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Сочинение на тему "English as a world language"

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ГУ «Средняя школа №35 имени А.Гайдара

отдела образования акимата города Тараз»







Р Е Ф Е РА Т

по английскому языку по теме:


«English - as a World language»


Выполнила: Жаксылыкова А.

Класс: 9 «Б»

Проверила: Жаркеева Ш.М.





Тараз, 2014 г.


PlAN

I. Introduction:

1) English language - is one of the official languages of many political organisations.

2) the future is more complex and less certain than we know and we have to learn English language.

II. Middle:

1) The great Jakob Grimm: “none of the other living languages can vie with English language.”

2) more than half of the world’s newspapers are printed in English.

3) How great is the advantage of English?

III. Conclusion:

1) People also use English when on holiday as a second language even when they go to countries that have a different first language.

2) This will alter the relationship between the west and the rest of the world -- especially Asia -- and will change the economic attractiveness of other major languages.

3) 'Think tank' document



English - as a World language


 I.(1) As said the first President of the Republic of Kazakstan: “The English language – is the communication language in the world, so we are all have to learn and speak it!”  Nowadays English has become the world's most important and most universal language. It is the official language in over forty countries and the most used language in international business, science, medicine, trade and cultural relations. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South Africa Republic.It is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organisation and other political organisations. It is the language of world's scientific literature and computers technology.England's history helps to understand the present condition of English. Many English words were borrowed from the language of Angles and Saxons. Many new words were brought by traders and travellers.
    English language is learning in Kazakhstan since the Soviet Union come. To know the English language today is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist. English is everywhere in our life. It is in signs, clothing, soft drinks, and household products around the world. The names of pop groups, computers software and magazines are often written in English.English words are also used as elements of magic to be included on T-shirts, sweaters, caps etc. Someone think English is chic, stylish, even when the language on these designed items makes no sense.That is why in order to understand ourselves and the world around us we have to study foreign languages and English in particular.

I.(2)English as a world language: The first significant step in the progress of English towards its status as a world language took place in the last decade of the 16^th century and now. English is widely regarded as having become the global language but will it retain its pre-eminence in the 21st century? The world in which it is used is in the early stages of major social, economic and demographic transition. Although English is unlikely to be displaced as the world's most important language, the future is more complex and less certain than we know. The technology will progress and the English language will too, because it is the language of future. I think so.

II.(1)The great Jakob Grimm, the founder of comparative philology, hazarded the guess more than a century ago that English would one day become the chief language of the world, and perhaps crowd out several of the principal idioms altogether. “In wealth, wisdom and strict economy,” he said, “none of the other living languages can vie with it.” At that time the guess was bold, for English was still in fifth place, with not only French and German ahead of it, but also Spanish and Russian. In 1801, according to Michael George Mulhall, the relative standing of the five, in the number of persons using them, was as second. And he was true. English language is using now in all structures as political, economical, technology, science, art and etc.





This enormous increase in the American population, beginning with the great immigrations of the 30’s and 40’s, quickly lifted English to fourth place among the languages, and then to third, to second and to first. When it took the lead the attention of philologists was actively directed to the matter, and in 1868 one of them, a German named Brackebusch, first seriously raised the question whether English was destined to obliterate certain of the older tongues. Brackebusch decided against it on various philological grounds, none of them particularly sound. He was an own figure, whos dissertation shows, were rather against him.


The next estimates, for the year 1900, he take from Jespersen. The statisticians responsible for them he did not know.


II.(2).If we accept the 1911 estimate, we find English spoken by two and a half times as many persons as spoke it at the close of the Civil War, and by nearly eight times as many as spoke it at the beginning of the nineteenth century. No other language spread to any such extent during the century. German made a fourfold gain, but that was just half the gain made by English. Russian, despite the vast extension of the Russian Empire during the century, barely more than tripled its users, and French barely doubled them. Perhaps all of the figures are unnecessary; that is almost certainly true of German, and probably also true of English and French.

Chinese, too, may be disregarded, for though it is spoken by more than 300,000,000 persons, it is split into half a dozen mutually unintelligible dialects, and shows no sign of spreading beyond the limits of China; in fact, it is yielding to other languages along the borders, especially to English in the seaports. The same may be said of Hindustani, which is the language of 100,000,000 inhabitants of British India; it shows wide dialectical variations and the people who speak it are not likely to spread. But English is the possession of a race that is still pushing in all directions, and wherever that race settles the existing languages tend to succumb. Thus French, despite the passionate resistance sistance of the French-Canadians, is gradually decaying in Canada; in all newly-settled regions English is universal. The English control of the sea. “Three-fourths of the world’s mail matter,” says E. H. Babbitt, “is now addressed in English,” and “more than half of the world’s newspapers are printed in English.” 

Brackebusch, in the speculative paper just mentioned, came to the conclusion that the future domination of English would be prevented by its unphonetic spelling, its grammatical decay and the general difficulties that a foreigner encounters in seeking to master it. “The simplification of its grammar,” he said, with true philological fatuity, “is the commencement of dissolution, the beginning of the end, and its extraordinary tendency to degenerate into slang of every kind is the foreshadowing of its approaching dismemberment. ” In this case we see the power of this language. But in the same breath he was forced to admit that “the greater development it has obtained” was the result of this very simplification of grammar, and an inspection of the rest of his reasoning quickly shows its unsoundness, even without an appeal to the plain facts. The spelling of a language, whether it be phonetic or not, has little to do with its spread. Very few men learn it by studying books; they learn it by hearing it spoken. As for grammatical decay, it is not a sign of dissolution, but a sign of active life and constantly renewed strength. To the professional philologist, perhaps it may sometimes appear otherwise. He is apt to estimate languages by looking at their complexity; the Greek aorist elicits his admiration because it presents enormous difficulties and is inordinately subtle. The history of every language of Europe, since the earliest days of which we have record, is a history of simplifications. Even such languages as German, which still cling to a great many exasperating inflections, including the absurd inflection of the article for gender, are less highly inflected than they used to be, and are proceeding slowly but surely toward analysis. The fact that English has gone further along that road than any other civilized tongue is not a proof of its decrepitude, but a proof of its continued strength. Brought into free competition with another language, say German or French or Spanish, it is almost certain to prevail, if only because it is vastly easier—that is, as a spoken language—to learn. The foreigner essaying it, indeed, finds his chief difficulty, not in mastering its forms, but in grasping its defect of forms. He doesn’t have to learn a new and complex grammar; what he has to do is to forget grammar.


II.(3)Once he has done so, the rest is a mere matter of acquiring a vocabulary. People can make himself understood, given a few nouns, pronouns, verbs and numerals, without troubling himself in the slightest about accidence. “Me see she” is bad English, perhaps, but it would be absurd to say that it is obscure—and on some not too distant tomorrow it may be very fair American. Essaying an inflected language, the beginner must go into the matter far more deeply before he may hope to be understood. Bradley, in “The Making of English,” shows clearly how German and English differ in this respect, and how great is the advantage of English. In the latter the verb sing has eight forms, and of these three are entirely obsolete, one is obsolescent, and two more may be dropped out without damage to comprehension. People cannot argue politics in it, nor dispute upon importance, but for all the business of every day it is perfectly satisfactory. English – is very rich language.

All these things make English clearer and more logical than other tongues. It is, says Dr. Jespersen, “a methodical, energetic, business-like and sober language, that does not care much for finery and elegance, but does care for logical consistency and is opposed to any attempt to narrow-in life by police regulations and strict rules either of grammar or of lexicon.” In these judgments another Danish philologist, Professor Thomsen, agrees fully.

  There is, of course, something to be said on the other side. The five vowels of English alphabet have to do duty for some twenty sounds, and, to the foreigner, there are no simple rules by which the correct vowel sounds may be gauged from the way a word is written; our orthography also reflects the chaotic period before the English language was formed, and the spelling of a particular word is often unconnected with either its present pronunciation. But these objections have very little genuine force. The average foreigner does not learn English in order to sing it, but in order to speak it. To write it correctly, and particularly to spell it correctly, is a difficult undertaking, but very few foreigners find any need to do either. If our spelling were reformed, most of the difficulties now encountered would vanish.

Meanwhile, it remains a plain fact that, if only because of the grammatical simplicity, it is easier to obtain an intelligible working knowledge of English than of any other living tongue. This superior simplicity, added to the commercial utility of knowing the language, will probably more than counterbalance the nationalistic objections to acquiring it. In point of fact, they are already grown rather bad. 


III.(1) And in conclusion of my essey, I repeat that the English language - is the most popular language in the world. This is because of many reasons which include the fact that it is the international language which is used between states. In many countries located in Asia children begin to learn English from elementary school. They will usually study for more than three hours a week studying English. People also use English when on holiday as a second language even when they go to countries that have a different first language. Entertainment is also an important area because four or five songs from the top ten of many countries are sung is English. There is also an international university which can be accessed through satellite will also broadcast in English. Education is one of the main platforms used to teach the English language and countries have changed their education methods to facilitate the learning of English. There are about 45 nations in the world who use English as their first language and it is spoken by about 470 million people all over the world. It is the mother tongue to around 60 million people of the British Isles.

III.(2)It is these trends that will shape the demand for English in the future, even though they interact in complex ways.The economic shape of the world is rapidly changing. The world as a whole is getting richer, but the proportion of wealth created and spent by the west will decrease markedly in the next few decades. This will alter the relationship between the west and the rest of the world -- especially Asia -- and will change the economic attractiveness of other major languages. The role of technology Advances in the 19th century helped 'kick start' the long wave of economic growth, which is yet to reach some parts of the world. Technological change transforms the spaces in which we work and live, but it is difficult to predict precisely how technology will shape our future global patterns of language use. The legacy of history Britain's colonial expansion established the conditions for the global use of English, taking the language from its island birthplace to settlements around the world.

III.(3)People often say that English has a rich vocabulary as if it were something to be proud of. The richness of the vocabulary results basically from word borrowing and implies that words for related concepts are typically not related to each other in any regular manner. Word borrowing makes a language more international in one sense, but in the essential sense it makes it less suitable for international communication, since learning the vocabulary is more difficult. Commissioned and published by the British Council's English 2000 project, this 'think tank' document will be the starting point for an important debate amongst all professionals involved in English language services. The press release for the launch of the British Council's English 2000 project in 1995 summarised the position of English.

I love English language as my mother tongue. It has rich history, it has changed any more before being such as right now. But as for me, I think that it is the language of young people. Because of learning this language I find many friends from all over the world. And I hope that it will never die..never die the language of Shakespeare.


Сочинение на тему "English as a world language"
  • Иностранные языки
Описание:

PlAN

I. Introduction:

            1) English language -  is one of the official languages of many political organisations.

            2) the future is more complex and less certain than we know and we have to learn English language.

 II. Middle:

            1) The great Jakob Grimm: “none of the other living languages can vie with English language.”

             2) more than half of the world’s newspapers are printed in English.

             3) How great is the advantage of English?

III. Conclusion:

             1) People also use English when on holiday as a second language even when they go to countries that have a different first language.

             2) This will alter the relationship between the west and the rest of the world -- especially Asia -- and will change the economic attractiveness of other major languages.

             3) 'Think tank' document

 

   
English - as a World language


 I.(1) As said the first President of  the Republic of Kazakstan: “The English language – is the communication language in the world, so we are all have to learn and speak it!”  Nowadays English has become the world's most important and most universal language. It is the official language in over forty countries and the most used language in international business, science, medicine, trade and cultural relations. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South Africa Republic.It is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organisation and other political organisations. It is the language of world's scientific literature and computers technology.England's history helps to understand the present condition of English. Many English words were borrowed from the language of Angles and Saxons. Many new words were brought by traders and travellers.
         English language is learning in Kazakhstan since the Soviet Union come. To know the English language today is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist. English is everywhere in our life. It is in signs, clothing, 
soft drinks, and household products around the world. The names of pop groups, computers software and magazines are often written in English.English words are also used as elements of magic to be included on T-shirts, sweaters, caps etc. Someone think English is chic, stylish, even when the language on these designed items makes no sense.That is why in order to understand ourselves and the world around us we have to study foreign languages and English in particular.

I.(2)English as a world language: The first significant step in the progress of English towards its status as a world language took place in the last decade of the 16^th century and now. English is widely regarded as having become the global language but will it retain its pre-eminence in the 21st century? The world in which it is used is in the early stages of major social, economic and demographic transition. Although English is unlikely to be displaced as the world's most important language, the future is more complex and less certain than we know. The technology will progress and the English language will too, because it is the language of future. I think so.

II.(1)The great Jakob Grimm, the founder of comparative philology, hazarded the guess more than a century ago that English would one day become the chief language of the world, and perhaps crowd out several of the principal idioms altogether. “In wealth, wisdom and strict economy,” he said, “none of the other living languages can vie with it.” At that time the guess was bold, for English was still in fifth place, with not only French and German ahead of it, but also Spanish and Russian. In 1801, according to Michael George Mulhall, the relative standing of the five, in the number of persons using them, was as second. And he was true. English language is using now in all structures as political, economical, technology, science, art and etc.

 

 

 

 

This enormous increase in the American population, beginning with the great immigrations of the 30’s and 40’s, quickly lifted English to fourth place among the languages, and then to third, to second and to first. When it took the lead the attention of philologists was actively directed to the matter, and in 1868 one of them, a German named Brackebusch, first seriously raised the question whether English was destined to obliterate certain of the older tongues. Brackebusch decided against it on various philological grounds, none of them particularly sound. He was an own figure, whos dissertation shows, were rather against him.

 

The next estimates, for the year 1900, he take from Jespersen. The statisticians responsible for them he did not know.

 

II.(2).If we accept the 1911 estimate, we find English spoken by two and a half times as many persons as spoke it at the close of the Civil War, and by nearly eight times as many as spoke it at the beginning of the nineteenth century. No other language spread to any such extent during the century. German made a fourfold gain, but that was just half the gain made by English. Russian, despite the vast extension of the Russian Empire during the century, barely more than tripled its users, and French barely doubled them. Perhaps all of the figures are unnecessary; that is almost certainly true of German, and probably also true of English and French.

Chinese, too, may be disregarded, for though it is spoken by more than 300,000,000 persons, it is split into half a dozen mutually unintelligible dialects, and shows no sign of spreading beyond the limits of China; in fact, it is yielding to other languages along the borders, especially to English in the seaports. The same may be said of Hindustani, which is the language of 100,000,000 inhabitants of British India; it shows wide dialectical variations and the people who speak it are not likely to spread. But English is the possession of a race that is still pushing in all directions, and wherever that race settles the existing languages tend to succumb. Thus French, despite the passionate resistance sistance of the French-Canadians, is gradually decaying in Canada; in all newly-settled regions English is universal. The English control of the sea. “Three-fourths of the world’s mail matter,” says E. H. Babbitt, “is now addressed in English,” and “more than half of the world’s newspapers are printed in English.” 

Brackebusch, in the speculative paper just mentioned, came to the conclusion that the future domination of English would be prevented by its unphonetic spelling, its grammatical decay and the general difficulties that a foreigner encounters in seeking to master it. “The simplification of its grammar,” he said, with true philological fatuity, “is the commencement of dissolution, the beginning of the end, and its extraordinary tendency to degenerate into slang of every kind is the foreshadowing of its approaching dismemberment. ” In this case we see the power of this language. But in the same breath he was forced to admit that “the greater development it has obtained” was the result of this very simplification of grammar, and an inspection of the rest of his reasoning quickly shows its unsoundness, even without an appeal to the plain facts. The spelling of a language, whether it be phonetic or not, has little to do with its spread. Very few men learn it by studying books; they learn it by hearing it spoken. As for grammatical decay, it is not a sign of dissolution, but a sign of active life and constantly renewed strength. To the professional philologist, perhaps it may sometimes appear otherwise. He is apt to estimate languages by looking at their complexity; the Greek aorist elicits his admiration because it presents enormous difficulties and is inordinately subtle. The history of every language of Europe, since the earliest days of which we have record, is a history of simplifications. Even such languages as German, which still cling to a great many exasperating inflections, including the absurd inflection of the article for gender, are less highly inflected than they used to be, and are proceeding slowly but surely toward analysis. The fact that English has gone further along that road than any other civilized tongue is not a proof of its decrepitude, but a proof of its continued strength. Brought into free competition with another language, say German or French or Spanish, it is almost certain to prevail, if only because it is vastly easier—that is, as a spoken language—to learn. The foreigner essaying it, indeed, finds his chief difficulty, not in mastering its forms, but in grasping its defect of forms. He doesn’t have to learn a new and complex grammar; what he has to do is to forget grammar.

 

II.(3)Once he has done so, the rest is a mere matter of acquiring a vocabulary. People can make himself understood, given a few nouns, pronouns, verbs and numerals, without troubling himself in the slightest about accidence. “Me see she” is bad English, perhaps, but it would be absurd to say that it is obscure—and on some not too distant tomorrow it may be very fair American. Essaying an inflected language, the beginner must go into the matter far more deeply before he may hope to be understood. Bradley, in “The Making of English,” shows clearly how German and English differ in this respect, and how great is the advantage of English. In the latter the verb sing has eight forms, and of these three are entirely obsolete, one is obsolescent, and two more may be dropped out without damage to comprehension. People cannot argue politics in it, nor dispute upon importance, but for all the business of every day it is perfectly satisfactory. English – is very rich language.

All these things make English clearer and more logical than other tongues. It is, says Dr. Jespersen, “a methodical, energetic, business-like and sober language, that does not care much for finery and elegance, but does care for logical consistency and is opposed to any attempt to narrow-in life by police regulations and strict rules either of grammar or of lexicon.” In these judgments another Danish philologist, Professor Thomsen, agrees fully.

  There is, of course, something to be said on the other side. The five vowels of English alphabet have to do duty for some twenty sounds, and, to the foreigner, there are no simple rules by which the correct vowel sounds may be gauged from the way a word is written; our orthography also reflects the chaotic period before the English language was formed, and the spelling of a particular word is often unconnected with either its present pronunciation. But these objections have very little genuine force. The average foreigner does not learn English in order to sing it, but in order to speak it. To write it correctly, and particularly to spell it correctly, is a difficult undertaking, but very few foreigners find any need to do either. If our spelling were reformed, most of the difficulties now encountered would vanish.

Meanwhile, it remains a plain fact that, if only because of the grammatical simplicity, it is easier to obtain an intelligible working knowledge of English than of any other living tongue. This superior simplicity, added to the commercial utility of knowing the language, will probably more than counterbalance the nationalistic objections to acquiring it. In point of fact, they are already grown rather bad. 

 

III.(1) And in conclusion of my essey, I repeat that the English language - is the most popular language in the world. This is because of many reasons which include the fact that it is the international language which is used between states. In many countries located in Asia children begin to learn English from elementary school. They will usually study for more than three hours a week studying English. People also use English when on holiday as a second language even when they go to countries that have a different first language. Entertainment is also an important area because four or five songs from the top ten of many countries are sung is English. There is also an international university which can be accessed through satellite will also broadcast in English. Education is one of the main platforms used to teach the English language and countries have changed their education methods to facilitate the learning of English. There are about 45 nations in the world who use English as their first language and it is spoken by about 470 million people all over the world. It is the mother tongue to around 60 million people of the British Isles.

III.(2)It is these trends that will shape the demand for English in the future, even though they interact in complex ways.The economic shape of the world is rapidly changing. The world as a whole is getting richer, but the proportion of wealth created and spent by the west will decrease markedly in the next few decades. This will alter the relationship between the west and the rest of the world -- especially Asia -- and will change the economic attractiveness of other major languages. The role of technology Advances in the 19th century helped 'kick start' the long wave of economic growth, which is yet to reach some parts of the world. Technological change transforms the spaces in which we work and live, but it is difficult to predict precisely how technology will shape our future global patterns of language use. The legacy of history Britain's colonial expansion established the conditions for the global use of English, taking the language from its island birthplace to settlements around the world.

III.(3)People often say that English has a rich vocabulary as if it were something to be proud of. The richness of the vocabulary results basically from word borrowing and implies that words for related concepts are typically not related to each other in any regular manner. Word borrowing makes a language more international in one sense, but in the essential sense it makes it less suitable for international communication, since learning the vocabulary is more difficult. Commissioned and published by the British Council's English 2000 project, this 'think tank' document will be the starting point for an important debate amongst all professionals involved in English language services. The press release for the launch of the British Council's English 2000 project in 1995 summarised the position of English.

 

         I love English language as my mother tongue. It has rich history, it has changed any more before being such as right now. But as for me, I think that it is the language of young people. Because of learning this language I find many friends from all over the world. And I hope that it will never die..never die the language of Shakespeare.

Автор Жаркеева Шолпан Махмутовна
Дата добавления 11.12.2014
Раздел Иностранные языки
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