Главная / Иностранные языки / Сборник песен “Songs to Enjoy Grammar” для развития лексических и грамматических навыков студентов

Сборник песен “Songs to Enjoy Grammar” для развития лексических и грамматических навыков студентов

Название документа ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ К СБОРНИКУ.docx


Введение

Для многих учащихся подросткового возраста песни современных английских или американских групп представляют особый интерес, поэтому одним из видов деятельности на уроках служит работа с песней.

Настоящий сборник песен рассчитан на студентов высших заведений, студентов учреждений НПО и СПО, учащихся лицеев, слушателей курсов и лиц, самостоятельно изучающих иностранный язык. Сборник содержит тексты песен, распределенных по определенным грамматическим темам. Тексты песен сопровождаются пояснениями, индивидуальными, групповыми, творческими заданиями. Часто это сводится к чтению слов песни, их переводу на родной язык и записи нескольких новых слов в тетрадь, прослушиванию песни и совместному исполнению под фонограмму. Представлены упражнения на понимание содержания песни, согласованию слов и выражений (matching), лексико-грамматические упражнения, а также упражнения на говорение с использованием слов песни и фантазии учащихся. Такого рода задания внесут разнообразие в урок, а также будут направлены на повышение мотивации учащихся в изучении английского языка.

Представляется целесообразным использование песен на всех этапах и уровнях овладения иностранным языком. Рекомендуется использовать следующий список песен на разных этапах изучения иностранного языка:


Начальный уровень:

1. Altogether now, 2. Be a friend 3. Johnny builds with one hammer 3.1 Five little monkeys 4. Today is Monday 5. Love 6. The more we get together 7. Under one sky 8. What does your mama do? 9. Because 10. We shall overcome 11. Twinkle twinkle 12. The way old friends do 13. House 14. Love me tender 15. Only you 16. Somos El Barco 17. Yellow submarine 18. I do 19. Michelle 20. Colors 21. I know the colors in the rainbow 22. I have a dream 23. Family tree 24. Somewhere over the rainbow 25. Yesterday 26. Will you remember 27. Go down Moses 28. El Condor Pasa 29. Ebony and Ivory 30. Here comes the sun 31. Sealed with a kiss


Средний уровень:

1. Imagine 2. Money money money 3. Love story 4. Hello 5. Nowhere man 6. Eleanor Rigby 7. Let it be 8. I'm a rock 9. Norwegian wood 10. Lady in red 11. Ob-la-di Ob-la-da 12. I'm alone 13. Andante 14. Bridge over troubled water 15. When I'm sixty-four 16. My way 17. Nothing else matters 18. Nina pretty ballerina 19. Piano man 20. Father and son 21. Dance me to the end of love 22. A tale that wasn't right 23. Anthem 24. Strawberry fields forever 25. This land is your land 26. She's leaving home 27. Blowing in the wind 28. Down by the river side 29. Space oddity 30. A final countdown 31. Ticket to the moon 32. If it be your will 33. When a child is born 34. House of the rising sun 35. In the Ghetto 36. A working class hero 37. You'll see 38. All you need is love

Более трудные песни:

1. The boxer 2. Suzanne 3. The sounds of silence 4. Tom's diner 5. Joan of Arc 6. Good-bye yellow brick road 7. Famous blue raincoat 8. Tower of song 9. The things that matter 10. Mind games 11. My mind to me a kingdom is 12. First we take Manhattan 13. Crippled inside 14. In the death car  15. Watching the wheels 16. Waiting for the miracle 17. Hard rain 18. Democracy 19. Civil war 20. Hey you!

Christmas and New Year songs

  1. Let it snow 2. Santa Claus is coming to town 3. It's a marshmellow world 4. Jingle bells 5. When a child is born 6. Happy New Year 7. Wide Christmas

3


Название документа СОДЕРЖАНИЕ СБОРНИКА.docx



СОДЕРЖАНИЕ


Введение………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3



1.

Часть 1

Spelling (произношение слов по буквам)…………………………………………………

  • Песня "Altogether now"



4


2.

"To be" (глагол "быть")……………………………………………………………………………..

  • Склонение глагола "to be"

  • Отрицание с глаголом "to be"

  • Вопросы

  • Песня "Let it be"

5

3.

Present simple (простое настоящее время)…………………………………………..

  • Песня: "Another brick in the wall" by Pink Floyd

  • Использование "present simple", эпизод из "Мужчина и женщина"

  • Глагол "to have"

  • Закрепление

  • Темы для "Speaking"

8

4.

Simple past (простое прошедшее время) - глагол "to be"………………………

  • Песня "Yesterday"

  • Утвердительная, отрицательная и вопросительная форма глагола в прошедшем времени

  • Упражнения

11

5.

Simple past - правильные и неправильные глаголы………………………………………

  • Песня "Norwegian wood"

  • Правильные и неправильные глаголы

  • Песня «Tonight» Reamonn

13

6.

"There is" (Оборот "Тут есть")………………………………………………………………

  • Что есть у вас дома (в офисе)

  • Песня "House of the Rising Sun"

17

7.

Simple future (простое будущее время)………………………………………………

  • Песня "Will you remember"

  • Формирование простого будущего времени, песня "We shall overcome"

  • Вопрос

  • Отрицание

  • Манипуляция со словами

  • Песня "Sealed with a kiss"

  • Песня "I will always love you"

  • Логическое мышление

18

8.

Present continuous (настоящее длительное время)………………………………

  • Песенка "Tom's diner"

  • Манипуляция со словами

22

9.

Вопросы………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • Песня "What does your mama do?"

  • Общая схема вопроса

24



10.

Часть 2

Present Perfect (simple)………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1. Песня "Blessed"

2. Использование present perfect

3. Страны где вы были, вопрос и отрицание

4. Тупые английские шутки

5. Манипуляция со словами

6. Песня "Winner takes it all"

25

11.

Modal verbs……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

1. Песня "El Condor Pasa"

2. Что такое модальные глаголы

3. Шутки

4. Что нужно делать чтоб выучить английский быстрее

5. Песня "В саду у осьминога"

6. "Would" как "будущее в прошедшем. Песня "If"

30

12.

Сравнительные прилагательные………………………………………………………………………………

1. Песенка "Big, bigger, the biggest"

2. Различные виды прилагательных

3. Короткие прилагательные

4. Длинные прилагательные

5. Исключения

6. Упражнение

7. Обсуди цитаты

35

13.

Оборот "Going to"………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

1. Сцена из фильма "Analyze this"

2. Что такое "going to"

3. Вопросы в парах

4. "Will" vs. "Going to"

5. Песня "Good-bye yellow brick road"

38

14.

Местоимения……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1. Песня "Let it be"

2. Различные местоимения

3. Притяжательные местоимения

4. Возвратные местоимения

40

15.

Артикли…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

1. Анекдот про Вовочку

2. Объяснение использования артиклей

3. Чета Форрестеров в Париже

4. АББА в Париже

5. Анекдот про Randy

42

16.

Условное наклонение………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1. Песня "if"

2. Что такое условное наклонение

3. Упражнение

47

17.

Пассивный залог…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

1. Песня "The sounds of silence"

2. Что такое "пассив"

3. Формирование simple present passive

4. Simple past passive

5. Пассив для всех времен

6. Газетная заметка

48

18.

Present Perfect continuous……………………………………………………………………………………………..

1. Песня "В ожидании чуда"

2. Объяснение present perfect continuous

3. Упражнение

4. Заголовок газеты

51

19.

Два или больше глаголов……………………………………………………………………………………………….

1. Песня "Mind games"

2. Правила относительно двух глаголов

3. Три упражнения

4. Дополнение к песне "Mind games"

53



20.

Часть 3

Past continuous……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

1. Simple past vs. past continuous

2. Песня "Fernando"



58

21.

Глагол "get"…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1. Песня "Money" by Pink Floyd

2. Ранние формы денег

3. Объяснение глагола "get"

4. Поговорки и выражения

61

22.

Past Perfect…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1. Песня "A day in the life"

2. Что такое past perfect

3. В новостях

63

23.

"Everything", "everybody", "everyone"……………………………………………………………………….

1. Песня "Echoes"

2. Правило в отношении "thing, body, one".

65

24

Список литературы…………………………………………………………………………………

66
































Список литературы


1. Берман , И.М. Методика обучения английскому языку. - М.: Высшая школа, 2002. – 47 с.

2. Берман, И.М. Грамматика английского языка: Курс для самообразования/И.М. Берман//.-М.:Высшая школа, 1993.-228с.

3. Витлин, Ж.Я. Современные проблемы обучения грамматике иностранных языков./Ж.Я.Витлин // Иностранные языки в школе. – 2000. -№5. –с. 16-19.

4. Гальскова Н.Д., Гез Н.И. Теория обучения иностранным языкам: Лингводидактика и методика: Уч. Пособие для студ. лингв. ун-ов и фак. ин.яз. высш. пед. учеб. заведений. – М.: издательский центр «Академия», 2004. – 336с.

5.Гальскова, Н.Д. Современная методика обучения иностранным языкам: Пособие для учителя/– 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. Н.Д. Гальскова. – М.: АРКТИ, 2004. – 192с.

6.Гебель, С.Ф. Использование песни на уроках иностранного языка/С.Ф.Гебель//Иностранные языки в школе.-2009.-№5.- с.28-31.

7. Конышева, А.В. Современные методы обучения английскому языку/ А.В. Конышева. – 3-е изд. – М.: ТетраСистемс, 2005. – 176 с.

8. Кузнецова, Е.С. Индивидуализация в обучении иностранным языкам:учебное пособие/Е.С.Кузнецова.-М.:НОУ «Интерлингва»,2002.-40с.

9. Романовская О.Е.Методика работы с музыкально-поэтическим фольклором в курсе обучения английскому языку в школе/О.Е.Романовская//Иностранные языки в школе.- 2008.-№8.-с.16-22.

10. Современные теории и методы обучения иностранным языкам. - М.: Издательство «Экзамен», 2006. – 381 с.

11.Соловова, Е.Н. Методика обучения иностранным языкам: продвинутый курс: пособие для студентов пед.вузов и учителей / Е.Н. Соловова. – М.: АСТ: Астрель, 2008. – 272 с.

12. http://wikipedia.org./

13. http://azargrammar.com./

14. http://smart-english.narod.ru






Название документа ТЕКСТЫ ПЕСЕН ПО СОДЕРЖАНИЮ.docx

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Часть 1.

1. Spelling


Song “All Together Now “ (Lennon/McCartney)


One, two, three, four

Can I have a little more?

five, six, seven eight nine ten I love you.з

A, B, C, D

Can I bring my friend to tea?

E, F, G, H, I, J I love you.

Sail the ship, Chop the tree

Skip the rope, Look at me

All together now....

Black, white, green, red

Can I take my friend to bed?

Pink, brown, yellow orange blue I love you

All together now....

Sail the ship, chop the tree

Skip the rope, Look at me

All together now....





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2. "To be" (глагол "быть")

1. Глагол "to be" (быть) склоняется так:

I am

You are

s/he is

We are

You are

They are

 берем выражение "to be married" (быть женатым, замужем):

I am married

You are married

S/he is married

We are married

You are married

They are married

2.Negative (отрицание):

I am not married

you are not married

s/he is not married

 we are not married

you are not married

they are not married

3.Questions (вопросы):

Am I married?

Are you married?

Is she married?

 Are we married?

Are you married?

Are they married?

 

3.1.Упражнения. Для каждого из следующих выражений

to be from New York”

to be drunk”

to be in love”

а. составьте таблицу с утвердительным предложением (как показано выше)

б. таблицу с отрицательным предложением

в. таблицу с вопросом.

 

3.2. Даются цитаты. Поставьте правильную форму глагола "to be" и переведите

1. I ________ an innocent man     Billy Joel
2. People can have it in any color - as long as it ___ black     Henry Ford about model T
3. The future ______ black     James Baldwin
4. I ______ black, but O! My soul _______ white     William Blake
5. The so-called white races _______ really pinko-grey     E.M. Forster
6. The East ____ red     Chinese communist slogan
7. We _______ the Champions     Queen


Замечание: в английском часто используются сокращения слов. Например:

I am = I’m
You are = you’re
She is = she’s

We are = we’re
You are = you’re
They are = they’re


3.3. В диалог, вставьте соответствующую форму глагола "
to be":

Hi! My name ___ Anna.

Where ___ you from, Anna?

I ___ from Ukraine. And what ___ your name?

My name ____ Peter. I ___ from Italy.

How old ___ you, Peter?

I ___ thirty years old. And how old ___ you, Anna?

I ___ thirty, too. ___ you married, Peter?

No, I ___ not married. And you, Anna?

Yes, I ___ married.

 

3.4. Listen and insert the right form of the verb. Rehearse with a partner (послушайте. вставьте глагол. попробуйте с партнером.)

A.

Hello. My name ______ Jenny. What ____ your name?

Anna.

Where ________ you from, Anna?

I _________ from New York.

 

B.

Hello. My name ___ Thomas. What ____ your name?

Johann.

Where _____ you from, Johann?

I ____ from Berlin. Where ____ you from?

I ____ from Oxford.

  

3.5. Practice saying the text above. Then, practice similar questions with each other:

What ___ your first name (имя)? My first name ___ _____________________

What ___ your last name (фамилия)? My last name ___ ____________________

Where ___ you from? I ______ from _______________

What ___ your job? I ____ _______________________

What ___ your address? _______ _____________________________

What ____ your phone number? ______________________________________

How old ____ you? I ______ ________________________.


4. Song “Let It Be “ - The Beatles (Lennon McCartney)

When I find myself in times of trouble

Mother Mary comes to me

Speaking words of wisdom, let it be

And in my hour of darkness

She is standing right in front of me

Speaking words of wisdom, let it be

Let it be, let it be

Let it be, let it be

Whisper words of wisdom, let it be


And when the broken hearted people

Living in the world agree

There will be an answer, let it be

For though they may be parted

There is still a chance that they will see

There will be an answer, let it be

Let it be, let it be

Let it be, let it be

Yeah there will be an answer, let it be

Let it be, let it be

Let it be, let it be

Whisper words of wisdom, let it be


Let it be, let it be

Ah let it be, yeah let it be

Whisper words of wisdom, let it be

And when the night is cloudy

There is still a light that shines on me

Shine on until tomorrow, let it be

I wake up to the sound of music,

Mother Mary comes to me

Speaking words of wisdom, let it be

Yeah let it be, let it be

Let it be, yeah let it be

Oh there will be an answer, let it be

Let it be, let it be

Let it be, yeah let it be

Oh there will be an answer, let it be

Let it be, let it be

Ah let it be, yeah let it be

Whisper words of wisdom, let it be















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3.Present simple (простое настоящее время)


1. Song: "Another brick in the wall" by Pink Floyd

We don't need no education
We don't need no thought control
No dark sarcasm in the classroom
Teachers leave the kids alone
Hey, teacher, leave the kids alone !
All in all it's just another brick in the wall
All in all you're just another brick in the wall

Другие песни: "Love" (John Lennon), "House" (Elton John), "What does your mama do?"

 

2. Использование present simple. Посмотрим сцену из фильмы "A man and a woman" , начало их знакомства:

Man (M): Tell me, do you often miss your train?

Woman (W): Fairly often. I am not a very punctual person.

M: You always find someone to give you a lift?

W: No, I spend the night in Dauville. (Reading his mind) "She doesn't work very well."

M: (Quoting teacher from the school) "She's intelligent all right, but lazy".

W: Who told you that?

M: Tell me what her name is?

W: Francoise. And his?

M: Antoine.

W: Antoine. That's a nice name.

M: Do you come regularly to the school?

W: Well, I come every weekend. Weekends when I am not working. What about you?

M: I come every Saturday. And stay till Sunday night, sometimes.                      

W: May I?

M: Sure.

M: You mustn't laugh. In the twenty's they took these very seriously. Are you married?

W: M-m-m. And you?

M: Aha.

W: It's funny. You don't look married.

M: Does a married man look sort of special? Does your husband work?


Почти во всех предложениях используется время Present simple, простое настоящее. Это время используется для того, чтобы рассказывать о действиях , которые мы делаем постоянно. Например, он спрашивает: "do you often miss your train?" - Ты часто опаздываешь на свой поезд? Она также отвечает в present simple: I am not a very punctual person - Я не очень пунктуальный человек.

 

3. Формы present simple.

Для всех времен, о которых пойдет речь, вам надо усвоить их формы в: 1) утвердительном предложении, 2) отрицательном, 3) вопросительном.

(Есть также вопросительно-отрицательная форма, но она редко встречается.)

 

Берем пример "Я люблю мороженное" (а кто его не любит?). "I like ice-cream".

Positive, утвердительное предложение

I like ice-cream

You like ice-cream

She likes ice-cream

We like ice-cream

You like ice-cream

They like ice-cream

 Questions, вопросы:

Do I like ice-cream?

Do you like ice-cream?

Does she like ice-cream?

Do we like ice-cream?

Do you like ice-cream?

Do they like ice-cream?

 Negative, отрицание:

I don’t like ice-cream

You don’t like ice-cream

He doesn’t like ice-cream

We don’t like ice-cream

You don’t like ice-cream

They don’t like ice-cream

 

4. Упражнения. Составьте подобные таблицы со следующими простыми предложениями:

I study English

            (Заметь: She studies English - "y" заменяется на "ies")

I work with a computer

I go to a doctor

(Заметь: She goes to a doctor)

I like boating

I download a movie

 

5. Drilling: similar questions as in the dialogue. Work in pairs. Discuss all in class.

1.       Do you often miss your (bus, ride, work, school, breakfast, lunch, dinner, call, etc.)?

2.       Do you find someone (to give you a ride, a friend, a man/a woman to help you, to offer assistance, to support you, to listen sympathetically to you, to answer your questions)

3.       Do you come regularly (to the English lessons, to the gym, to your doctor, to your friends, to see your parents, to this place, to the café, etc.)

4.       Do you spend the night (at home, with your friend, with your lover, with your child, with your colleagues, with your classmates, with your pet, etc. )?

5.       Does your husband/boyfriend/wife/girlfriend (study English, enjoys the same movies as you, asks your opinion, listen to you, take care of you, give you money, talk to you, etc.)


Пояснение: глагол "to have" (иметь) в третьем лице единственное число звучит как "has".

Например: I have a computer. And she has a modem.

I don't have a computer. She doesn't have a modem.

 

Не следует строить отрицание вот так:

I haven't a computer. She hasn't a modem.

  

Выполните задание: Запишите правильный вариант.

1. My mother... a bad headache.

A have

B am

C has

2. Where the Johnsons (live) ? (имеется в виду не семья, а каждый сам по себе)

A Where-do the Johnsons live?

B Where are the Johnsons live?

C Where does the Johnsons live?

3. Margie and her sister... wonderful voices.

A does

B has

C have

4. I (not/understand) that man because I (not/know) English,

A not understand, don't know

B don't understand, not know

C don't understand, don't know

D don't understand, know not

5.-... you... any time to help me? -Sorry, I....

A Do you have, don't

B Do you have, am not

C Do you have, not have

6. The Browns... a nice house in the country.

A has

B have

7.... you (like) swimming?

A Do you like

B Does you like

C Are you like

8.... Dad... any brothers or sisters?

A Have Dad got

B Does Dad have

C Does Dad has

9.... your sister often (go) to the theatre?

A Is ... go

B Does ...go

C Do ... goes

10. We ... a car, but we are going to buy it.

A don't have

B aren't have

C hasn't

 

Темы для "Speaking" в Present Simple:

a) Как вы учите язык? Что вам помогает и что мешает?

b) Авторитетные для вас люди. Что их отличает? Что они делают, чтобы быть такими?

c) Что вы можете делать сейчас, чтобы приобрести нужные вам черты характера?

  1. Идеальная школа (место работы). Как вы себе ее (его) представляете?


Подготовьте дома (письменно) сообщение по одной из тем, а в классе расскажите устно.


4. Simple past (простое прошедшее время) - глагол "to be"C:\Users\PC\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\FMFW7Y6K\MCj04381890000[1].wmf


1. Песня "Yesterday"

Yesterday,
All my troubles
seemed so far away
Now it looks as though they're here to stay
Oh, I believe in yesterday

Suddenly,
I'm not half the man I
used to be
There's a shadow hanging over me
Oh, yesterday
came suddenly

Why she
had to go I don't know,
She wouldn't say
I
said something wrong,
Now I long for yesterday

Yesterday,
Love
was such an easy game to play
Now I need a place to hide away
Oh, I believe in yesterday

Why she
had to go I don't know,
She wouldn't say
I
said something wrong,
Now I long for yesterday

Yesterday,
Love was such an easy game to play
Now I need a place to hide away
Oh, I believe in yesterday


2. Утвердительная, отрицательная и вопросительная форма глагола в прошедшем времени

Глагол "to be" - это неправильный глагол* и в прошедшем времени (simple past) имеет две формы: "was" - для единственного числа, и "were" - для множественного.

I was

you were

s/he was, it was

we were

you were

they were

Правило: чтобы сделать отрицание с глаголом "was/were", поставь "not" после глагола. Например, берем фразу "I was in class" (я был в классе):

I was not in class

you were not in class

s/he was not in class

we were not in class

you were not in class

they were not in class.

Правило: чтобы поставить вопрос, поставь "was/were" перед подлежащим (местоимением или существительным).

Was I in class?

Were you in class?

Was she in class?

Were we in class?

Were you in class?

Were they in class?

* В английском языке есть "правильные" и "неправильные" глаголы. Правильные - это те, которые формируют прошедшее время путем добавления "-ed" к глаголу. Неправильные - это те, которые формируют прошедшее время "неправильно", т.е. без определенного правила.  


3.Упражнения

Задание 1: Просклоняйте следующие выражения в прошедшем времени. Сделайте:

1) утвердительную таблицу, 2) отрицательную, 3) вопросительную (как дано выше).

                to be in love

                to be sick

                to be healthy

                to be married

                to be single

Задание 2: You can see the words of the song “ YESTERDAY ”. But some words are missing. Listen to the song and fill in with the missing words.

Yesterday,
All my troubles________ so far away,
Now it looks as though they're here to _______
Oh, I believe in yesterday.
Suddenly
I'm not half the man I ______ to be,
There's a shadow hanging _______ me,
Oh, yesterday _______ suddenly.
Why ______ had to go
I don't know she wouldn't say
I said something _____
Now I long for yesterday.
______ ,
Love was such an easy _______ ,
Now I need a place to ______
Oh, I believe in yesterday.
Why she had to go
I don't know she ______
I said something _______,
Now I ______ for yesterday.

Задание 3: Вопросы для совместной работы. Например, спрашиваем класс:

Were you in class last Monday? (ты был в классе в прошлый понедельник?)

Possible answers (возможные ответы): Yes, I was (Да, я был) / No, I wasnt (нет, я не был)

1. Were you prepared for class on Monday?

2. Were you prepared for class on Thursday?

3. Where were you on weekend?

4. Were you happy?

5. Where were you last year?

6. Where were you 10 years ago?

7. Where were you 20 years ago?

(Прорабатываем вопросы как класс, затем в парах. Дома - записываем в виде упражнений.)



5. Simple past - правильные и неправильные глаголы

1. Песня "Norwegian wood"

I once had a girl, or should I say, she once had me.
She showed me her room, isn't it good, Norwegian wood?
She asked me to stay and she told me to sit anywhere,
So I looked around and I noticed there wasn't a chair.
I sat on a rug, biding my time, drinking her wine.
We talked until two and then she said, "It's time for bed".
She told me she worked in the morning and started to laugh.
I told her I didn't and crawled off to sleep in the bath.
And when I awoke I was alone, this bird had flown.
So I lit a fire, isn't it good, Norwegian wood.


2. Правильные и неправильные глаголы

В английском языке есть 2 типа глаголов – правильные и неправильные, regular and irregular

Regular verbs – это те, которые для того, чтобы образовать Simple Past, просто добавляют “ed”. По происхождению - это более новые глаголы, как то "work" - "worked", compute - computed.

Замечание: если глагол заканчивается на "e" то просто добавляется "d": compute (считать) - computed.

Irregular verbs - это те, которые в Simple Past отличаются от этого же глагола в Simple Present. Например: go (идти) – went (шел).

Замечание: как запоминать неправильные глаголы? Только из употребления. А как их употреблять? Это можно делать по разному, также как продукты питания. Можно запоминать глаголы через музыку, песни. Можно много читать. Можно найти собеседника. Можно принуждать себя думать на английском, допустим по вопросам работы. Но все же знание, а тем более язык - общественная деятельность.  

 

Задание 1: Найдите и подчеркните все глаголы в песенке "Norwegian wood".

Затем выпишет их в две колонки: правильные (regular) и неправильные (irregular):

Regular

Irregular

 


Задание 2: для каждого из вышеприведенных глаголов, сделайте таблицы - настоящее время, прошедшее, и перевод. Например:

have

had

иметь, имела

 

Правило: Отрицание (negation) в Simple Past образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола “did” + “not”.

Основной глагол как бы остается в настоящем времени (simple present).

I did not have a girl

you did not have a girl

s/he did not have a girl

we did not have a girl

you did not have a girl

they did not have a girl

Вопросы формируются если поставить “did” перед “subject” (подлежащим). Основной глагол - в simple present. Например:

Did I have a girl?

Did you have a girl?

Did he have a girl?

Did we have a girl?

Did you have a girl?

Did they have a girl?

 

Задание 3: дайте 3 формы - утвердительную, отрицательную и вопросительную - в прошедшем времени для каждого из следующих выражений

1. I sing a song

2. I learn some English

3. I get up in the morning

4. I do some morning exercises

5. I drink some coffee.

 

Задание 4: Внизу даются предложения из песни "Norwegian wood". Требуется вырезать и составить с каждым: 1) вопрос, и 2) позитивный или отрицательный ответ. Затем, готовые предложения нужно наклеить на бумаге. Получится 15 пар. 

1. yes | I | once| no | had |a girl | did | not | whom | you | have |

---------------------------------------------------

2. she | yes | once | no | had | me | did | have | you | not

-------------------------------------------------

3. she | showed | me | her room | did | you | yes | no | not | show

-------------------------------------------------

4. she | asked | me | to stay | did | not | ask | yes | no | not | you

-------------------------------------------------

5. she | yes| told | me | to sit | anywhere | where | did | tell | no | not | you

--------------------------------------------------

6. I | looked | around | did | look | you | yes | no | not

--------------------------------------------------

7. no | I | yes | noticed | there wasn't a chair | what | did | you | notice | not

--------------------------------------------------

8. I | not | sat | on the rug | where | did | you | sit | yes | no |

----------------------------------------------------

9. we | no | talked | yes | until | no | two | what time | did | you | talk

------------------------------------------------------

10. no | she | told | not | me | she worked in the morning | what | did | tell | you | yes

------------------------------------------------------

11. she | started | to laugh | what | did | do | yes | no | not

-------------------------------------------------------

12. I | told | her | I | did | yes | no | not | work | what | you | tell

-------------------------------------------------------

13. yes | no | not |I | crawled off | to sleep | in the bath | where | did | you | go | what | do

-------------------------------------------------------

14. I | was | awoke | alone | were | you | yes | no | not | when | awake | did | at | 7 o'clock

-------------------------------------------------------

15. you | did | the girl | like | liked | yes | no | not | you | me

-------------------------------------------------------

После того, как задание готово, проиграйте его в ролях: один студент - спрашивает вопросы, другой - отвечает. Затем, наоборот.

3. Песня Reamonn – Tonight

She never took the train alone
She hated being on her own
She always took me by the hands
And said she needs me
She never wanted love to fail
She always thought that it was real
She’d look me in the eyes
And say believe me
But then night becomes the day
And there’s nothing left to say
If there’s nothing left to say
Then something’s wrong

Oh, tonight, you killed me with your smile
So beautiful and wild, so beautiful
Oh, tonight, you killed me with your smile
So beautiful and wild, so beautiful and wild

And as the hands would turn with time
She’d always say that she was mine
She’d turn and lend a smile
To say that she’s gone
But in a whisper she’d arrive
And dance into my life
Like a music melody
Like a lovers song

Oh, tonight, you killed me with your smile
So beautiful and wild, so beautiful
Oh, tonight, you killed me with your smile
So beautiful and wild, so beautiful and wild

Through the darkest night
Comes the brightest light
And the light that shines
Is deep inside
It’s who you are

Oh tonight...







C:\Users\PC\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\B603YSDZ\MCEN00508_0000[1].wmf








6. "There is" (Оборот "Тут есть")

1Что есть у вас дома (в офисе)

Для того, чтобы говорить, что то-то существует, мы употребляем оборот “there is” (для множественного числа: “there are”). Например, "there is a house in New Orleans" - есть дом в Новом Орлеансе.

A) В парах: узнайте, что есть в квартире (или офисе) у вашего партнера. Некоторые слова, которые могут быть полезными:

1. an armchair - кресло

2. a big mirror - большое зеркало

3. a broadband connection to Internet - широкополосное соединение с Интернетом

4. an MP3 player - проигрыватель МP3

5. a satellite TV - спутниковое телевиденье

6. a short-wave radio - коротковолновое радио

7. pool - бассейн

8. children - дети

9. animals - звери

10. something unusual - что-то необычное (что?)

B) Расскажите классу.


2. Песня "House of the Rising Sun"


There is a house down in New Orleans
They call the Risin' Sun
And it's been the ruin of many poor girl
And me, oh God, I'm a-one

My mother was a
taylor
She sewed these new blue jeans
My sweetheart was a gambler, Lord
Down in New Orleans

Now the only thing a gambler needs
Is
a suitcase and a trunk
And the only time he's satisfied
Is when
he's on a drunk

He
fills his glasses up to the brim
And
he'll pace the cards around
And the only pleasure he gets out of life
Is
ramblin' from town to town

Oh tell my baby sister
Not to do as I have done
But
to shun that house in New Orleans
They call the Risin' Sun

Well, it's one foot on the platform
And the other foot on the train
I'm goin' back to New Orleans
To wear that ball and chain

I'm a-goin' back to New Orleans
My race is almost run
I'm goin' back to end my life
Down in the Risin' Sun

There is a house in New Orleans
They call the Risin' Sun
It's been the ruin of many poor girl
And me, oh God, Im a-one







7. Simple future (простое будущее время)


1.Song “Will you remember” by Cranberries.

Will you remember the dress I wore

Will you remember my face

Will you remember the lip stick I wore

This world is a wonderful place

Will you remember the black limousine

Will you remember champagne

Will you remember the things that we've seen

I will return here again

Will you remember the flowers in my hand

Will you remember my hair

Will you remember the Future we planned

The world is not waiting out there

I won't remember the dress I wore

I won't remember champagne

I won't remember the things that we swore

I will just love you in vain

Will you remember

Will you recall

Will you remember

2. В песне используется simple future. Это время образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола "will", либо (что происходит очень редко) при помощи вспомогательного глагола “shall” (Для тех, кто хочет увидеть употребление глагола "shall", отсылаю вас к песне "We shall overcome", внизу). После вспомогательного глагола (will/shall) следует основной глагол. E.g. You will remember - ты будешь помнить

We shall overcome – мы победим

В современном английском в основном используется "will". "Shall" - это более старая форма.

Вопрос формируется также как в других временах, т.е. вспомогательный глагол (здесь это “will” или "shall") выносится на первое место, перед местоимением или существительным. E.g. Will you remember?

Shall we ovecome?

Отрицание формируется когда “not” вставляется между вспомогательным глаголом (will или shall) и основным глаголом. E.g.

You will not remember

We shall not overcome

Замечание: "will" + "not" = "won't". Не следует это слово путать со словом "want", хотеть. Звучать эти оба слова одинаково. Различаются по употреблению. Например: "I won't remember the dress I wore" - я не буду помнить платье что я носила. "I want you" - я хочу тебя.

 

3. Диалог: вырезаем предложения и слова которые даются внизу (из песни "Will you remember"). Из них, формируем вопросы и ответы.

1. will | you | remember | the dress | I | wore | yes | no | not

---------------------------------------------

2. will | you | remember | my | face | yes | I | your | no | not

---------------------------------------------

3. will | you | remember | the lipstick | I | wore | yes | you | no | not

----------------------------------------------

4. will | you | remember | the black limousine | yes | I | no | not

-----------------------------------------------

5. will | you | remember | champagne | yes | I | no | not

-----------------------------------------------

6. will | you | remember | the things we've seen | yes | I | no | not

-----------------------------------------------

7. I | will | return | here again | you | yes | why | no | not

------------------------------------------------

8. will | you | remember | the flowers | in | my | hand | yes | I | your | no | not

-------------------------------------------------

9. will | you | remember | my | hair | yes | I | your | no | not

-------------------------------------------------

10. will | you | remember | the future we planned | yes | I | no | not

------------------------------------------------

11. will | you | remember | about | me | what | I | yes | no | not

----------------------------------------------------------

12. will | you | recall | about | this lesson | what | I | yes | no | not

 

4. Послушайте предложения с simple future, повторите и переведите.

a. I'll do it if I can.

b. If you can't answer the question, I'll ask another person.

c. I don't think I'll advertise in a business magazine.

d. If we have a game of tennis, we won't arrive on time.

e. I think you'll sell a lot in airports.

 

5. Сделайте вопросы и отрицания со следующими предложениями (устно - в классе, письменно - дома):

Не will marry her.

I will make you happy.

I will be loving and faithful.

I will pay you within next week.

They will make him work.

6. Переведите на английский:

1. Я буду любить эту машину

2. Он будет знать все про меня

3. Ты будешь есть гамбургеры

4. Вы будете пить пиво

5. Они будут курить морехуану


Song Sealed With A Kiss by Jason Donovan

 

Though we've got to say goodbye

For the summer,

Darling, I'll promise you this –

I'll send you all my love every day in a letter, sealed with a kiss.

 

Yes, it's gonna be a cold lonely summer,

But I feel the emptiness.

I'll send you all my dreams every day in a letter,

sealed with a kiss.

 

I'll see you in the sunlight,

I'll hear your voice everywhere,

I'll run to tenderly hold you, but darling,

You won't be there.

 

I don't wanna say goodbye for the summer,

Knowing the love we'll miss,

Well, let us make a pledge

To meet in September and seal it with a kiss.


Yes, it's gonna be a cold lonely summer,

But I feel the emptiness;

I'll send you all my love every day in a letter Sealed with a kiss

Sealed with a kiss

Напишите 5-10 предложений о том, что вы собираетесь делать в этом году (весной, летом, и т.д.). В классе, расскажите устно.


Песня "I will always love you", by W. Houston

If I should stay,
I would only be in your way.
So I'll go, but I know
I'll think of you ev'ry step of the way.

And I will always love you.
I will always love you.
You, my darling you. Hmm.

Bittersweet memories
that is all I'm taking with me.
So, goodbye. Please, don't cry.
We both know I'm not what you, you need.

And I will always love you.
I will always love you.

(Instrumental solo)

I hope
life treats you kind
And I hope you have all you've dreamed of.
And I wish to you, joy and happiness.
But above all this, I wish you love.

And I will always love you.
I will always love you.
I will always love you.
I will always love you.
I will always love you.
I, I will always love you.
You, darling, I love you.
Ooh, I'll always, I'll always love you.


Логическое мышление: предложите ваше решение в каждой ситуации, используя "simple future".

E.g. (например) I am too tired to walk home. - > We will take a taxi!

1. It is a bit cold in the room.

2. We don't have any tea!

3. There aren't any cookies left.

4. You feel tired after the lesson.

5. You made 3 resolutions for the New Year:




8. Present continuous (настоящее длительное время)


Song “Tom’s Diner”

I am sitting in the morning at the diner on the corner

I am waiting at the counter for the man to pour the coffee

He fills it only half way and before I even argue

He is looking out the window at somebody coming in

It is always nice to see you”, says the man behind the counter

To the woman who has come in, she is shaking her umbrella

And I look the other way as they are kissing their “hellos”

And I’m pretending not to see them, and instead I pour the milk

I open up the paper, there’s a story of an actor

Who had died while he was drinking, it was no one I had heard of

And I am turning to the horoscope and looking for the funnies

When I’m feeling someone watching me, and so I raise my head

There’s a woman on the outside looking inside, does she see me?

No, she doesn’t really see me, ‘cause she sees her own reflection

And I am trying not to notice that she’s hitching up her skirt

And while she’s straightening her stockings her hair has gotten wet

Oh, this rain it will continue through the morning as I’m listening

To the bells of the cathedral … I am thinking of your voice…

And of the midnight picnic once upon the time before the rain began

And I finish up my coffee and it’s time to catch the train


Задание

Cut out the sentences below and put into separate envelopes. In class, we will make positive, negative sentences and questions.

1. I | am | sitting | in the diner | not | Where | are | you

-----------------------------------------------------

2. I | am | waiting | for | the man to pour the coffee | not | What | are | you

--------------------------------------------

3. He | is | looking | at | somebody | not | who

---------------------------------------------

4. She | is | shaking | her umbrella | not | what | doing

---------------------------------------------

5. They | are | kissing | their "hellos" | not | what | doing

---------------------------------------------

6. I | am | pretending | not to see them | not | Why | are | you | what | doing

--------------------------------------------

7. I | am | turning | to | the horoscope | not | Where | are | you

---------------------------------------------

8. I | am | feeling | someone watching me | not | What | are | you

---------------------------------------------

9. I | am | trying | not | to notice | Why | are | you | because

---------------------------------------------

10. She | is | hitching up | her skirt | not | What | doing | Why

---------------------------------------------

11. She | is | straightening | her stockings | not | What | doing

----------------------------------------------

12. I | am | listening | to | the bells | not | What | you

----------------------------------------------

13. I | am | thinking | of | your voice | not | what | you

 













9.Вопросы

1. Песня "What does your mama do?"



What does your mama do?
What does your mama do?
What does your mama do
While you're in school?
What does your mama do?
What does your mama do?
What does your mama do
While you're in school?


She drives a great big truck.
She drives a great big truck.
She drives a great big truck
While I'm in school.
She drives a great big truck.
She drives a great big truck.
She drives a great big truck
While I'm in school.


Chorus


She climbs up telephone poles.
She climbs up telephone poles.
She climbs up telephone poles
While I'm in school.
She climbs up telephone poles.
She climbs up telephone poles.
She climbs up telephone poles
While I'm in school.


Chorus

She works at home all day.
She works at home all day.
She works at home all day
While I'm in school.
She works at home all day.
She works at home all day.
And she doesn't get any pay
While I'm in school.



  1. Общая схема вопроса

1) вопросительное слово, или фраза - What
2)
вспомогательный глагол - do
3)
предмет о котором идет речь - you
4)
основной глагол - want
5)
"хвост" вопроса - to do?
 

Данная схема применима для любого времени в английском языке. Например:   

What do you want to do? - Что ты хочешь делать?

What did you want to do? - Что ты хотел сделать?

What will you want to do? - Что ты захочешь сделать

Основные вопросительные слова в английском языке:

What – что
When – когда
Where - где 
Which - какой
How - как 
Who - кто
Whose - чья
Why - почему



Часть 2

10.Present Perfect (simple)


1. Song "Blessed" by Elton John

Hey you, you're a child in my head
You haven't walked yet
Your first words have yet to be said
But I swear you'll be blessed

I know you're still just a dream
your eyes might be green
Or the bluest that I've ever seen
Anyway you'll be blessed

And you, you'll be blessed
You'll have the best
I promise you that
I'll pick a star from the sky
Pull your name from a hat
I promise you that, promise you that, promise you that
You'll be blessed

I need you before I'm too old
To have and to hold
To walk with you and watch you grow
And know that you're blessed

(Если знаете) Подчеркните случаи, когда используется Present Perfect.

 

2. Использование

Первое объяснение:

Present Perfect - это 1) "have had", 2) "have heard". Это время используется для того, чтобы говорить о нашем опыте.

Второе объяснение:

"Present" - это "настоящее".

"Perfect" - это "законченное".

Вместе, получается противоречие - "настоящее законченное", или "настоящее завершенное" время. Однако, противоречия нет, так как многие процессы начались в прошлом, и продолжаются до сих пор. Например, и живу в Киеве с 1996 г. (и продолжаю жить!): "I have lived in Kiev since 1996".

Третье объяснение:

Другое использование "present perfect" - действие произошло недавно (все относительно!), но эффект его продолжает ощущаться до сих пор. Мой компьютер сломался (и у меня не играют диски!): "My computer has broken down".

Форма

Noun/pronoun + have/has + Past Participle

[существительное / местоимение] + [(вспомогательный глагол) "have" / (для третьего лица единственного числа) "has"] + [past participle (основной глагол в "третьей форме")]

Замечание: для третьего лица единственного числа используется вспомогательный глагол "has". Для остальных случаев - "have".

I have been to Odessa.

She has been to Lviv.

Для правильных глаголов (смотрите урок о Simple Past) Past Participle образуется путем добавленя “ed” к окончанию глагола (т.е. Simple Past & Past Participle для правильных глаголов не отличаются). E.g.

Simple Present

Simple Past

Past Participle

stumble (спотыкаться)

walk (идти)

step (ступать)

stumbled

walked

stepped

stumbled

walked

stepped

Для неправильных глаголов, Simple Past & Past Participle отличаются. (Еще Past Participle называется “третья колонка”, так как "вторая колонка" глагола - это Simple Past). Сравните:

Simple Present

Simple Past

Past Participle

Be (быть)

See (видеть)

Know (знать)

Was/were

Saw

Knew

Been

Seen

Known

Как запоминать Past Participle неправильных глаголов? Только из употребления. Временно, можете использовать таблицу неправильных глаголов, которую можно найти в конце каждого словаря или учебника английского.

3. Послушайте как 3 человека рассказывают о тех местах, где они были (countries). Повторите вслед за записью. Затем расскажите: "Where have you been to?"

Вопросы: поставьте "have" или "has" перед местоимением или существительным (т.е. перед подлежащим). E.g.

Where have you been to?

Where has she been to?

Отрицание: поставьте "not" между вспомогательным глаголом и основным:

I have not been to Scotland.

She has not been to England.


4. Some corny British jokes (тупые английские шутки). Use the verb in brackets in Present Perfect (используйте глагол в скобках и переведите).

1. Doctor, I am nervous. This is the first time I _______ ________ an operation (have).

    Don't worry, I feel the same. This is the first operation I _____________ _________ (perform).

2. What are you fishing for?

    Mumamoolays.

    What do they look like?

    I don't know. I __________ never __________ one (catch).

3. What do you do?

    I am a sailor.

    _______ you ever  __________ on a submarine? (work)

    No, I can't sleep with the windows open.

4. It was my husband's birthday and he said, "Take me somewhere I _________ never _______ before" (be)

    So, where did you take him?

    Into the kitchen!

5. Baby snake: Are we poisonous?

    Mommy snake: Yes. Why do you ask?

    Baby snake: I _______ just ________ my tongue (bite).

6. You __________  _____________ your shoes on the wrong feet. (put)

    But these are the only feet I have.

7. What's wrong son?

    I __________ just __________ a fight with your wife. (have)

8. Waiter! What is this?

    It's bean soup.

    I don't care what it _________ ________. (be) I want to know what it is now. 

9. Dad, I ____________ ________ to become a train driver. (decide)

    Well, son, I certainly won't stand in your way.

10. British scientists __________ _________ a robot doctor. (operate)

    Really? What does it operate on?

    Batteries.

 

5. Слушаем (visit_to_New_York): девушка из Англии побывала в Нью-Йорке. Она рассказывает отцу. Используя наборы слов внизу, сформулируйте вопросы и ответы.

 

1. We | have | been | for a walk | in Central Park | you | where | yes | no | not |

----------------------------------------------------------------

2. We | have | climbed | the Empire State Building | you | yes | no | not

----------------------------------------------------------------

3. We | have | not | been | to | Greenwich Village yet | you | already

----------------------------------------------------------------

4. We | have | not | been | to | China town | either | no | you

----------------------------------------------------------------

5.  Have | you | seen | the Statue of Liberty | yet | no | not | yes | we | already

----------------------------------------------------------------

6. We |just | have | had | a helicopter tour of the city | you | yes | no | not

----------------------------------------------------------------

7. Have | you | seen | a show on Broadway | yet | no | we | not | yes | already

----------------------------------------------------------------

8. We | have | not | decided | what to see | yet | you | already | no | not | yes

 

6. Песня ABBЫ, "The winner takes it all" - подчеркните случаи где используется Present Perfect:


I don't wanna talk
About the things we've gone through
Though it's hurting me
Now it's history
I've played all my cards
And that's what you've done too
Nothing more to say
No more ace to play
The winner takes it all
The loser standing small
Beside the victory
That's her destiny
I was in your arms
Thinking I belonged there
I figured it made sense
Building me a fence
Building me a home
Thinking I'd be strong there
But I was a fool
Playing by the rules
The gods may throw a dice
Their minds as cold as ice
And someone way down here
Loses someone dear
The winner takes it all
The loser has to fall
It's simple and it's plain
Why should I complain.
But tell me does she kiss
Like I used to kiss you?
Does it feel the same
When she calls your name?
Somewhere deep inside
You must know I miss you
But what can I say
Rules must be obeyed
The judges will decide
The likes of me abide
Spectators of the show
Always staying low
The game is on again
A lover or a friend
A big thing or a small
The winner takes it all
I don't wanna talk
If it makes you feel sad
And I understand
You've come to shake my hand
I apologize
If it makes you feel bad
Seeing me so tense
No self-confidence
But you see
The winner takes it all
The winner takes it all...



7. Таблица неправильных глаголов - запишите simple past, part participle and translation:

infinitive

simple past

past participle

translation

to be

 

 

 

to become

 

 

 

to begin

 

 

 

to break

 

 

 

to bring

 

 

 

to build

 

 

 

to buy

 

 

 

to catch

 

 

 

to choose

 

 

 

to come

 

 

 

to cost

 

 

 

to do

 

 

 

to drink

 

 

 

to drive

 

 

 

to eat

 

 

 

to fall

 

 

 


to feel

 

 

 

to fight

 

 

 

to find

 

 

 

to fly

 

 

 

to forget

 

 

 

to get

 

 

 

to give

 

 

 

to go

 

 

 

to grow

 

 

 

to have

 

 

 

to know

 

 

 

to lead

 

 

 

to leave

 

 

 

to lose

 

 

 

to make

 

 

 

to meet

 

 

 

to read

 

 

 

to say

 

 

 

to see

 

 

 


to sell

 

 

 

to send

 

 

 

to shine

 

 

 

to sing

 

 

 

to sit

 

 

 

to sleep

 

 

 

to spend

 

 

 

to take

 

 

 

to teach

 

 

 

to think

 

 

 

to throw

 

 

 

to win

 

 

 

to write

 

 

 



11.Modal verbs (модальные глаголы)

"You should love your neighbor as yourself". The Bible.

"You should love the wife of your neighbor as your own". A French prince.


1. Модальные глаголы - это короткие, "неполные" глаголы. Список модальных глаголов:

Can – могу
Could – мог или могла (прошедшее время от “can”)
May – могу
Might – могу
Should – следует
Ought to – следует
Must – должен

would - бы (сокращается как 'd, e.g. I'd like to go - я хотел бы пойти)

would также используется как "future in the past", т.е. "будущее в прошедшем", напр. (из песни "Yesterday"): “Why she had to go, I dont know, she wouldnt say” - почему она должна была уйти, я не знаю, она не сказала.

Также, к модальным глаголам относят "shall" & "will", при помощи которых формируется простое будущее время.


Правило 1: после модального глагола, основной глагол используется без "to".

Например: "I'll put you through" - я соединю вас (по телефону)

Правило 2: Отрицание с модальным глаголом: поставьте "not" между модальным глаголом и основным.

Например: You shouldn't smoke, I wouldn't like that in my apartment - вам не следует курить, мне это не понравилось бы в моих апартаментах.

Правило 3: Вопрос с модальным глаголом: сначала модальный глагол, потом местоимение (существительное), потом основной глагол.

Например: Should you study English? - следует ли вам учить английский?

Your Mother Should Know
------------------------
(Lennon/McCartney)
Let's all get up and dance to a song
That was a hit before your mother was born.
Though she was born a long, long time ago
Your mother should know (Your mother should...)
Your mother should know (...know.)
Sing it again.
Let's all get up and dance to a song
That was a hit before your mother was born.
Though she was born a long, long time ago
Your mother should know (Your mother should...)
Your mother should know (...know.)
Lift up your hearts and sing me a song
That was a hit before your mother was born.
Though she was born a long, long time ago
Your mother should know (Your mother should...)
Your mother should know (Aaaah.)
Your mother should know (Your mother should...)
Your mother should know (Aaaah.)
Sing it again.
Da-da-da-da...
Though she was born a long, long time ago
Your mother should know (Your mother should...)
Your mother should know (Yeah.)
Your mother should know (Your mother should...)
Your mother should know (Yeah.)
Your mother should know (Your mother should...)
Your mother should know (Yeah.)


Рекомендация: студенты часто любят говорить "must" или "have to" (должен) когда следует сказать "should" или "ought to" (следует). Английский язык более рекомендательный, чем русский.

Read and discuss: what should we do to learn English faster? At home: write 10 recommendations for your teacher, or for yourself.

o      Practice every day. Don't miss any single day. Even if you are absolutely busy find 15 minutes.

o      Try to devote the earliest hours to language and at least 20-30 minutes in evenings before going to bed.

o      If you get tired quickly - don't worry and don't hurry. Take your time, but don't give up your lessons. Be patient.

o      Change forms of studying: read magazines and books, listen to the radio or tape-recorder, do exercises or simply look through a dictionary.

o      Learning new words and expressions always pay attention on their context.

o      Make a special list of phrases that will definitely be useful, which you need in most cases. Revise it from time to time and develop it. Practice them until you can produce them in a perfect way.

o      Try to translate in your memory everything that is possible: headlines in newspapers, titles of books and articles, slogans, pieces of phrases, etc. It's a kind of a useful mental game and exercise like doing crossword puzzles. If you like it and get addicted to it, you will make a significant progress in learning new words very soon.

o      Try to put yourself in the natural language environment as often as possible. Watch films, attend public lectures and write letters to your foreign friends,
use every possibility to talk with native speakers.

o      Don't be afraid to speak and don't be afraid of possible mistakes. On the contrary you could ask your friends to correct your mistakes.

o      Don't feel offended, hurt or upset if somebody corrects you. You must be thankful.

o      Try to think in the language you are learning. If you really want to learn a language, try to avoid reading, speaking and even thinking in your native language or at least try to minimize it.

 

2. У нас у всех есть внутреннее желание чего-то другого, невыразимого. Вот песня, "El condor pasa" (музыка - из Перу, слова - Simon and Garfunkel, USA):

I'd rather be a sparrow than a snail.
Yes I would.
If I could,
I surely would.
I'd rather be a hammer than a nail.
Yes I would.
If I could,
I surely would.
Away, I'd rather sail away
Like a swan that's here and gone.
A man gets tied up to the grouch
He gives the world its saddest sound.
I'd rather be a forest than a street.
Yes I would.
If I could,
I surely would.
I'd rather feel the earth beneath my feet.
Yes I would.
If I only could,
I surely would.

3. В шутки, поставьте "should" или "shouldn't". Переведите.  

1. You _________________ pay your taxes with a smile.

    I tried that but they wanted cash.

2. Someone has been eating the pie I cooked yesterday. ___________ I call the police?

    I think an ambulance might be a better idea.

3. Doctor, how can I live to be a hundred?

    You __________ smoke or drink alcohol. You __________ eat only bread and drink milk and you ____________ live alone in the countryside.

And will I live to be a hundred?

I don't know, but it'll certainly seem like it.

4. Why do you think I _______ sell this TV for 1/2 price?

Because I only have one eye!

5. I'm in love with two girls. One is beautiful but has no money, the other is ugly but has lots of money. Who _______ I marry?

You love the beautiful one, so I think you ___________ marry her.

OK, thank you for advice.

Don't mention it. By the way, could you give me the name and telephone of the other girl?

6. An old man saw two little boys fighting.

You ___________ fight, he said to the bigger boy. You __________ love your enemy.

But he's not my enemy, he's my brother.

7. I have a bad headache and my doctor can't cure it.

You _______ change to my doctor. You'll never live to regret it.

 

4. a. Прочитайте и переведите:

She told me yesterday that she would tell me the truth tomorrow – вчера она сказала мне что скажет правду завтра

She told me last year that she would study well –

Our teacher told us that we would go sailing.

He told me yesterday that he would love me till the end of time.  

b. Составьте несколько аналогичных примеров с глаголом "would".

 

5. Beatles. В "Octopus' garden" (в саду осьминога!):


I'd like to be under the sea
In an octopus' garden in the shade
He'd let us in, knows where we've been
In his octopus' garden in the shade
I'd ask my friends to come and see
An octopus' garden with me
I'd like to be under the sea
In an octopus' garden in the shade.
We would be warm below the storm
In our little hideaway beneath the waves
Resting our head on the sea bed
In an octopus' garden near a cave
We would sing and dance around
because we know we can't be found
I'd like to be under the sea
In an octopus' garden in the shade
We would shout and swim about
The coral that lies beneath the waves
(Lies beneath the ocean waves)
Oh what joy for every girl and boy
Knowing they're happy and they're safe
(Happy and they're safe)
We would be so happy you and me
No one there to tell us what to do
I'd like to be under the sea
In an octopus' garden with you.


 

Discussion: where would you like to live?

Essay: "Person I would like to be" or "Activity I would like to engage in" or "Place I would like to live in". A creative work.

"Would" can be used as: 1) a conditional (e.g. songs "El Condor Pasa" & "Octopus' garden"); 2) future in the past (e.g. songs "Yesterday" and "If")

7. Put the verb into a correct form.

1. I didn't know you were in hospital. If I had known (I/know), I would have gone (I/go) to visit you.

2. Ken got to the station in time to catch his train. If _____________________ (he/miss) it, ___________ (he/be) late for his interview.

3. It's good that you reminded me about Ann's B-day. _____________ (I/forget) if __________________ (you/not/remind) me.

4. I didn't have my address book with me when I was in NY. If _____________________ (I/have) your address, ____________ (I/send) you a postcard.

5. I'm not tired. If _________________ (I/be) tired, I'd go home now.

Rule: Use "were" if you used "be" in a conditional. Both for singular and plural.

 

6. Song "IF"

If I were the swan, I'd be gone

if I were the train, I'd be late (again)

and if I were the good man

I'd talk with you more often than I do

 

If I were to sleep I could dream

if I were afraid I could hide

if I go insane

please don't put your wires in my brain

 

If I were the moon, I'd be cool

if I were the rule, I would bend

if I were a good man

I'd understand the spaces between friends

 

If I were alone, I would cry

and if I were with you, I'd be home and dry

and if I go insane

will you still let me join in with the game.

 































12. Сравнительные прилагательные

(сравнительная и превосходная степень прилагательных)

The fairest face, the falsest heart.

Шотландская поговорка

1. Споем, "Big, Bigger, the Biggest"

I saw a big dog. (I saw a big dog.)
I saw a bigger dog. (I saw a bigger dog.)
I saw the biggest dog of all. (I saw the biggest dog of all.)
I saw a tiny bug. (I saw a tiny bug.)
I saw a tinier bug. (I saw a tinier bug.)
I saw the tiniest bug of all. (I saw the tiniest bug of all.)
I saw a small bird. (I saw a small bird.)
I saw a smaller bird. (I saw a smaller bird.)
I saw the smallest bird of all. (I saw the smallest bird of all.)
I ate a good apple. (I ate a good apple.)
I ate a better apple. (I ate a better apple.)
I ate the best apple of all. (I ate the best apple of all.)
I saw a nice play. (I saw a nice play.)
I saw a nicer play, (I saw a nicer play.)
I saw the nicest play of all. (I saw the nicest play of all.)
I wore a warm sweater (I wore a warm sweater.)
I wore a warmer sweater. (I wore a warmer sweater.)
I wore the warmest sweater of all. (I wore the warmest sweater of all.)

 

2. Прилагательное - это такое слово, которое модифицирует существительное. По-английски - adjective, сокращенно adj. У прилагательного 3 формы:

позитивная (big),

сравнительная (bigger), и

превосходная (the biggest).


3. Для коротких прилагательных, т.е. состоящих из одного слога:

1) чтобы сформировать сравнительное прилагательное нужно просто добавить er. Например: Strong - stronger.

2) чтобы сформировать прилагательное в превосходной степени, поставь перед словом the, а в окончании -est. Например: green the greenest, sweet the sweetest.

Сделайте сравнительные прилагательные и прилагательные в превосходной степени.

  1. Big (опять g удваивается)

  2. Small

  3. Warm

  4. Nice

  5. Cute

  6. Fine

  7. Great

  8. Large

  9. Great

  10. Red  (d удваивается, т.к. это слово состоит из одного слога, заканчивается на согласную, перед которой стоит гласная)

 

4. Для длинных прилагательных, т.е. тех, что состоят из 2 и более слогов:

1) чтобы сделать сравнительное прилагательное, перед словом ставится more (чтобы сказать более) или less (чтобы сказать менее). E.g. Beautiful more beautiful less beautiful

2) Чтобы сделать превосходную степень, поставь перед словом the most (наиболее), или the least" (наименее). E.g. Beautiful the most beautiful the least beautiful

Поставьте следующие прилагательные в сравнительную и превосходную степень.

  1. freezing

  2. boring

  3. exciting

  4. intoxicating

  5. wonderful

  6. irritating

  7. depressing

  8. efficient

  9. thought-provoking

  10. sophisticated

 

5. Кроме "правильных" прилагательных, т.е. тех, что формируют сравнительную и превосходную степень по правилам, есть и исключения. Наиболее популярные:

Good better the best

Bad worse the worst

Far - farther (альтернативно: further) - the farthest (the furthest)

 

Обсудите следующие вопросы:

What is a good way to learn English? What is a better way? What is the BEST way? (Назовите хороший способ учить английский. Какой способ лучше? Какой наилучший?)

 

6. Finish the sentences using the example (закончите предложения следуя примеру).

Example: It's too noisy here. Can we go somewhere quieter? (Здесь слишком шумно. Пойдем где потише.)

1. The tea is too weak. I like it a bit _______________

2. The hotel is very big. I expected it to be ______________

3. This course is cheap. I thought it would be ___________________

4. The weather is too cold in this country. I like it a bit ____________________

5. My job is a bit boring. I'd like something ____________________

6. Your homework isn't very good. I'm sure you can do  ____________

7. I was surprised how easy it is to use the computer. I thought it would be _____________

8. The situation isn't very bad, it could be ____________

9. I got here quickly. I expected the journey to be _________________

10. You're talking very softly. Can you be a bit ______________?

 

7. Listen ("comparing train & plane"). Robert is in England. He must travel to Paris. He must decide how to go: by train or by plane. Check the correct box (поставьте "птичку" в нужном месте):

 

Plan

Train

faster

 

 

cheaper

 

 

more comfortable

 

 

better

 

 

 

8. Listen ("comparing insert a missing word") . Insert the missing word (s) and translate (вставьте пропущенное слово):

1. Swiss watches are ________   __________ than other watches.

2. Interest rates are __________ in Britain than in France.

3. Champagne isn't ____ expensive ___ it was in the 1980's.

4. British Airways is _________   ______________ than Air France.

5. This year there are ____ many tourists _____ last year.

6. The dollar is _____________ than the pound.

 

9. Finish the following:

1. The best movie of the year _____________

2. The finest beer in the world _____________

3. The thinnest notebook on the market ___________

4. The smartest phone _____________

5. Faster than the Ferrari ___________

6. The cheapest way to travel to the USA __________

7. The most economical car _____________

8. The most interesting movie I have seen ___________

9. The best vacation I have had ____________

10. The most beautiful dream I had ______________

 

10. Discuss one of the following:

1) "He is the strongest who is most alone" - Henrik Ibsen

2) "The best things in life are free" - a proverb

3) "And what is better than wisedoom? Womman. And what is better than a good womman? Nothyng." - Geoffrey Chaucer (1343? - 1400)










13.Оборот "Going to"

1. Посмотрим сцену №17 из фильма "Analyze this". Невеста расстроена по поводу расстроенной свадьбы (человек "упал" из окна). Участники: 1. the bride 2. Dr. Sobol 3. Paul Vitti 4. Gangster

Bride (B): Where is he?
Gangster 1: Where are you going?
B: Don't touch me. How could you do that?
Paul Vitti (V): Another country heard from.
Dr. Sobol (S): Wait downstairs.
B: Why? Are they going to throw me off the balcony too?
V: You're upset, and you're upsetting me.
B: Of course I'm upset! My wedding is ruined because you've got problems!
V: I got problems?
S: Honey, please.
B: I'm going to pack, and then I'm going to New York. And I am getting married with you or without you!
S: With! With! I'm sorry, honey. It'll all work out.
I promise. Please?
B: No, I hate you!

 

Как ты посмел сделать это?

Так что, они меня также сбросят с балкона? Вы расстроены и вы расстраиваете меня

...Моя свадьба в руинах потому что у вас проблемы.

Я собираюсь паковаться и потом я собираюсь в Нью-Йорк. И я буду обвенчана с тобой или без тебя!

 

2. "Going to" - выражает намерение

Are they going to throw me off the balcony? - Они собираются выбросить меня из окна?

I am going to pack - Я собираю чемоданы.

I am going to NY - Я собираюсь уехать ...

Если мы использует "will" то решение принимается как бы спонтанно, в то время если мы используем "going to", то решение принимается обдуманно.

Форма этого будущего времени (в грамматики Джины оно называется "human future") следующая:

"to be" + going to

I am going to NY

You are going to NY

She is going to NY

We are going to NY

You are going to NY

They are going to NY


 

3. В парах:

1. What are you going to do this evening?

2. What are you going to do tomorrow?

3. How are you going to spend this weekend?

4. Where are you going to go this summer?

5. Are you going to study any more English?

6. Are you going to change your jobs?

7. How are you going to change your life?

 

4. Вставляйте "will" or "going to". Например:

Why are you turning on the television? (the news) - I am going to watch the news.

1. I don't have any money! (lend some)

2. I have got a headache. (Get an aspirin)

3. Why are you filling the bucket with water? (wash the car)

4. I decided to repaint the room. (Color)

5. Are you going out? (market)

6. I don't know how to use this program. (Help)

7. What would you like to eat? (Sandwich)

8. Did you send the e-mail? (Now)

9. The ceiling doesn't look very safe. (Fall down)

10. Has he decided when to quick work? (A few weeks)

 

5. Вы должно быть слыхали, что "going to" в разговоре сокращается как "gonna". Вот песня Элтон Джона "Goodbye Yellow Brick Road" ("Желтая кирпичная дорога" - из сказки "Волшебник Изумрудного города", по английски: "The Wizard of Oz".)


When are you gonna come down
When are you going to land
I should have stayed on the farm
I should have listened to my old man

You know you can't hold me forever
I didn't sign up with you
I'm not a present for your friends to open
This boy's too young to be singing the blues

So goodbye yellow brick road
Where the dogs of society howl
You can't plant me in your penthouse
I'm going back to my plough

Back to the howling old owl in the woods
Hunting the horny back toad
Oh I've finally decided my future lies
Beyond the yellow brick road

What do you think you'll do then
I bet that'll shoot down your plane
It'll take you a couple of vodka and tonics
To set you on your feet again

Maybe you'll get a replacement
There's plenty like me to be found
Mongrels who ain't got a penny
Sniffing for tidbits like you on the ground















14. Местоимения

(местоимения)

1. Beatles "Let it be":


When I find myself in times of trouble
Mother Mary comes to me
Speaking words of wisdom, let it be.


And in my hour of darkness
She is standing right in front of me
Speaking words of wisdom, let it be.


Let it be, let it be.

Whisper words of wisdom, let it be.

And when the broken hearted people
Living in the world agree,
There will be an answer, let it be.

For though they may be parted there is
Still a chance that they will see
There will be an answer, let it be.


Let it be, let it be. Yeah
There will be an answer, let it be.

And when the night is cloudy,
There is still a light that shines on me,
Shine on until tomorrow, let it be.


I wake up to the sound of music
Mother Mary comes to me
Speaking words of wisdom, let it be.

Let it be, let it be.
There will be an answer, let it be.
Let it be, let it be,
Whisper words of wisdom, let it be.


 

2. Местоимение, по-английски, это "pronoun". Используются различные местоимения, в зависимости от того, какое положение они занимают в предложении.

Для начала введем 2 термина: 1) subject, 2) object.

Что такое “subject”? Это - подлежащее, т.е. субъект который производит действие. Например: "I write". Subject = “I”. Еще пример: "she listens". Subject = "she".

Что такое “object”? Это предмет, по отношению к которому производится действие. E.g. (например) “I write a letter”:

"I" – subject
"Write" – verb (
глагол)
"a letter" – object

Другой пример: "She met me in the evening".

"She" – subject
"met" – verb
"Me" - object

Итак, если местоимение играет роль subject – мы используем одни местоимения. Если местоимения играет роль object – мы используем другие местоимения:

subject

object

possessive (with a noun)

possessive (without a noun)

reflexive

I

you

she

he

it

we

you

they

me

you

her

him

it

us

you

them

my car

your car

her car

his car

its car

our car

your car

their car

mine

yours

hers

his

its

ours

yours

theirs

myself

yourself

herself

himself

itself

ourselves

yourselves

themselves

Re-write the text below, using pronouns instead of nouns (используйте местоимения вместо существительных) whenever possible (когда возможно).

Maria is a Ukrainian woman, but Maria lives in New York because Maria wants to see the world. Maria is a professional interpretor. Maria likes New York because New York is interesting, but Maria's husband, Nikolai, doesn't like New York. Nikolai wants to come back to Ukraine. Maria and Nikolai have 2 children. Nikolai takes the 2 children and the children's dog out of the city in Nikolai's free time. Nik and the 2 children go camping in the summer and skiing in the winter. Maria doesn't go with Nik and the 2 children because Maria has a lover, John. So, Maria and John go skating. After skating, Maria and John feel tired, so Maria and John go to John's house and make love. Then, Maria comes back to Nick and Maria's children and Maria and Nick both feel rested.

  3. Если есть существительное + местоимение, тогда используется "possessive pronoun" в 3-й колонке. Если существительного нет (оно подразумевается) - тогда 4-я колонка. E.g.

This is her car. It's hers.

These are our children. They are ours.

 Выберите правильное слово.

E.g. I like your/yours house -> "your"

1. Ours/Our house is smaller than their/theirs.

2. And their/theirs garden is bigger than our/ours too.

3. My/mine children are older than her/hers.

4. This book isn't mine. Is it your/yours?

5. John is crying, but it isn't my/mine fault.

6. Whose coat is it? My/mine.

  4. Возвратное местоимение - reflexive pronoun. Например, “When I find myself in times of trouble” – “Когда я нахожу себя во время бед”. Reflexive pronoun возвращает речь обратно к субъекту предложения. Речь идет о "себе". Это местоимение будет меняться в зависимости от того, что есть "субъект". Например:

I -> myself

you-> yourself

she -> herself

и т.д., по таблице выше.

 Insert a pronoun and translate:

1. Mary taught ______________ to play guitar.
2. John fell and hurt __________ yesterday.
3. I can't explain it _____________.
4. The computer will turn ___________ off.
5. We looked at ________________ in the mirror.
6. The young man cut ____ while shaving.
7. I love to be by _____________.
8. They will take care of _________.
8. I have calmed ________.
9. We're interested in this ____________.
10. She likes biking by __________.
11. In Britain, there are "Do it ______" (DIY) stores.

15. Артикли "a" & "the" (артикли)

1. Анекдот про Вовочку:

- "Вовочка, чему вас сегодня учили в школе?"
- "Т
hе"

 

2. Перед словами часто стоят артикли "a" & "the".

Артикль “a” – неопределенный артикль.
Артикль “the” – определенный артикль.

Неопределенный артикль "a" ставится перед словом когда оно упоминается в первый раз, и таким образом еще не определено. Определенный артикль "the" используется когда данное слово уже было использовано, и таким образом как-то определено.

В
учебнике “Headway elementary” есть такой пример (“Articles_Forrester_family_1.mp3”):

Mr. and Mrs. Forrester have _______ son and ______ daughter. _______ son lives at _______ home and ______ daughter is ______ student at ________ university. Mr. Forrester is _______ journalist. He works for _____ Times. He writes articles about _____ restaurants. “I love ______ food”, he says.

Философия тут следующая: у супругов Форрестеров есть сын и дочь. Т.к. сын и дочь упоминаются в первый раз, то “a son” and “a daughter”.

Следует знать, что “a” означает также “один”, e.g. a hundred dollars, одна сотня долларов. Поэтому, артикль “a” употребляется только перед счетными существительными.

Перед согласными мы ставим “a”, а перед гласными “an”:

He stepped on a chair – он встал на стул

She slept in an armchair –
она спала в кресле

Однако, и тут бывают исключения, часто перед букой "U": e.g. “A university professor” – университетский профессор (читай: “дипломированный лакей”).

Вернемся к почетной (и скучной) паре Forresters. Во втором предложении мы узнаем, что сын живет дома. Т.к. этот оболтус понятно чей – Форрестеров – то и артикль определенный:.

The son lives at home.

Но где он живет? Дома. Когда мы говорим о местах – home, school, work, university, bed – артикль вообще не ставится. Тем не менее, если бы хотели сказать что я хожу в этот университет (а не в университет вообще), то я скажу: I go to the university. Таким образом, расстановка артиклей определяется смыслом, который вы хотите придать предложению.

Обычно не ставится артикль перед названиями приемов пиши - breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper, snack. Например:

I don’t eat breakfast in the morning.

Тем не менее, если я хочу сказать что этот обед был прекрасным, я могу сказать “The dinner was excellent”.
Не ставится также артикль перед средствами передвижения – train, bike, car, plane, subway, metro, taxi, etc. Например:

I go to my courses by bike.

Однако, если я захочу указать на этот велосипед, то я все же могу сказать: “How much did you pay for the bike?” Параллель с названиями приемов пищи и местами должна быть очевидна.

Вернемся к нашим деткам. “The son lives at home” – Конкретный бездельник прокисает дома. “And the daughter is a student”. То, что она студентка упоминается в первый раз, она одна из многих студенток, поэтому “a student”. Вообще, “a” означает “одна” или “одна из многих”.

Итак: “The daughter is a student at university” (перед “university” не нужен артикль, ибо это "место").

“Mr. Forrester is a journalist” – он один из многих отравителей общественного мнения.

“He works for ‘The Times’” – перед некоторыми названиями нужен артикль “the” (особенно перед уникальными), а перед некоторыми – нет. Например, американская газета “The New York Times” и американский журнал “Time”. Это нужно знать из практики.

Аналогично перед названиями стран, городов, и т.д. – вообще артикль не нужен (e.g. France, Germany, Russia), но вот The United States of America. (Смотрите, что написано у вас на 100 долларовой купюре.)

Перед множественным числом (эти слова обычно заканчиваются на “s”) и общими понятиями (e.g. food, math, physics, knowledge, etc.) артикль не ставится. Но опять, если мы говорим о конкретной еде – In the food there are many calories – мы можем поставить определенный артикль. Опять:
главным образом, использование артиклей определяется смыслом (определенный или неопределенный). Все остальные правила - вторичны.

В общем, если вы привыкли к строгим правилам, то в языке вы их не найдете. Язык – это среда в которой воплощается наша мысль. А мысль, как известно, штука гибкая (как сама жизнь).

Послушайте еще раз вышеприведенный рассказ о Forresters, и вставьте нужные артикли.

 

3. Продолжение рассказа о бедной чете Forresters. Mr. Forrester рассказывает о своих детях (подразумевается, что вы уже знаете о каких), и о том, как он с женой проводит отпуск. Послушайте запись “articles_Forrester_family_2.mp3” и вставьте артикли.

Every spring _____ children go skiing, so my wife and I go to ______ Paris on holiday. We stay in ____ hotel near ______ river Seine. We have ______ breakfast in ________ hotel, but we have ________ lunch in _______ restaurant. ______ French food is delicious. We walk a lot, but sometimes we go by ______ taxi. After 4 days, we don’t want to go ______ home and back to _____ work."

 

4. Думаю, достаточно о Forresters в Париже. Теперь, посмотрим на песню ABBA об их отпуске в Париже (“Our last summer”). Прочитайте объяснения в правой колонке, чтобы понять использование артиклей.

The summer air was soft and warm

 

 The feeling right, the Paris night

Did its best to please us

And strolling down the Elysee

 

We had a drink in each cafe


And you

You talked of politics, philosophy and I

Smiled like Mona Lisa

We had our chance

It was a fine and true romance

 

I can still recall our last summer

I still see it all

Walks along the Seine, laughing in the rain.


Our last summer

Memories that remain

We made our way along the river

And we sat down in the grass

By the Eiffel tower

I was so happy we had met

It was the age of no regrets

Oh yes

Those crazy years, that was the time

Of the flower-power

But underneath we had a fear of flying

Of getting old, a fear of slowly dying

We took the chance

Like we were dancing our last dance

I can still recall our last summer

I still see it all

In the tourist jam, round the Notre Dame

Our last summer

Walking hand in hand

Paris restaurants

Our last summer

Morning croissants

Living for the day, worries far away

Our last summer

We could laugh and play

And now you're working in a bank

The family man, the football fan

And your name is Harry

How dull it seems

Yet you're the hero of my dreams

I can still recall our last summer

I still see it all

Walks along the Seine, laughing in the rain

Our last summer

Memories that remain

I can still recall our last summer

I still see it all

In the tourist jam, round the Notre Dame

Our last summer

Walking hand in hand

Paris restaurants

Our last summer

Morning croissants

Living for the day, worries far away...

Говорится “the summer” потому что она подразумевает, что она поет эту песню своему любимому, и он знает, о каком лете идет речь, и что там было…

 Аналогичное мышление относится к чувству которое они испытывали, и к определенной Парижской ночи…

Елисейские поля – название; что тут поделаешь? С одними есть “the”, а с другими нет. Чаще нет.

 

Они выпивали вообще в кафе. Не в каком-либо одном (поэтому не подходит “a”), и не в каком-либо конкретном (поэтому не подходит “the”)

 

 Политика, философия – достаточно абстрактные понятия, перед абстракциями (а что не есть абстракция?) артикли не нужны

 

то был один из истинных романов – поэтому “a” – один из многих, также как у Forresters: “a son and a daughter”…

 


Название реки – “the Seine”. Более того, они смеялись в определенный дождь – они знают в какой, наверное была причина…

 

Вдоль определенной реки они прогуливались

Сидели они в определенной траве – перед Эйфелевой башней.

 

Те сумасшедшие года – поэтому мы знаем, о каком времени идет речь, поэтому “the time”, хотя "time" - общее понятие

 

Был один из многих страхов

 Мы взяли наш конкретный, этот шанс

 

В той туристской толкучке

 

 

 

 Жили для того конкретного дня

 Ты работаешь в одном из банков

Мы знаем о ком идет речь, поэтому “the family man, the football fan”

 Опять – ты есть именно тот герой…

 

 

 



5. Мы начали эту главу с анекдота про Вовочку. Возвращаемся туда же с анекдотом про Randy 1 & Randy 2

6. Дополнительные пояснения:

* Неопределенный артикль "a" ("an" перед гласными) - существительное не определено, не выделено из класса ему подобных.

Пример: A farmer wanted to have his hens serviced. - Это один из многих фермеров.

* Определенный артикль "the" (Вовочка говорит "тхе") - определяет существительное как некое конкретное, выделяет из класса ему подобных.

Пример: The farmer walked up to Randy. - Этот фермер (уже нам знакомый) подошел к Рэнди.

* Неопределенный артикль происходит от числительного "один", "one".

Пример: a hundred dollars  - Сто долларов (одна сотня)

* Определенный артикль происходит от местоимения "that" ("тот", "та"). Поэтому, если вы можете сказать "тот" или "та" (фермер, учительница, и т.д.) - тогда используйте "the".

Пример: The farmer was watching all of this with disbelief. - Тот фермер смотрел на все это не веря своим глазам.

* Артикли не используются:

1) с абстрактными или неисчисляемыми существительными.

Пример: disbelief (неверие), knowledge (знание), water (вода).

2) с множественным числом

Пример: He wanted to have his hens serviced.

3) С именами

Пример: Randy is a horny rooster.

4) Когда перед существительным притяжательное или указательное местоимение.

Пример: I like my son.

* Определенный артикль всегда используется в превосходной степени.

Пример: the horniest rooster, the best program, the most beautiful girl.

* Определенный артикль также используется в фразах "the last" (последний) и "the next" (следующий).

Пример: the last chance - последний шанс, the next morning - на следующее утро.

* Главное: используйте артикль для того, чтобы придать конкретный смысл вашему рассказу (как мы видели в песне ABBA выше). Думайте, и используйте артикли как "соль", чтобы придать вкус вашему тексту.

Пример: "The summer air was soft and warm, the feeling right, the Paris night did its best to please us"

* На крайний случай: если вы не знаете что делать, можно артикли вообще не использовать. Хотя это будет не совсем правильно, с точки зрения грамматики, но "покатит". Вас поймут! Главное - не боятся говорить, пусть из вас льется как из ведра, и со временем все образуется.

 

Exercise: re-read the joke about Randy. Underline all cases of the use of articles "a" & "the". Also underline cases where there are no articles in front of nouns. Explain in class.
































16. Условное наклонение

1. Внимательно слушаем песню if by Pink Floyd:

If I were the swan, I'd be gone

if I were the train, I'd be late (again)

and if I were the good man

I'd talk with you more often than I do

If I were to sleep I could dream

if I were afraid I could hide

if I go insane

please don't put your wires in my brain

If I were the moon, I'd be cool

if I were the rule, I would bend

if I were a good man

I'd understand the spaces between friends

If I were alone, I would cry

and if I were with you, I'd be home and dry

and if I go insane will you still let me join in with the game.

 

2. Условное наклонение - the conditional - это когда имеется какое-то условие, и затем какое-то следствие. Например:

If were the swan, I'd be gone - если бы я бы лебедем, я бы улетел.

Если в условном наклонение употребляется глагол "to be" в прошедшем времени, то он всегда будет в форме "were".

Время, которое используется в условии должно быть как бы "шаг назад" по отношению к тому, которое используется в следствии. Или, другими словами, следствие должно быть "шаг вперед" по отношению к условию. На худой конец: в том же времени. Например, если используем simple present в условии, то используем simple future в следствии.

If he sees me, he will want to talk to me -> Если он увидит меня, то захочет поговорить со мной.

If I will eat this cake, I will grow fat - > Если я скушаю этот торт, я стану толстой.

 

3. Choose the correct tense:

1. If you (say) that again, I (scream).

2. I (be) surprised if she (manage) to sell that car.

3. If the boys (come) to supper, I (cook) chicken.

4. I (need) some money if we (go) out tonight.

5. I (miss) you if we (move) to Wales.

6. If you (wash up), I (dry).

7. Ann (be) sorry if Helen (not come).

8. If you (get) lonely, I hope you (phone) me.

9. If you (look) in the top drawer, you (find) your passport.

10. It (be) funny if Normann (get) the job.




17. Пассивный залог


1.Песня "The sounds of silence" by Simon and Garfunkel:

Hello darkness, my old friend,

I've come to talk with you again,

Because a vision softly creeping,

Left its seeds while I was sleeping,

And the vision that was planted in my brain

Still remains

Within the sound of silence.

In restless dreams I walked alone

Narrow streets of cobblestone,

'Neath the halo of a street lamp,

I turned my collar to the cold and damp

When my eyes were stabbed by the flash of a neon light

That split the night

And touched the sound of silence.

And in the naked light I saw

Ten thousand people, maybe more.

People talking without speaking,

People hearing without listening,

People writing songs that voices never share

And no one dare

Disturb the sound of silence.

"Fools" said I, "You do not know

Silence like a cancer grows.

Hear my words that I might teach you,

Take my arms that I might reach you."

But my words like silent raindrops fell,

And echoed

In the wells of silence

And the people bowed and prayed

To the neon god they made.

And the sign flashed out its warning,

In the words that it was forming.

And the sign said, "The words of the prophets

are written on the subway walls

And tenement halls."

And whisper'd in the sounds of silence.

 

2. В данной песне есть 3 примера пассивного залога

the vision was planted in my brain – виденье было посеяно в моем мозгу.

my eyes were stabbed by neon light – мои глаза были пронзены неоновым светом.

the words of prophets are written on subway walls – слова пророков написаны на стенах метро

В первом и во втором случае мы имеем дело с simple past passive, т.е. пассивным залогом в прошедшем времени: vision was planted, my eye were stabbed.

В третьем случае, мы имеем дело с present simple passive, т.е. это настоящее время, пассивный залог. Слова сами себя не написали, а были написаны кем-то: the words are written.

Passive используется когда действие производится не subject(ом), а над ним. Допустим, мы можем сказать: рабочие делают машины - это активный залог. Но если скажем: машины делаются рабочими - это пассивный залог. По-английски, это будет так:

Workers make cars - active

Cars are made by workers - passive

 

3. Чтобы сформировать present simple passive, используется глагол “to be” + past participle. Например:

I am made

You are made

She is made

We are made

You are made

They are made

Само собой понятно, что для того, чтобы сделать вопрос, вспомогательный глагол (to be) должен стоять перед subject.

Поставьте глаголы в simple present passive, прочтите и переведите:

  1. This program _________ (write) by me.

  2. Interesting books ________________ (discuss) in class.

  3. A problem ________________ (discuss) immediately.

  4. Students _________________ (give) a chance to complain.

  5. You _____________ (tell) what to do by the band.

  6. The work ___________ (do) at once.

  7. You _______________ (want) on the phone.

  8. Our students ___________ (give) a lot of homework.

  9. They _______________ (make) to do it by the money that they have to pay.

  10. I _________________ (force) to implement this policy by lack of work on the part of students.

 

4. Чтобы сформировать simple past passive, используй was/were + past participle. E.g.

the vision was planted in my brain

my eyes were stabbed by neon light

Заполните пропуски в simple past passive

  1. The movie ____________ (film) in 1967.

  2. The church _______________ (build) in XIX century.

  3. When __________________(this house/build)?

  4. Who _______________________ (this book/write) by?

  5. When ____________________ (the clinic/open)?

  6. The pants __________________ (sow) by mother.

  7. The jacket __________________ (present) by her as well.

  8. ___________________ (the doctor/consult) before the operation?

  9. _________________ ( You give/ attention) as a student?

  10. Very few new things ________________ (create) in the USSR in 1970's.

 

5. Вот таблица, которая дает более полное представление о пассиве для всех времен (взята из грамматики Джины “Английский для наших”):

Tense

Active voice

Passive voice

Infinitive

to eat

to be eaten

(1) PrIndf

Jane eats apples every day

Apples are eaten every day

(2) PrPf

Jane has eaten three apples

Three apples have been eaten

(3) PastIndf

Jane ate all the apples yesterday

All the apples were eaten yesterday

(4) FutIndf

Jane will eat two apples

Two apples will be eaten

(5) HumFut

Jane is going to eat your apple

Your apple is going to be eaten

(6) PrCont

Jane is eating my apple

My apple is being eaten

(7) modal verb

+ bare Inf

Jane can eat this apple

This apple can be eaten

Создайте аналогичную таблицу для следующих 5 предложений

  1. I make some progress in English.

  2. Mother gives a birth to a child.

  3. John repairs a bike.

  4. We study new life forms.

  5. They build a yacht.

 

6. Find the passive verbs in this text. What tenses are they?

In Denmark, 24 people were left hanging upside down when a roller coaster car made an unscheduled stop.

The passengers were stranded 60 ft in the air for 20 minutes before firemen arrived with ladders.

An official for the fairground, at Aalborg in Western Denmark, said the riders had been firmly locked in and had not been in danger.

"They were given their money back", said the official.







18. Present Perfect continuous


1. Давайте послушаем песню Leo Cohen "Waiting for the miracle" (в ожидании чуда):

Baby, I've been waiting,

I've been waiting night and day.

I didn't see the time,

I waited half my life away.

There were lots of invitations

and I know you sent me some,

but I was waiting

for the miracle, for the miracle to come.

 

I know you really loved me.

but, you see, my hands were tied.

I know it must have hurt you,

it must have hurt your pride

to have to stand beneath my window

with your bugle and your drum,

and me I'm up there waiting

for the miracle, for the miracle to come.

 

Ah I don't believe you'd like it,

You wouldn't like it here.

There ain't no entertainment

and the judgements are severe.

The Maestro says it's Mozart

but it sounds like bubble gum

when you're waiting

for the miracle, for the miracle to come.

 

Waiting for the miracle

There's nothing left to do.

I haven't been this happy

since the end of World War II.

Nothing left to do

when you know that you've been taken.

Nothing left to do

when you're begging for a crumb

Nothing left to do

when you've got to go on waiting

waiting for the miracle to come.

I dreamed about you, baby.

It was just the other night.

Most of you was naked

Ah but some of you was light.

The sands of time were falling

from your fingers and your thumb,

and you were waiting

for the miracle, for the miracle to come

 

Ah baby, let's get married,

we've been alone too long.

Let's be alone together.

Let's see if we're that strong.

Yeah let's do something crazy,

something absolutely wrong

while we're waiting

for the miracle, for the miracle to come.

Nothing left to do ...

 

When you've fallen on the highway

and you're lying in the rain,

and they ask you how you're doing

of course you'll say you can't complain --

If you're squeezed for information,

that's when you've got to play it dumb:

You just say you're out there waiting

for the miracle, for the miracle to come.

 

2. Кроме Present Perfect (Simple) есть еще Present Perfect Continuous. Примеры этого "чуда" мы видим в первых словах Leo Cohen(а):

Baby, I've been waiting,

I've been waiting night and day.

Когда используется Simple, то акцентируется результат. Когда используется Continuous, то акцентируется сам процесс. Например, если бы Cohen сказал:

Baby, I have waited

Он имел бы виду то, что он прождал, и все. О самом процессе ожидания не шла бы речь. В песне же идет речь о самом процессе ожидания чуда, и что он делал в это время.

Еще один пример того же:

http://smart-english.narod.ru/grammar/multimedia/IMAGE453.GIF

Форма:

Have/has + been + verb(ing)

e.g. They have been playing tennis all summer.

He has been surfing the Net for an hour.

Чтобы сделать отрицание not после have/has. E.g.

They have not been playing tennis all summer

He has not been surfing the Net

Чтобы поставить вопрос have/has перед subject. E.g.

Have they been playing tennis all summer?

Has she been surfing the net?

 3. Поставьте следующие предложения в present perfect continuous

  1. He _________________________ (work) since 1980.

  2. How long _______________________ (you/do) this translation?

  3. I ________________________ (wait) for you for half an hour.

  4. He says he ____________________ (study) English for two years.

  5. I haven't seen him all day long. What ________________ (he/do)?

  6. Since when this girl ___________________ (sit) here?

  7. At last! I ___________________ (look) all over for you!

  8. We ____________________ (run) like crazy all day long.

  9. He ___________________ (work) on his boat all summer long.

  10. She _______________ (wear) mini-skirt to all our lessons.

 4. Заголовок газеты "The New York Times", от 7 сентября 2004 г. (после событий в Беслане), гласит:

Grief in Russia Mixes With Harsh Words for Government

Criticism mounted over how President Vladimir V. Putin's government has been handling the wave of terrorism.

Как редактор собственной газеты, напишите еще 3-5 заголовков (headlines) в подобном стиле.

19. Два или больше глаголов

(что делать если два, или больше, глаголов?)


1. Послушайте песню “Mind games” by John Lennon:

We're playing those mind games together

Pushing the barriers, planting seeds

Playing the mind guerrilla

Chanting the mantra, peace on earth

We all been playing those mind games forever

Some kinda druid dudes lifting the veil

Doing the mind guerrilla

Some call it magic, the search for the grail

Love is the answer and you know that for sure

Love is a flower, you got to let it, you got to let it grow

So keep on playing those mind games together

Faith in the future, outta the now

You just can't beat on those mind guerrillas

Absolute elsewhere in the stones of your mind

Yeah we're playing those mind games forever

Projecting our images in space and in time

Yes is the answer and you know that for sure

Yes is surrender, you got to let it, you got to let it go

So keep on playing those mind games together

Doing the ritual dance in the sun

Millions of mind guerrillas

Putting their soul power to the karmic wheel

Keep on playing those mind games forever

Raising the spirit of peace and love

Love...

(I want you to make love, not war, I know you've heard it before)

Мы играем в те игры ума вместе

Отталкивая барьеры, сажая семена

Играем в партизаны ума

Напевая мантру, мир на земле

What mind games do you know?

 

2. Почему правильно говорить “keep on playing” вместо допустим “keep on to play”? Т.е. почему после некоторых глаголов идет gerund (заканчивается на “ing”), а после некоторых глаголов идет инфинитив (т.е. перед глаголом стоит “to”)?

Ответ таков:

1. После большинства (90%) глаголов следует глагол в инфинитиве.

E.g. I’ve decided to eat less. She told me to ring her.

2. После некоторых глаголов следует только герундий. Это следующие:

Finish

Delay

Postpone

fancy

imagine

consider

mind

Avoid

admit

deny

miss

risk

involve

Practice

Enjoy

Suggest

keep on

go on

carry on

give up

put off

3. После некоторых глаголов следует либо герундий, либо инфинитив. Это следующие:

Continue

Start

Begin

Love

like

prefer

hate

Remember

Forget

Stop

Try

Итак: из этого урока вы должны вынести следующее:

1) после большинства глаголов, следующий глагол идет в инфинитиве;

2) после меньшинства - "keep on" - следует только герундий.

3) после абсолютно ничтожного меньшинства - e.g. "like" - возможен как инфинитив, так и герундий;

 

3. Упражнения:

1: Вставьте герундий в следующие предложения

  1. Stop ______________, please!

  2. Start ____________ something useful!

  3. Have you finished ___________________ this article?

  4. Can we postpone _________________ to the opera?

  5. Shall I go on ________________?

  6. Give up ______________, if you want to be in good health.

  7. He continued ________________ and ________________.

  8. She began _________________ "Harry Potter" on a napkin.

  9. I try to avoid ___________________ too fast.

  10. Students often deny _________________ about their HW.

 

2: вставьте инфинитив или герундий.

1. You can't help (like) him.

2. We decided (stay) at home.

3. We expect (hear) from Ann soon.

4. Do you fancy (go) out tonight?

5. I don't feel like (cook).

6. When do you finish (study)?

7. I have given up (smoke).

8. Imagine (be) married to her!

9. I managed (find) a taxi.

10. Would you mind (pass) the bread?

 

3: Даются возможные конструкции. Составьте вопрос и ответ.

Can we start talking about something? Yes, of course.

Start

Talking

Asking me questions

Speaking English

Thinking about what we're studying

Being nice to me

Work

To make money

To realize life's goal

To impress other students

To have a good time

To release creative potential

To develop as a person

Begin

Reading book

Writing your own book

Learning a new rule

Looking through the text

Making notes

Discussing questions

Living a new life (what?)

speak

To improve English

To understand the lesson

To get your point across

To make a good impression

To impress someone

To convey information

Give up

learning to play a musical instrument

learning English

trying to understand somebody

building a boat/a house/a family

drinking, smoking

having sex outside marriage

educating children

memorizing new vocabulary

Read

To learn new things

To know English better

To get the news

To have general knowledge

To entertain yourself

To gain some profit

Finish

Translating the song

Doing your work

Doing you make up

Doing the dishes

Writing your vocabulary list

Looking around

Flirting with me/teacher/etc.

decide

To continue with English

To give up eating a lot

To do morning exercises

To study everyday

To rest for a while

To be more persistent

Stop

Interrupting

Speaking Russian

Making inappropriate remarks

Making noise

Like

Smoking

Drinking

Swimming

Discussing new things

To drive a car

To have a cigar

To listen to good music

To enjoy a good conversation

 

4. Дополнение к песне "Mind games": поэма My Mind To Me A Kingdom Is by Sir Edward Dyer (? - 1607)

My mind to me a kingdom is;

Such perfect joy therein I find

That it excels all other bliss

Which God or nature hath assigned.

Though much I want that most would have

Yet still my mind forbids to crave.


No princely port, nor wealthy store,

No force to win a victory,

No wily wit to salve a sore,

No shape to win a loving eye;

To none of these I yield as thrall,--

For why? my mind despise them all.


I see that plenty surfeit oft,

And hasty climbers soonest fall;

I see that such as are aloft

Mishap doth threaten most of all.

These get with toil and keep with fear;

Such cares my mind can never bear.


I press to bear no haughty sway,

I wish no more than may suffice,

I do no more than will I may,

Look, what I want my mind supplies.

Lo! thus I triumph like a king,

My mind content with anything.


I laugh not at another's loss,

Nor grudge not at another's gain;

No worldly waves my mind can toss;

I brook that is another's bane.

I fear no foe, nor fawn on friend,

I loathe no life, nor dread mine end.


My wealth is health and perfect ease,

And conscience clear my chief defence;

I never seek by bribes to please,

Nor by desert to give offence.

Thus do I live, thus will I die,--

Would all did so well as I!






















Часть 3

20. Past continuous

1. Сейчас, при тотальном кризисе общества, и это во всех сферах в экономике и в идейной сфере популярны такие авторы как Paulo Coelho (фото). Знакомство с этим автором считается нечто вроде штампом "образованного" человека

Берем роман "Вероника решает умереть". Действие происходило давно в 1997 г., - и вот Вероника решила подохнуть (заметь: не бороться, а именно позорно сдаться гнилому обществу). Она приняла таблетки. Затем идут такие предложения:

Her stomach was beginning to churn now and she was feeling very ill indeed - У нее живот начинал журчать (потому что она приняла таблетки, много таблеток) и она чувствовала очень больной, действительно.

Изолируем:

Живот начинал журчать stomach was beginning to churn

Она чувствовала очень плохо she was feeling very ill

В это же время, в стольном граде Любляна люди начинали закрывать магазины и идти домой

people were starting to shut up their shops and go home.

Время в котором здесь повествуется - past continuous. Употребляется past cont. когда действие продолжалось длительное время в прошлом: живот начинал журчать, она чувствовала себя плохо.

Форма Past Continuous:

Was/were + verb + ing

Чтобы построить отрицательное предложение в Past Continuous: not вставляется между вспомогательным глаголом (was/were) и основным. E.g.

She was not feeling very ill.

People were not closing their shops.

Чтобы построить вопросительное предложение: вопросительное слово (What, when, where, etc.) + was/were + subject + verb + ing + "хвост". E.g.

Why was she feeling ill?

When were they closing their shops?

2. Упражнения.

1) Скажите, что вы делали в указанное время, используя past continuous. Например:

8 a.m. yesterday - I was listening to the news.

  1. In the morning

  2. 9 a.m. today. -

  3. midday -

  4. afternoon -

  5. last evening -

  6. in the spring

  7. last summer -

  8. previous year -

  9. yesterday evening

  10. An hour ago

2) Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную и в вопросительную формы:

  1. He was cooking the dinner.

  2. I was preparing the program.

  3. We were driving down the highway.

  4. She was feeding the baby.

  5. The bells were ringing.

  6. Nobody was listening.

  7. The people were talking.

3. Past continuous используется когда имелось длительное действие. Если же это действие прерывается другим действием, то тут используем simple past.

Exercise 1: Use your ideas to complete the sentences, as in the example

e.g. Tom burnt his hand while he was working on his yacht.

1. The doorbell rang while I _____________________________

2. We see the bike accident while we ___________________________

3. Mary fell asleep while she _________________________

4. The television was on but nobody ______________________

5. You ___________________ while you ___________________________

6. They __________________ the parade while in the parliament the politicians _________________________________

7. He understood the lesson while _________________________________________________

 

Exercise 2: use either simple past or past continuous.

  1. Veronika (try) to die all day, but then the ambulance (take) her in.

  2. She (have) a nightmare.

  3. She (lie) on her bed all day long.

  4. She (think) about life.

  5. People (walk) on the street.

  6. In her mind, there (to be) thoughts of suicide before.

  7. She (try) to think of a good way to die; finally, she (decide) about the method.

 

4. Пусть Вероника подыхает. Мы с вами послушаем как поет ABBA. Песня Fernando.

Find examples of past simple and past continuous in the song. Past simple - underline with 1 line. Past continuous - with 2 lines.

Can you hear the drums Fernando

I remember long ago another starry night like this

In the fire light Fernando

You were humming to yourself and softly strumming your guitar

I could hear the distant drums

And sounds of bugle calls were coming from afar

They were closer now Fernando

Every hour every minute seemed to last eternally

I was so afraid Fernando

We were young and full of life and none of us prepared to die

And I'm not ashamed to say

The roar of guns and cannons almost made me cry

 

Chorus:

There was something in the air that night

The stars were bright, Fernando

They were shining there for you and me

For liberty, Fernando

Though we never thought that we could loose

There's no regret

If I had to do the same again I would, my friend, Fernando

If I had to do the same again I would, my friend, Fernando

 

Now we're old and grey Fernando

Since many years I haven't seen a rifle in your hand

Can you hear the drums Fernando

Do you still recall the fateful night we crossed the Rio Grande

I can see it in your eyes

How proud you were to fight for freedom in this land

 Chorus:


A good movie to watch after "Fernando": "Salvador" by Oliver Stone.


























21. Глагол "get"


  1. Песня "Money" by Pink Floyd.

Money, get away

Get a good job with more pay and you're O.K.

Money, it's a gas

Grab that cash with both hands and make a stash

New car, caviar, four star daydream,

Think I'll buy me a footbal team.

 

Money, get back

I'm alright, Jack, keep your hands off of my stack

Money, it's a hit

Don't give me that do goody good bullshit

I'm in the hi-fidelity first class travelling set

And I think I need a Lear jet.

 

Money, it's a crime

Share it fairly but don't take a slice of my pie

Money, so they say

Is the root of all evil today

But if you ask for a rise it's no surprise that

They're giving none away, away, away

 

2. Early forms of money:

http://smart-english.narod.ru/grammar/multimedia/money1.jpg

What kinds of money were used? What kind of money is used today? Discuss pros and cons of use of money in society.

 

3. Глагол "get" употребляется либо сам по себе, либо с другим словом.

1) Если он используется с другим словом, то он придает этому слову смысл становления. Например, в песне: "get back" - пошел назад. Одна американская поговорка: "I don't get mad, I get even": "я не становлюсь злым, я сравниваю счет". 

2) Если глагол "get" используется сам по себе, то он имеет два основных его значения:

    1. получить, купить - get me some ice cream!

    2. добраться до чего-либо - get me to the place!

 

4. Explain the following:

1. "I don't get mad, I get even" - a proverb

2. "I get no kick from champagne.
Mere alcohol doesn't thrill me at all,
So tell me why should it be true
That I get a kick out of you?"

Cole Porter (1893 - 1964)
U.S. songwriter and composer.

3. Let's get to that bridge first - a proverb

4. "Let's get down to business" - a standard phrase

5. "We get behind the schedule" - a standard phrase

6. "So when I try to get through, on the telephone to you, nobody's home"

Pink Floyd, "The Wall"

7. "Get real!" - a cliche

8. "I get by with a little help from my friends"

Beatles

9. "Get up, stand up
Stand up for your rights
Get up stand up
Don't give up the fight."

Bob Marley (1945 - 1981)
Jamaican musician, singer, and songwriter.

10. "Get the coffin ready and the man won't die". - A Chinese proverb

11. "Nothing is real and nothing to get hungabout." - Beatles, "Strawberry fields forever"
















22. Past Perfect

1. Рассказ о дне типичного интеллектуала: A day in the life by Beatles.

I read the news today oh boy

About a lucky man who made the grade

And though the news was rather sad

Well I just had to laugh

I saw the photograph.

He blew his mind out in a car

He didn't notice that the lights had changed

A crowd of people stood and stared

They'd seen his face before

Nobody was really sure

If he was from the House of Lords.

I saw a film today oh boy

The English Army had just won the war

A crowd of people turned away

but I just had to look

Having read the book.

I'd love to turn you on

Woke up, fell out of bed,

Dragged a comb across my head

Found my way downstairs and drank a cup,

And looking up I noticed I was late.

Found my coat and grabbed my hat

Made the bus in seconds flat

Found my way upstairs and had a smoke,

Somebody spoke and I went into a dream

I read the news today oh boy

Four thousand holes in Blackburn, Lancashire

And though the holes were rather small

They had to count them all

Now they know how many holes it takes to fill the Albert Hall.

I'd love to turn you on


Tell us about your typical day. How do you feel about different episodes?

 

2. Past Perfect употребляется:

1) для того, чтобы описать действие которое происходило перед тем, о котором повествуется в другом времени (например, simple past). Стояла толпа и глазела на него (время: simple past), они видели его лицо где-то раньше (past perfect):

A crowd of people stood and stared

They'd seen his face before

2) Также, past perfect используется, чтобы указать на очень древнее действие.

Julius Caesar had died in 44 B.C. Ю. Цезарь умер в 44 г. до н.э. (ему коллеги помогли).

Past Perfect состоит из: вспомогательного глагола had + past participle. Заметим, что это почти та же конструкция, что и в present perfect (simple),только вместо have/has используется "had". 

had + past participle

Отрицание с past perfect - ставите not между had & past participle. E.g.

The lights had not changed.

They had not seen his face before.

Вопросы с past perfect поставьте had перед "subject". E.g.

Had the lights changed?

Had they seen his face before?

 

Описывается ситуация. Закончите предложения, используя Past Perfect

  1. When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn't there. He _________________ home.

  2. When we got home last night, we found that somebody _____________________ into our apartment.

  3. Karen didn't want to come to the cinema because she ____________________ the film.

  4. The man sitting next to me was nervous because he ___________________________ before.

  5. I didn't know who she was. I ________________ before the accident.

  6. We weren't hungry. We _____________________ lunch.

  7. The house was dirty. They ______________________ for weeks.

  8. Ann was at home when I called. She ________________ in London all this time.

  9. When we came to her house, she ______________________.

  10. When I came back to Kiev in 1996, I saw that it _______________ a lot.

 

3. Еще один пример употребления "past perfect", из новостей за март 2005 г.:

Akayev, who had been in power for 14 years, left Kyrgyzstan after the coup but says he has not resigned. The Kremlin has indicated he is in Russia.

Заметим, действие которое длилось давно - past perfect (Akaev had been in power). Затем - simple past, потому что тут имеет место рассказ (he left Kyrgyzstan after the coup). Затем используется present perfect - действие имеет отношение к настоящему (he has not resigned). Затем еще один пример использования present perfect (Kremlin has indicated), после чего simple present (he is in Russia). Итак, мы имеем: past perfect, simple past, present perfect, simple present. Это указывает на степень приближения к событиям в настоящем.

Найдите примеры использования Past Perfect в новостях или книгах. Анализируйте структуру предложений.



23. "Everything", "everybody", "everyone"

1. Слушаем песню Echoes (и смотрим видео Pink Floyd live at Pompeii)

Overhead the albatross hangs motionless upon the air

and deep beneath the rolling waves in labyrinths of coral caves

the echo of a distant time comes billowing across the sand

and everything is green, the sun beneath

and no one showed us to the land

and no one knows the where's or the why's

but something stares and something tries

and starts to climb towards the land

Strangers passing in the street by chance to separate causes meet

And I am you and what I see is me

And do I take you by the hand and lead you through the land

And help me understand the best I can

And no one calls us to move on

and no one forces down our eyes

and no one speaks and no one tries

no one flies around the sun

Cloudless everyday you fall upon my waking eyes

inviting and insighting me to rise

and through the window in the wall

come streaming in on sunlight wings

a million bright ambassadors of morning

and no one sings me lullabies

and no one makes me close my eyes

so I throw the windows wide

and crawl to you across the sky

2. Cлова которые заканчиваются на thing, one, body:

everything, nothing, something, anything

someone, everyone, no one, anyone

everybody, nobody, somebody, anybody etc.

должны рассматриваться с грамматической точки зрения как 3-е лицо единственное число. Это означает, что они рассматриваются как единое целое. Глагол, который берут эти слова - это 3-е лицо единственное число. Например:

Everything is green, the sun beneath...

No one knows the where's or why's

But something stares and something tries

and starts to climb towards the land

 Вставьте глагол:

  1. Everyone ___________ the party.

  2. No one ________ responsible for what happened.

  3. Since we didn't get enough sleep, everybody _______ sleepy now.

  4. Nobody __________ to do the menial work.

  5. Somebody ____________ looking at us now.

  6. _______________ wants to enjoy themselves.

  7. Everything _______ fine.

68


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Составила учитель английского языка:

Крейк Татьяна Анатольевна






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Сборник песен “Songs to Enjoy Grammar” для развития лексических и грамматических навыков студентов
  • Иностранные языки
Описание:

Настоящий сборник песен рассчитан на студентов высших заведений, студентов учреждений НПО и СПО, учащихся лицеев, слушателей курсов и лиц, самостоятельно изучающих иностранный язык. Сборник содержит тексты песен, распределенных по определенным грамматическим темам. Тексты песен сопровождаются пояснениями, индивидуальными, групповыми, творческими заданиями. Часто это сводится к чтению слов песни, их переводу на родной язык и записи нескольких новых слов в тетрадь, прослушиванию песни и совместному исполнению под фонограмму. Представлены упражнения на понимание содержания песни, согласованию слов и выражений (matching), лексико-грамматические упражнения, а также упражнения на говорение с использованием слов песни и фантазии учащихся. Такого рода задания внесут разнообразие в урок, а также будут направлены на повышение мотивации учащихся в изучении английского языка.

Автор Крейк Татьяна Анатольевна
Дата добавления 20.11.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Конспекты
Просмотров 542
Номер материала MA-062488
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