superhuman speed”.13.What is the difference between the computer and the human brain?
VI. Practice in orally form
Task 1. Give the Russian equivalents. Analog computer is a device for measuring physical quantities; to count with incredible speed; the counting ability; a piece of information called a bit; information by itself is useless; superhuman speeds; the computer cannot actually think.
Task 2. Give the English equivalents. Физические величины, численное значение, чудо четкости и точности, двоичная система, сотни миллионов бит информации; складывать, вычитать, умножать или делить; инструкции, подготовленные человеческим мозгом; включение и выключение компьютерных схем, аналого-цифровые компьютеры
Task 3. Fill in the blanks. 1. In fact the analogue computer (ограничен) to special classes of problems.
2.The counting ability of the computer (используется) to feed it information. 3. First the information (переводится) into a code. 4. The information (хранится) in a memory bank made of magnets. 5. The computer (нужно сказать) what to do with information. 6. These instructions (называются) the program.
7. If a problem (не может быть решена) by following one route, the computer can search its memory for another set of instructions. 8. Once an answer (получен), another program tells the computer how to display the solution.
VIII. Practice in writing form
– Do you like our lesson today? Was it interesting for you?
– Was something new for you? What?
– How do you think was it useful for you? Why?
X. Read the text and the new words p16 Ex3.3p17
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