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Пособие по профессиональному английскому языку для специальности "Технология молока и молочных продуктов"

REFERENCE GRAMMAR

Имя существительное

The Noun


Имя существительное обозначает живое существо (a man, a horse), предмет (a book, a tree), вещество или материал (iron, cement), отвлеченное понятие (love, safety). В английском языке имя существительное имеет два числа – единственное (Singular) и множественное (Plural) и два падежа – общий (The Common Case) и притяжательный (The Possessive Case)


Образование множественного числа имен существительных

The Plural


Множественное число имен существительных образуется путем прибавления окончания –s к имени существительному в единственном числе.

Headheads голова - головы

Armarms рука - руки

Kneeknees колено - колени

Если имя существительное оканчивается на s, -ss, -sc, -ch, -x, -o (с предшествующей согласной), то его множественное число образуется путем прибавления окончания es.

Lunchlunches обед - обеды

Busbuses автобус - автобусы

Dress – dresses платье - платья

Bush – bushes куст - кусты

Tax – taxes налог - налоги

Cargo – cargoes грузгрузы

Если имя существительное оканчивается на -y с предшествующей согласной, то его множественное число образуется путем прибавления es с заменой y на -i. y после гласных не меняется, множественное число образуется по обычному правилу, путем прибавления окончания -s.

Countrycountries страна - страны

Boyboys мальчик – мальчики

Существительные, оканчивающиеся на -f -fe, образуют множественное число с заменой -f на -v и прибавлением окончания -es.

Lifelives жизнь - жизни

wolf - wolves волк – волки

Из этого правила есть исключения chief – chiefs, roofroofs и др.

Некоторые существительные образуют множественное число не по правилам:

Manmen мужчина - мужчины

Womanwomen женщина - женщины

Child – children ребенок - дети

Foot – feet нога - ноги

Tooth – teeth зуб - зубы

Mouse – mice мышь - мыши

Sheep- sheep овца - овцы

Fish – fish рыба - рыбы

Deer- deer олень – олени

Ряд существительных греческого и латинского происхождения сохраняют свою исходную форму множественного числа:

Quantumquanta часть - части

Thesistheses тезис - тезисы

Phenomenon - phenomena явление – явления

В английском языке есть существительные, не имеющие 1) единственного и 2) множественного числа.

  1. Это слова, обозначающие парные предметы

Trousers брюки

scissors ножницы

а также:

clothes одежда

goods товар(ы)

riches богатство

news новость

кроме того названия наук и учебных предметов:

economics экономика

mechanics механика

  1. Это все неисчисляемые существительные:

Air воздух

Tea чай

Sugar сахар

Furniture мебель

Japanese японский (язык)

Beauty красота








Падежи имен существительных


Имена существительные в общем падеже выполняют в предложении различные функции: подлежащего, именной части сказуемого, обстоятельства, прямого и косвенного дополнений. Существительные в общем падеже не имеют никаких окончаний и их отношения с другими словами в предложении определяются их местом в предложении, а также предлогами (of, to, in, with и др.)


Притяжательный падеж

The Possessive Case

Притяжательный падеж выражает принадлежность чего-либо кому-либо. Имя существительное в притяжательном падеже выполняет функцию определения. Притяжательный падеж соответствует русскому родительному падежу. Существительные в единственном числе образуют притяжательный падеж при помощи апострофа (`) и окончания –s - `s .

A boy`s coat пальто мальчика

Manager`s letter письмо менеджера

Притяжательный падеж существительных во множественном числе образуется только при помощи апострофа:

Managers` letters письма менеджеров

The ladies` hats дамские шляпки

К существительным, образующим множественное число без окончания

-s добавляется `s:

The children`s toys игрушки детей

Притяжательный падеж образуют в основном одушевленные существительные, а также слова, обозначающие время и единицы времени:

hour (час), day (день), month (месяц), year (год), morning (утро), и т.п., а также наречия времени yesterday (вчера) ,today (сегодня), tomorrow (завтра):

today`s letters сегодняшняя корреспонденция

hour`s delay часовая задержка

кроме того, существительные, обозначающие названия городов, стран, а также существительные типа world (мир), earth(земля), country (страна), city

(город) и др.:

The world`s best лучший в мире

Kazakhstan` businessman Казахстанский бизнесмен

The earth`s axis земная ось


Артикли

The Articles


Артикли – это служебные слова, которые без существительных не употребляются и самостоятельного значения не имеют. В английском языке два артикля: неопределенный и определенный.

Неопределенный артикль произошел от слова one (один), он сохранил значение единственного числа и поэтому употребляется только с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе. Неопределенный артикль имеет две формы: a, который ставится перед словами, начинающимися с согласной и an - перед словами, начинающимися с гласной.


Неопределенный артикль употребляется:

a) перед исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе при обозначении принадлежности их к какому-либо классу (с глаголами to be, to become, to have, to see, с оборотом there is, с предлогом as):

He is a doctor. Он работает врачем.

John became a businessman. Джон стал бизнесменом.

Victor works as a manager. Виктор работает менеджером.

There is a letter on the table. На столе лежит письмо.

I see a car. Я вижу автомобиль.

б) в выражениях, указывающих цену за единицу товара, удельный вес, скорость, частоту:

Five dollars a pound пять долларов за фунт

Two miles an hour две мили в час

б) в словосочетаниях a lot of (много), a few, a little (немного),а также со словами, обозначающими количество a hundred (сотня), a thousand (тысяча), a dozen (дюжина) и т.д.


Определенный артикль употребляется как с неисчисляемыми, так и с исчисляемыми существительными и в единственном, и во множественном числе в следующих случаях:

  1. Когда из ситуации нам понятно о ком или о чем идет речь:

Close the door, please.

  1. Когда после существительного идет определение:

Give me the letter you received yesterday.

  1. Когда предмет является единственным в мире:

The sun sets in the west.

  1. Перед прилагательными в превосходной степени:

The first of January.

  1. Перед порядковыми числительными:

We live on the second floor.

  1. Перед названиями рек, морей, океанов, гор, пустынь, а также названиями стран, где основным элементом является нарицательное существительное (state, commonwealth)^

The Black Sea

The Pacific Ocean

The USA

  1. Перед фамилиями во множественном числе, когда подразумевается семья в целом:

The Ivanovs will come tomorrow.

  1. В ряде устойчивых словосочетаний: in the street (на улице), in the morning (по утрам), in the evening (по вечерам), the same (тот же самый), the following (следующий), the next (в значении «следующий по порядку»), the last (в значении «последний») и т.п.


Артикли не употребляются:

  1. Перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе при обозначении принадлежности их к какому-либо классу:

They are doctors.

I see cars.

There are flowers in the vase.

  1. C абстрактными существительными и неисчисляемыми существительными в общем значении:

Time is money.

  1. Если перед существительным стоит отрицание no, притяжательное местоимение или существительное в притяжательном падеже:

I have no pen.

Where is Ann`s pen.

Give me your pen, please.

  1. Если после существительного идет числительное:

She lives in room number 6.

  1. C названиями дней недели, месяцев, времен года, учебных предметов:

It`s Monday today.

The first lesson today is English.

  1. С именами собственными: именами и фамилиями, названиями улиц, городов, большинства стран:

Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan.

  1. В ряде устойчивых словосочетаний: at night (ночью), at school (в школе), at home (дома), on foot (пешком), by bus (на автобусе), next (будущий), last (прошлый), in fact (фактически), it`s high time (пора).










Степени сравнения прилагательных

The Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives


Большинство прилагательных, состоящих из одного или двух слогов, образуют степени сравнения с помощью суффиксов er и -est . Например: louder (громче), the oldest (старейший или самый старший). Для длинных прилагательных из трех и более слогов используются слова more и most: more interesting (более интересный), the most expensive (самый дорогой). Несколько прилагательных, включая good (хороший) и bad (плохой), имеют особые формы сравнительной и превосходной степени.


Степени сравнения прилагательных

положительная

сравнительная

превосходная

strong

brave

happy

fat

narrow


beautiful

generous


good

bad

little, few

much, many

stronger

braver

happier

fatter

narrower


more beautiful

more generous


better

worse

less

more

the strongest

the bravest

the happiest

the fattest

the narrowest


the most beautiful

the most generous


the best

the worst

the least

the most


Сравнительные конструкции

Сравнивая по качеству разные предметы, англичане используют союз than (чем), перед которым ставится прилагательное в сравнительной степени: London is bigger than York.

Сравнивая предметы, одинаковые по каким-либо качествам, англичане используют оборот asas (такой же … как), при котором используют прилагательное в положительной степени:

A bear is as strong as a tiger.

Cравнивая предметы, не одинаковые по качествам, используется оборот not soas(не такой… , как) с прилагательным в положительной степени:

London is not so old as Rome.




Числительные

The Numerals

Количественные (cardinal)

1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one

2 two 12 twelve 22 twenty-two

3 three 13 thirteen 30 thirty

4 four 14 fourteen 40 forty

5 five 15 fifteen 50 fifty

6 six 16 sixteen 60 sixty

7 seven 17 seventeen 70 seventy

8 eight 18 eighteen 80 eighty

9 nine 19 nineteen 90 ninety

10 ten 20 twenty 100 one hundred

101 one hundred and one 200 two hundred

121 one hundred and twenty-one 1000 one thousand

1021 one thousand and twenty-one

3624 three thousand six hundred and twenty-four

1 млн. – one million 1 млрд. – one milliard

дюжина – dozen; пара – pair (ботинок, сапог и т.п. парных предметов),

сouple (писем, книг и др. непарных предметов)

Порядковые (ordinal)

1st first 11th eleventh 21st twenty-first

2nd second 12th twelfth 22nd twenty-second

3rd third 13th thirteenth 30th thirtieth

4th fourth 14th fourteenth 40th fortieth

5th fifth 15th fifteenth 50th fiftieth

6th sixth 16th sixteenth 60th sixtieth

7th seventh 17th seventeenth 70th seventieth

8th eighth 18th eighteenth 80th eightieth

9th ninth 19th nineteenth 90th ninetieth

10th tenth 20th twentieth 100th one hundredth

101st one hundred and first 121st one hundred and twenty-first

1000th one thousandth 1024th one thousand and twenty-fourth

Для разделения разрядов в больших числах в английском языке используется запятая, а не пробел, как в русском языке :

10 256 783 – 10,256,783 1 150 000 – 1,150, 000

Числа типа 1100, 1200 и т.д. (до 2000) обычно произносятся следующим образом: eleven hundred, twelve hundred, etc.

Числа, обозначающие годы, произносятся так:

1997 – nineteen-ninety-seven

1928 – eighteen-twenty-eight

1900 – nineteen hundred

2009 – twenty-o[ou]-nine

Дроби (fractions)

½ - a half 2/3 – two thirds

1/3 – a/one third 5/8 – five eighths

¼ - a/one quarter 3 3/5 – three and three fifths

1/8 – an/one eighth 10 5/6 – ten and five sixth

В английском языке в десятичных дробях целая часть отделяется от дробной точкой, а не запятой. Десятичные дроби обычно называются по цифрам, причем цифра 0 (ноль) произносится как буква о [ou] (либо как zero):

0.03 – o-point-o-three

5.6 – five-point-six

47.57 – forty-seven-point-five-seven

При указании процентного содержания слово per cent употребляется в единственном числе:

45% - 45 per cent

Употребление числительных

В предложении числительные употребляются в качестве

а) подлежащего

Today I`ve sent them one fax. Two were sent yesterday. – Сегодня я отправил им один факс. Два были отправлены вчера.

Five letters were received yesterday. The first was from Continental Equipment. – Вчера были получены пять писем. Первое было из компании Continental Equipment.

б) части сказуемого

They will be ten. Их будет десять.

Victor was the second. Виктор был вторым.

в) дополнения

How many contracts did our company conclude last month? –It concluded eleven. – Сколько контрактов наша компания заключила в прошлом месяце? Она заключила 11 контрактов.

г) определения

The first letter of credit will be opened within five days. – Первый аккредитив должен быть открыт в течение пяти дней.






Местоимения

Pronouns


В английском языке существуют следующие типы местоимений:

  1. Личные

им. П. I you he she it we you they

объект. пад. me you him her it us you them

I will speak to him. Я буду говорить с ним.


  1. Притяжятельные

I типа my your his her its our your their

II типа mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

Притяжательные местоимения 1 типа – зависимые, они употребляются только перед существительными и не могут стоять в конце предложения.

Her article was interesting. Ее статья была интересная.

Притяжательные местоимения второго типа – независимые, они употребляются без существительного и могут стоять в конце предложения.

This article is hers. Эта статьяее.

My office is large, yours is larger. Мой офис большой, но Ваш еще больше.


  1. Возвратные и усилительные

Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Английские возвратные местоимения могут соответствовать русской частице -ся в возвратных глаголах:

She washed herself. Она умылась.

Эти же местоимения употребляются как усилительные:

We saw it ourselves. Мы сами видели это.

I`ll do it myself. Я сделаю это сама.

В возвратном значении английские местоимения употребляются редко.


  1. Указательные

This (these), that (those), such

Местоимения this и that имеют формы единственного и множественного числа: thisthese; thatthose

Give me that document. Дайте мне тот документ.

I know these documents. Я знаю эти документы.

It was such a pleasant party. Это была такая приятная вечеринка

  1. Взаимные

Each other

One another

Взаимные местоимения указывают на значение взаимного действия: друг друга, один другому.

They greeted each other (one another). Они поприветствовали друг друга.


  1. Возвратные и разделительные

Who, whom, whose, what, which, that

В вопросительном предложении эти местоимения занимают первое место и соответствуют русским местоимениям кто, (кого, кому, кем), что, какой, чей, который.

Who is this man? Кто этот мужчина?

The man who is sitting there Человек, который там сидит, мой

Is my boss. Шеф.


  1. Неопределенные

Some – употребляется в утвердительных предложениях

Any – употребляется в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях

Производные от some и any: ыomebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, nothing

all, each, every, other, another, both















Предлоги

Prepositions


Предлоги, обозначающие отношения, выражаемые в русском языке падежными окончаниями:

Родительный of

That was the room of my sister.

Дательный to, for

She showed a price-list to him.

Творительный by, with

The letter was written by a secretary.

She was writing it with a pen.


Предлоги места:

on the box in front of the box

in the box behind the box

at the box across the street

under the box through the window

over the box between two windows

near the box among the emloyees


Предлоги направления:

to the house

toward(s) the house

from the house

into the house

out of the house

off the house


Предлоги времени:

on on Sunday since since 6 o`clock

on May 1 for for an hour

in in March during during the meeting

In an hour before before the meeting

at at 7 o`clock after after the meeting

by by 2 o`clock till till April

from … till from 3 till 5 between between 1 and 2 p.m.





Модальные глаголы

Modal Verbs


1 Модальными называются глаголы, которые не обозначают действия, а выражают отношение к нему (возможность, вероятность или необходимость действия). Следующий за модальным глаголом инфинитив смыслового глагола теряет частицу to (за исключением модального глагола ought).

Особенности модальных глаголов:

  1. Они не изменяются по лицам и числам (т.е. в 3-м лице ед. числа не добавляется s, -es);

  2. Вопросительная и отрицательная формы предложений с модальными глаголами образуются без вспомогательных глаголов, роль вспомогательных глаголов при этом играют сами модальные глаголы.

  3. Они не имеют форм прошедшего (кроме can, may), будущего времени и других аналитических форм. В этих случаях пользуются эквивалентами основных модальных глаголов.


Must выражает необходимость (или ее отсутствие), приказ и запрещение, сильную уверенность:

You must do it. Ты должен сделать это.

You mustn`t do it. Ты не должен этого делать.

It must be Mr Smith Это, должно быть, м-р Смит.

Can (форма прошедшего времени could) служит для выражения умения (способности) что-либо делать, возможности, зависящей от обстоятельств, просьбы, позволения и запрещения:

I can speak English. Я могу разговаривать по-английски.

Can you cook? Ты умеешь готовить?

I can lend you some money. Я могу одолжить тебе денег.

Can you tell me your phone number? Можете сказать свой номер телефона?

Примечание: просьба, выраженная с помощью глагола could, звучит более вежливо

Could you help me? Не могли бы вы мне помочь?

May (форма прошедшего времени might) служит для выражения просьбы, разрешения и запрещения, а также возможности или вероятности того или иного события:

May I see your licence? Покажите, пожалуйста, Ваши права.

You may go. Можете идти.

He may come. Он, возможно, придет.

Shall используется для выражения сильной решимости, для получения инструкций и уточнения дальнейших действий:

We shall win! Мы выиграем!

Shall I help you? Вам помочь?

Shall I go out? Мне выйти?

Should используют для выражения совета, рекомендации, упрека, порицания:

You should go to the doctor. Тебе следует сходить к врачу.

You shouldn`t drink so much. Тебе не следует пить так много.

Need используется для выражения отсутствия необходимости и разрешения не делать что-либо:

You needn`t do it. Это можно не делать.

You needn`t send the letter. Не нужно отправлять письмо.

I have already done it. Я уже отправил.


2 Обороты речи, служащие заменой модальным глаголам

To have (got) to служит заменой модального глагола must прошедшем и будущем времени:

She had to send the letter yesterday. Она должна была отправить письмо

вчера.

They will have to sign the contract. Они должны будут подписать

контракт.

To be able to служит заменой модального глагола can в будущем времени

They will be able to help you after the work. Они смогут помочь вам после работы.



















Простое будущее время и другие способы выражения будущего

The Simple Future Tense


  1. Образование простого будущего времени

Утвердительные предложения:

1-е лицо: will/shall + инфинитив смыслового глагола

2-е и 3-е лицо: will + инфинитив смыслового глагола

Редуцированная форма: `ll + инфинитив смыслового глагола

I will (I`ll) pay cash. Я заплачу наличными.

He will phone you as soon as he arrives. Он позвонит вам, как только приедет.


Отрицательные предложения:

1-е лицо: will/shall not + инфинитив смыслового глагола

2-е лицо: will not + инфинитив смыслового глагола

Редуцированная форма: will not – won`t, shall not – shan`t

Prices will not (won`t) increase. Цены не возрастут.

We won`t arrive tomorrow. Мы не приедем завтра.


Вопросительные предложения образуются путем постановки вспомогательных глаголов will и shall перед подлежащим:

Will you arrive tomorrow? Вы прибудете завтра?

What shall we do tonight? Что мы будем делать сегодня вечером?

  1. Другие способы выражения будущего

Оборот to be going to имеет значение собираться, намереваться сделать что-либо, а также служит для выражения будущего времени:

I`m going to enter the university. Я собираюсь поступать в университет.

The test is going to be difficult. Тест, видимо, будет трудным.

В письменной речи чаще используется простое будущее время. В разговорной речи будущее время часто выражается оборотом to be going to.

В английском языке для выражения действия в будущем часто используется настоящее время (чаще всего Present Continuous)

I am leaving Pavlodar tomorrow. Я уезжаю из Павлодара завтра.









Простое настоящее время

The Simple Present Tense


Простое настоящее время употребляется для выражения регулярных или повторяющихся действий.

I go to the college every day. Я хожу в колледж каждый день.

My friend likes red wine. Моему другу нравится красное вино.

В 3-м лице единственного числа глаголы в Present Simple имеют окончание -s (-es). Правила прибавления окончанийs илиes практически повторяют правила образования множественного числа существительных:

  1. Если глагол оканчивается на s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o то в 3-ем лице единственного лица к нему прибавляется окончание es :

go – goes, discuss – discusses, wash – washes;

  1. Если глагол оканчивается на –y с предшествующей согласной, то в 3-м лице единственного числа последняя буква меняется на ies:

study – studies, но lay – lays, stay - stays

Наречия неопределенного времени (always, usually, often, sometimes) обычно стоят перед смысловым глаголом, но после глагола to be.

С Present Simple часто используются следующие наречия и обороты речи: always, generally, frequently, sometimes, often, usually, from time to time, twice a year, every week, every other month, seldom.

Вопросительная форма в Present Simple образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола do (does в 3-м лице ед. числа)

Do you work? Ты работаешь?

Does your brother go to school? Твой брат учится в школе?

Have you a sister? У тебя есть сестра?

Is she a good teacher? Она хороший учитель?

Where do they usually have breakfast? Где они обычно завтракают?

Отрицательная форма Present Simple образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола do (does) с частицей not, редуцированная форма don`t, doesn`t. Порядок слов прямой.

My sister doesn`t smoke. Моя сестра не курит.

We don`t want any trouble. Мы не хотим неприятностей.

She is not at home now. Ее сейчас нет дома.

He has no computer. У него нет компьютера.







Простое прошедшее время

The Simple Past Tense


  1. Образование простого прошедшего времени

Утвердительные предложения простого прошедшего времени образуются с использованием второй формы глагола. У правильных глаголов добавляется окончание -ed, неправильные глаголы нужно заучить (все три формы):

I enjoyed studying English. Мне нравилось учить английский язык.

He left for Astana last year. В прошлом году он уехал в Астану.

Отрицательные предложения образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола did и отрицательной частицы not ( редуцированная форма - didn`t)

I didn`t know what to do. Я не знала что делать.

They didn`t finish the work in time. Они не закончили работу вовремя.

Вопросительные предложения образуются путем постановки вспомогательного глагола did перед подлежащим:

Did they arrive yesterday? Они прибыли вчера?

When did you go to bed? Когда ты лег спать?


  1. Употребление простого прошедшего времени

Простое прошедшее время употребляется:

А) для выражения действий, имевших место в прошлом и не связанных с настоящим, причем отнесенность действий к прошлому уточняется обстоятельствами времени (yesterday,the day before yesterday, last week, last year, last month, last time, two days ago, six years ago, in 1990, on Monday и т.п.) либо другим прошедшим действием:

Mr Brown moved in London М-р Браун переехал в Лондон три

three years ago. года назад.

When I was in New York, Когда я был в Нью-Йорке, я ему позвонил.

I phoned him.

He returned to Kiev last week. Он вернулся в Киев на прошлой неделе.

Б) для изложения последовательности событий, имевших место в прошлом:

She washed her face, cleaned her teeth, Она умылась, почистила зубы,

combed and went to the kitchen. Расчесалась и пошла на кухню.








Правильные и неправильные глаголы

Regular And Irregular Verbs


По способу образования прошедшего времени все глаголы в английском языке можно разделить на две группы: правильные и неправильные. У правильных глаголов вторая и третья формы (Simple Past Tense и Past Participleпростое прошедшее время и причастие прошедшего времени) совпадают между собой и образуются путем прибавления к основе глагола окончания -ed (- d ):

to ask – asked to apply - applied

to receive – received to play – played

если глагол оканчивается на согласную с предшествующим кратким гласным звуком, то согласная на конце удваивается:

to stop – stopped

Неправильные глаголы образуют вторую и третью формы различными спосабами, без четких правил. Далее даны наиболее употребляемые неправильные глаголы:

to be –was, were – been to learn – learnt – learnt

to do – did –done to teach – taught – taught

to make – made – made to bring – brought – brought

to have – had – had to buy – bought – bought

to eat – ate – eaten to think – thought – thought

to drink – drank – drunk to begin – began - begun

to write – wrote – written

to read – read – read

to sit – sat – sat

to stand – stood – stood

to meet – met – met

to know – knew – known

to get – got – got

to leave – left – left

to give – gave – given

to take – took – taken

to speak – spoke – spoken

to tell – told – told

to say – said – said

to go – went – gone

to come – came – come



Продолженные времена

Continuous Tenses


Времена Continuous образуются при помощи глагола to be в соответствующем времени и ing формы (Participle I) смыслового глагола.

I am operating the computer. Я работаю на компьютере.

They are not working. Они не работают.

They are resting now. Они сейчас отдыхают.

What is he doing? Чем он занимается?

Все продолженные времена передают идею действия в развитии, указывая на то, что это действие носит временный характер.

I am busy now. I am answering Я сейчас занят. Я отвечаю

the phone. по телефону.


Настоящее продолженное время

The Present Continuous Tense


The Present Continuous Tense употребляется для выражения действия, происходящего в данный момент времени.

Where is Peter? – He is writing Где Питер? - В данный момент он пишет

a letter at this moment. письмо.


Будущее продолженное время

The Future Continuous Tense


Эта форма выражает действие, протекающее в определенный момент в будущем, действие в его развитии.

They will be waiting for him at 8.30. Они будут ждать его в 8.30.


Прошедшее продолженное время

The Past Continuous Tense


The Past Continuous Tense употребляется для обозначения действия в его протекании в определенный момент в прошлом.

I was cooking dinner at 10 o`clock. Я готовила обед в 10 часов.

I was writing a letter when the Я писал письмо, когда раздался

telephone rang. Телефонный звонок.


Существует определенная группа глаголов, по определению несущих в себе идею постоянства, которые никогда не употребляются во временах Continuous. Вот они:

  1. Глаголы процесса мышления (think, know, believe, forget, remember, doubt, understand, etc.):

They know too much about him. Они слишком много знают о нем.

She considers him a nice person. Она считает его приятным человеком.

  1. Глаголы эмоций и чувств (like, love, dislike, hate, want, care, prefer, etc.):

I like reading letters, but hate Я люблю читать письма, но ненавижу

answering them. отвечать на них.

Ann wants to go abroad. Анна хочет поехать за границу.

They prefer computers to Они предпочитают компьютеры

typewriters. печатным машинкам.

  1. Глаголы пяти органов чувств (see, smell, taste, hear, touch). Их лучше использовать с модальным глаголом can.

I can see it very well. Я очень хорошо вижу это.

We can smell smoke. Мы слышим запах дыма.

  1. Глаголы обладания (have, own, belong):

I have a good boss. У меня хороший шеф.

He owns a beautiful car. У него есть прекрасный автомобиль.

This office belongs to him. Этот офис принадлежит ему.

  1. Некоторые другие глаголы (cost, need, contain, seem, depend, consist, etc.):

We depend on their money. Мы зависим от их денег.

Our office consists of five rooms. Наш офис состоит из пяти комнат.

The computer costs about $600. Этот компьютер стоит около 600 долларов

Некоторые из этих глаголов (например think) употребляются в Present Continuous, но смысл фраз при этом меняется.

What do you think of the business? Что вы думаете о бизнесе? (Какое у вас

о нем мнение?)

What are you thinking about? О чем вы сейчас думаете?








Совершенные времена

Perfect Tenses

  1. Настоящее совершенное время

Present Perfect Tense

Образование утвердительных форм:

1-е, 2-е лицо have + Past Participle

3-е лицо множ. число

3-е лицо ед. число has + Past Participle

Редуцированная форма `ve + Past Participle, `s + Past Participle

He has (He`s) just come. Он только что пришел.

I have (I`ve) already finished Я уже закончил свою работу.

my work.

Образование отрицательных форм:

1-е, 2-е лицо have not + Past Participle

3-е лицо множ. число

3-е лицо ед. число has not + Past Participle

Редуцированная форма haven`t + Past Participle, hasn`t + Past Participle

He has not (hasn`t) come yet. Он еще не пришел

I have not (haven`t) read this book. Я не читал этой книги.

Вопросительные формы образуются путем постановки вспомогательных глаголов has, have перед подлежащим:

Have you decided yet? Вы уже решили?

Where have you been all day? Где ты был весь день?

Present Perfect употребляется:

  1. Когда говорящий хочет подчеркнуть результат того или иного действия, а не само это действие:

I have done my homework. Я сделал домашнее задание.

He has written the composition. Он написал сочинение.

  1. Для выражения действия, произошедшего в период времени, который к моменту речи еще не закончился (часто с обстоятельствами today, this morning, this week, this winter,this year и т.п.)

Have you seen Jim this morning? Ты видел сегодня утром Джима? (разговор

происходит утром)

I did not see Jim this morning. Сегодня утром я Джима не видел. (разговор

происходит днем или вечером).

  1. Для выражения действия, которое происходило в прошлом вплоть до настоящего момента времени (часто с обстоятельствами времени lately, recently, for two hours, (days, years и т.п.), up to now, for a long time, since и др.) либо происходило в прошлом и к настоящему моменту времени еще не закончено:

I haven`t seen Jim for two years. Я не видел Джима в течение двух лет.

He has known me since 1991. Он знает меня с 1991 года.

  1. В предложениях с наречиями неопределенного времени (ever, never, just, already, yet и т.п.):

Have you ever been to Paris? Ты когда-нибудь был в Париже?

I have already read the book. Я уже прочитал эту книгу.

I`ve never been here. Я никогда здесь не был.

He has just come. Он только что пришел.

  1. Прошедшее совершенное время

Past Perfect Tense

Образование Past Perfect Tense:

Все лица had + Past Participle

Редуцированная форма: `d + Past Participle

Отрицательная форма: had not + Past Participle

Past Perfect Tense употребляется для выражения действия, которое происходило или произошло до определенного момента в прошлом. Этот момент в прошлом может быть выражен:

а) указанием на момент времени с помощью предлога by

They had already finished their work К пятнице они уже закончили работу.

by Friday.

б) с помощью сложноподчиненного предложения, причем Past Perfect может употребляться как в главном предложении, так и в придаточном, в зависимости от того, какое действие произошло раньше:

After she had finished typing the После того, как она закончила печатать

Letter, she sent it by fax. письмо, она отправила его по факсу.

  1. Будущее совершенное время

Future Perfect Tense

Образование Future Perfect Tense:

1-е лицо: will/shall have + Past Participle

2-е и 3-е лицо: will have + Past Participle

Редуцированная форма: `ll have + Past Participle

Отрицательная форма: will/shall not have + Past Participle

Вопросительные предложения образуются путем первого вспомогательного глагола (will/shall) перед подлежащим.




Согласование времен в сложноподчиненных предложениях

Sequence of Tenses


Правило гласит: Если сказуемое в главном предложении стоит в прошедшем времени (обычно Past Indefinite), то глагол-сказуемое в дополнительном придаточном предложении не может употребляться в форме настоящего или будущего


ПРАВИЛЬНО:

I knew that Petrov lived in St.Petersbourg.

Я знал, что Петров живет в Санкт-Петербурге.

НЕПРАВИЛЬНО:

I knew that live in St.Petersbourg.

(live- глагол в настоящем времени не согласуется с knew- сказуемым в прошедшем времени).


Если второе действие является будущим по отношению к первому, употребляется одно из времен группы Future in the Past,

Например: Future Indefinite in the Past.

I hoped that I should find her at home.

Я надеялся, что застану ее дома.


ИСКЛЮЧЕНИЯ:

Согласование времен не обязательно, когда придаточное предложение выражает общеизвестный факт.


Galileo proved that the earth moves round the sun.

Галилей доказал, что Земля вращается вокруг солнца.


В современном английском, особенно в научной литературе, наметилось тенденция к несоблюдению правила согласования времен.


We simply assumed that names will be substituted by the expressions.

Мы просто допускали, что наименование будут заменены выражениями.







DIALOGUES

A Job Interview

- Please have a seat, Mr. Saunders. I received your resume a few weeks ago, and I must say I'm very impressed.

- Присаживайтесь, пожалуйста, мистер Сандерс. Я получила ваше резюме несколько недель назад, и оно произвело на меня хорошее впечатление.

- Thank you.

- Спасибо.

- We're a small financial company, trading mostly stocks and bonds. May I ask why you're interested in working for us?

- Мы - небольшая финансовая компания, занимающаяся продажей акций и облигаций. Можно узнать, чем вызвано ваше желание работать у нас?

- Your company has an impressive reputation. And I've always wanted to work for a smaller company.

- У вашей компании прекрасная репутация. И мне всегда хотелось работать в маленькой организации.

- That's good to hear! Would you mind telling me a little bit about your present job?

- Приятно услышать. Не могли бы вы немного рассказать о вашей предстоящей работе?

- I'm a head broker in a large international company. I deal with clients on a daily basis, handling all aspects of their accounts personally.

- Я работаю ведущим брокером в большой международной компании. В мои ежедневные обязанности входит непосредственная работа с различными видами расчётных операций клиентов.

- Why do you think you are the right candidate for this position?

- Почему вы считаете себя подходящей кандидатурой для имеющегося у нас места?

- I have a lot of experience in the stock market. And I enjoy working with people. As a matter of fact, in my current job I'm in charge of a team of eight brokers.

- У меня большой опыт работы на фондовой бирже. Мне нравится работать с людьми. На моей настоящей работе я, собственно говоря, отвечаю за группу из восьми брокеров.

- Well, you might just be the person we've been looking for. Do you have any questions?

- Хорошо, может быть вы именно тот человек, которого мы ищем. У вас есть вопросы?

- Yes. If I were hired, how many accounts would I be handling?

- Да, если вы меня примете на работу, сколько счетов будет в моём ведении?

- You'd be working with two other head brokers. In other words, you'd be handling about a third of our clients.

- Вы будете работать с двумя другими ведущими брокерами. Другими словами, вы будете вести дела трети наших клиентов.

- And who would I report to?

- Кому я должен отчитываться?

- Directly to me.

- Непосредственно мне.

- I see. What kind of benefit package do you offer?

- Понятно. Какие условия социально-бытовых льгот вы мне предлагаете?

- Two weeks of paid vacation in your first year of employment. I believe you're also eligible for medical and dental insurance. But this is something you should discuss with our personnel department. Do you have any other questions?

- Двухнедельный оплачиваемый отпуск в течение первого года работы. Мне кажется, что вам также положены медицинская и зубоврачебная страховки. Но это вы должны обсудить в отделе кадров. У вас есть ещё вопросы?

- No, not at the moment.

- В данный момент - нет.

- Well, I'll have to discuss your application with my colleagues, and we'll get back to you early next week.

- Хорошо, мы обсудим ваше заявление с моими коллегами, и я с вами свяжусь в начале следующей недели.

- OK, thanks, it was very nice to meet you.

- Спасибо, было приятно познакомиться.

- It was nice meeting you, too, and thanks for coming in today.





























Пример анкеты

(Sample Application Form)


Personal

NAME Victor Klimenko

ADDRESS 10 Lenin St., Ap. 7 PHONE NO. (044) 513-26-11 (home)

DO YOU HAVE A VALID DRIVER`S LICENCE Yes No

MARITAL STATUS married NO. OF DEPENDENTS 1 daughter

EDUCATION higher

Name of School Year graduated Course Taken or Degree

Kiev University 1990 M.Sc in Economics

LANGUAGES

Russian/Ukrainian Excellent Good Fair

English Excellent Good Fair

EXPERIENCE (Give present or last position first)

COMPANY Alpha ADDRESS 17 Proreznaya St.

TYPE OF BUSINESS/INDUSTRY EMPLOYED (Month & Year)

Information Technologies From March 1990 To July 1995

POSITION(S) HELD SUPERVISOR`S NAME

Manager Alexander Bach

DESCRIBE YOUR DUTIES

Negotiations, purchase of equipment

WHY DID YOU LEAVE

The company has moved to Sevastopol

COMPANY ADDRESS

TYPE OF BUSINESS/INDUSTRY EMPLOYED

POSITION(S) HELD SUPERVISOR`S NAME

DESCRIBE YOUR DUTIES

WHY DID YOU LEAVE


PERSONAL REFERENCES

Name A. Bach Address Tolstoy ST. Phone No. 221 -1834 (home)











Резюме

(Resume)

Так называется письменная сводка Ваших личных, образовательных и профессиональных данных. Оно как бы письменно представляет «товар», предлагаемый будущему работодателю. Резюме должно быть достаточно подробным, но кратким (обычно не превышать одной страницы) и иметь «товарный» вид. Форма его достаточно произвольна. Например:


John H. Mill

38 Park Avenue, Ap.50

New York, N.Y. 11298

Tel. (312) 493-8332


OBJECTIVE A position as a bookkeeper


SUMMARY 12 years of experience in all routine work in this field. Perfect knowledge of computers and statistics.


RESPONSIBILITIES Compiled financial reports, balance sheets and production planning forecasts.

EXPERIENCE

1990-1995 FRISCO DOCKS, Inc.

San Francisco, California.

Deputy Chief of Planning, Commerce Dpt.

In charge of account books, statements, new ideas in planning.


1980-1990 SAKHA Co, Ltd.

New York.

Accountant. Prepared accounts and balance sheets.


EDUCATION LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS

1977-1980 London, Great Britain, Bachelor (Ec)


PERSONAL Arrived in the United States January, 1980. British subject.

Married, one child.


REFERENCES Available upon request.





Dos and DON`Ts For Job Seekers

(Что НАДО и что НЕ НАДО делать в поисках работы)


  • DO learn ahead of time about the company and its products. Do your homework.

  • DO apply for a job in person.

  • DO let as many people as possible know you are “job hunting”.

  • DO stress your qualification for the job opening.

  • DO mention any experience you have which is relevant to the job.

  • DO talk and think as far as possible about the future rather than the past.

  • DO indicate, where is possible, your stability, attendance record and good safety experience.

  • DO assume an air of confidence.

  • DO approach the employer with respectful dignity.

  • DO try to be optimistic in your attitude.

  • DO maintain your poise and self- control.

  • DO try to overcome nervousness and shortness of breath.

  • DO answer questions honestly.

  • DO have a good resume.

  • DO know the impotence of getting along with people.

  • DO recognize your limitations.

  • DO make plenty of applications.

  • DO indicate your flexibility and readiness to learn.

  • DO be well-groomed and appropriately dressed.



  • DON`T keep stressing your need for a job.

  • DON`T discuss past experience which has no application to the job situation.

  • DON`T apologize for your age.

  • DON`T be untidy in appearance.

  • DON`T display “cocksuredness”.

  • DON`T beg for consideration.

  • DON`T mumble or speak with a muffled voice.

  • DON`T be one of those who can do everything.

  • DON`T hedge in answering questions.

  • DON`T express your ideas on compensation, hours, etc. early in the interview.

  • DON`T hesitate to fill out applications, give references, take physical examinations or test on request.

  • DON`T hang around, prolonging the interview, when it should be over.

  • DON`T go to an interview without a record of former employment.

  • DON`T arrive late and breathless for an interview.

  • DON`T be a “Know it all” or a person who can`t take instructions.

  • DON`T isolate yourself from contacts that might help you to find a job.

  • DON`T feel that the world owes you a living.

  • DON`T make claims if you cannot “deliver” on the job.

  • DON`T display a feeling of inferiority.

  • DON`T write incorrect information on your Covering Letter to make it look better.



































Что НАДО и что НЕ НАДО делать в поисках работы


- Предварительно получите информацию о фирме и ее специализации. Это будет ваше домашнее задание.

- Обращайтесь за работой лично.

- Пусть как можно большее число людей знает, что Вы ищете работу.

- Подчеркивайте, что Вы имеете квалификацию, необходимую для данной работы.

- Опишите приобретенный Вами опыт, который доказывает Вашу пригодность для этой работы.

- Говорите и думайте больше о будущем, чем о прошлом.

- Где только можно, подчеркивайте Вашу стабильность, исполнительность и умение хранить коммерческую тайну.

- Предполагайте атмосферу доверия.

- Приближайтесь к работодателю с уважительным достоинством.

- Старайтесь быть оптимистом.

- Проявляйте выдержку и контролируйте себя.

- Не нервничайте и говорите спокойно.

- Отвечайте на вопросы честно и прямо.

- Имейте при себе хорошее резюме.

- Не забывайте, что дружественные контакты имеют большое значение.

- Признавайте свои недостатки.

- Делайте много запросов.

- Подчеркивайте Вашу гибкость и готовность учиться.

- Старайтесь произвести впечатление ухоженного человека и одевайтесь соответственно случаю.

- НЕ подчеркивайте, что Вы нуждаетесь в работе.

- НЕ обсуждайте прошлый опыт, который не имеет отношения к конкретной ситуации.

- НЕ извиняйтесь за свой возраст.

- НЕ производите впечатление неряшливого человека.

- НЕ демонстрируйте слепую самоуверенность.

- НЕ умоляйте о снисхождении.

- НЕ говорите приглушенным голосом или невнятно.

- НЕ будьте одним из тех, кто может делать все.

- НЕ уклоняйтесь от прямого ответа на вопросы.

- НЕ затрагивайте вопросы относительно зарплаты, рабочего времени и т.д. в самом начале разговора.

- НЕ колеблясь, заполняйте анкеты, предоставляйте отзывы, выполняйте физические и другие тесты по просьбе работодателя.

- НЕ затягивайте интервью искусственно, когда оно должно закончиться.

- НЕ приходите на собеседование без рекомендаций с предыдущих мест работы.

- НЕ приходите на собеседование поздно и запыхавшись.

- НЕ будьте «всезнайкой» или человеком, который не признает советов.

- НЕ избегайте контактов, которые могли бы помочь Вам найти работу.

- НЕ считайте, что весь мир несет за Вас ответственность.

- НЕ жалуйтесь, если Вам не удалось «завоевать» работу.

- Не демонстрируйте чувство приниженности.

- Не включайте в свое Сопроводительное Письмо ложные сведения, чтобы представить себя в лучшем свете.





























Reserving a room at the hotel.

-Hello. Northern Star Hotel. Can I help you?

-Yes. I’d like to reserve a single room with bathroom, for three nights, from Wednesday, the 12th of February, to Friday, the 14th of February, inclusive.

-Let me see … Yes, sir. A single room for three nights with English breakfast, is that right?

-Yes, that’s right.

-What is your name, please?

- It’s for Mr.Klimenko.

-Could you spell it, please?

-Yes, of course. K-L-I-M-E-N-K-O.

-Thank you, sir.

-Shall I send a deposit?

-No. It isn’t necessary, sir.

-Thank you very much.


























Buying a ticket.

-Good morning. What can I do for you?

-I want to fly to London. Are there any seats available on Wednesday, next week?

-Are your flying alone, sir?

-Yes.

-What class?

-Economy.

-Just a moment, sir … I’ll check ... yeah … there are few seats left.

-Fine.

-What is your name, sir?

-Viktor Klimenko.

-As a rule, we sell Ukrainian citizens return tickets. You can buy an open return.

-O.K. How much is it?

-It’s one thousand, one hundred and fifty-five grivnas, including airport taxes.

-May I pay in cash?

-Certainly, sir. Here you are. Flight PS501.

-What time is the flight due to depart?

-It leaves at 8.55 a.m., but you must check in one hour prior to departure, sir.

-And what time does it arrive in London?

-10.30 local time. There’s two hours time difference, you know.

-Thank you very much.






















At a Passport And Customs Desk


  • Your passport, please. How long are you planning to stay in the country?

  • Three weeks. Could I prolong me entrance visa in case of necessity?

  • Sure. The receiving party will take care of it…

Can you put your bags on the table and your customs form, please.

  • Now much do they weigh?

  • 23 kilos. I`m sorry, but you`ll have to pay an excess luggage charge.

  • Oh! It`s only three kilos overweight.

  • Yes, sir… that`s £6 … Thank you. Have you anything to declare?

  • Pardon?

  • Alcohol, cigarettes, fresh fruit, plants…?

  • Uh, no.

  • Open your suitcase, please. Any gifts?

  • Only one bottle of vodka.

  • All right. It`s duty free. As you probably know, it`s forbidden to bring in more than two bottles of alcohol and two blocks of cigarettes to England. And no limitations as to currency. Here`s your form.

  • Thank you.

  • Not at all. Next, please.


***

  • Good morning. Can I see your passport?

  • Certainly. Here it is.

  • Yes, that`s all right. Have you got anything to declare?

  • Yes, I have.

  • What have you got?

  • I`ve got some whisky and some cigarettes.

  • How much whisky have you got?

  • A litre.

  • That`s all right. And how many cigarettes have you got?

  • Two hundred.

  • Fine. What about perfume? Have you got any perfume?

  • Er… No, I haven`t.

  • Good. Open your case, please.

  • Pardon?

  • Open your case, please. Open it now! Oh, dear! Look at this! You`ve got three bottles of whisky, four hundred cigarettes and a lot of perfume.



At the Hotel



  • Good evening, sir. What can I do for you?

  • Good evening. I have a room reserved at your hotel.

  • What is your name, please?

  • Klimenko.

  • Just a moment, I`ll check… Yeah. A single room with private bath and English breakfast for three nights. Is that right, sir?

  • Yes, that`s right.

  • Just sign the register… Thank you. Here`s your key. Room three-o-seven, it`s on the third floor. The lift is over there. I`ll have your things sent up.

  • Thank you. What time is the breakfast?

  • Any time between 7 and 9.30. Where are you going to have your breakfast, sir? In your room or in the restaurant?

  • I`d rather have it in my room.

  • What time, sir?

  • At 8 o`clock.

  • O.K. Anything else, sir?

  • I`d like to eat here this evening. When is the restaurant closing?

  • At 9.30, so you`ve got two hours to have your dinner, sir.

  • Fine. Thank you.



















At the Restaurant


  • Good evening, sir. Are you alone?

  • Good evening. Yes, I`m alone.

  • Would you like to sit over there, sir? Near the window?

  • Yes, thank you. May I look at the menu?

  • Of course. Here it is. … Have you decided yet, sir? May I take your order?

  • Mmm… As a starter I`ll have a tomato juice… Oh, no. I`ll have the onion soup.

  • O.K. How about the main course, sir?

  • I`m not sure… Perhaps you can help me?

  • Oh. If I were you, sir, I`d have a steak in wine sauce. I like it very much. Moreover, it`s the specialty of the day.

  • All right. I`ll have the steak.

  • What would you like with the steak, sir?

  • A salad and some mashed potatoes, please.

  • Would you like anything to drink?

  • Er… yes. Some mineral water, please … and could I see the wine list?

  • Of course. Here it is, sir.

  • Mmm… I`ll have some French red wine. …. Waiter!

  • Yes, sir. Do you want the bill?

  • Yes. How much is it?

  • Seven pounds twenty-five (pence), sir.


















AT A CAR RENTAL AGENCY


MARK: Hello. I would like to rent a car for two days.

AGENT: OK. What kind of car did you have in mind?

MARK: The smallest and cheapest one you have will do.

AGENT: A sedan is the least expensive car we have. We have one that is very economical.

MARK: Sounds good.

AGENT: May I see your driver’s license, please?

MARK: Sure, here you go.

AGENT: Thanks. Please fill out this form. Write your address, and sign your name at the bottom of the page. The price includes unlimited mileage and the mandatory collision insurance.

MARK: Oh great! That’s better than I thought.

AGENT: Here are your keys.

MARK: Do I have to return the car to this location?

AGENT: No, you can drop it off at any of our local branches.

MARK: Thanks.

AGENT: You’re welcome. Drive safely and buckle up!






















TEXTS

Kazachstan

The republic of Kazakhstan in an independent state which is situated in the central part of Eurasia. It is the ninth biggest country in the world with the territory of about 2.7 million square kilometers. In the west and north Kazakhstan borders on Russia, in the south – on Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, in the east – on China. In the west Kazakhstan is washed by the Caspian Sea. The majority of Kazakhstan’s territory is steppe.

There are quite a lot of rivers and lakes in our country. The main rivers are: the Irtysh, the Ural, the Chu, the Syrdarya, the Ily. The main lakes are Balkhash, Zaisan, Tengis and many others.

The population of Kazakhstan is about 15 million people and includes 170 ethnic groups: about 56% of Kazakhs, 30% of Russians, 4% if Ukrainians, 3% of Germans and 7% of other nationalities.

Kazakh is the official language; Russian is the language of international communication.

The main trends of religion are Islam (Sunnites), and Christianity (orthodox, catholic and protestant). There are also supporters of the other world religions – Buddhism and Judaism.

The capital of our country is Astana. It is situated in the central part of the republic. Our southern capital is Almaty. There are many other beautiful large towns in Kazakhstan such as Pavlodar, Karaganda, Shymkent, Taraz and etc.

Kazakhstan is a presidential republic. The head of the state is President Nazarbaev. The power in the republic consists of two branches - legislative power represented by the Parliament and executive power represented by the President and the Government. The Parliament consists of two chambers – the Upper Chamber – “Senate” and the Lower Chamber – “Majilis”. The Government is headed by the Prime Minister.
















The United Kingdom, the British Isles and England


The United Kingdom (or Great Britain) is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244.000 square kilometres.

The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland (on the island of Great Britain), and Northern Ireland (on the island of Ireland). Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast respectively. The capital of the UK is London.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest cast, centre, and south-east — is a vast plain. Mountains are not high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1.343 m).

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, hut they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest one.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean, and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence on the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.

The UK is one of the world's smallest countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80 % of the population is urban.

The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft, and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, Head of the State is Queen. In practice, Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative, and the Liberal parties.















USA

The United States of America is another important English-speaking country. It consists of fifty different states and the District of Columbia joined together under one government.

The USA covers an area of almost 9,400,000 square kilometres and is twice as large as all the countries of Europe combined. It is placed in the middle of the North American continent and is washed by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Placed between two oceans, the USA has free access to all the trade routes of the world.

The USA is divided into three areas: The eastern area, a highland, the central area, a plain, and the western mountainous area.

The north-western part of the USA includes five lakes. The whole central plain constitutes the basin of the Mississippi River. The Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

On the whole the USA has a continental climate. It is at the same time one of the coldest and one of the hottest countries, one of the wettest and one of the driest.

The flag of the United States is called "Stars and Stripes". The 50 stars represent the 50 states and the 13 stripes represent 13 original English colonies, which in 1776 became free and independent of England.

The USA is governed by Congress and by the President. Congress consists of the Senate (100 senators - 2 from each state) and the House of Representatives (435 Congressmen). The President, who is also the head of the government and the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces, is elected every four years. The capital of the United States is Washington DC. It is situated on the Potomac River not far from the Atlantic coast. Washington is not a very large city. Such cities as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Houston, Dallas, Philadelphia, Detroit, New Orleans and some others are larger.

The USA is one of the most developed countries in the world. It is a country of great contrasts. There are a lot of unsolved problems in the country such as unemployment and inflation, but nevertheless it is one of the greatest countries in the world.

















Canada


Canada consists of almost all of the North American continent north of the US except Alaska. Its total land area of more than 9 mln sq. km makes it the second largest country in the world.

Canada`s topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area covering half the country.

Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates with long cold winters, lasting 8 to 11 months, short sunny summers and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes.

The total population according to the 1981 census was about 24 mln people with an average population density of 2.8 per sq.km.

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status, rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions.

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 northern territories. The federal Parliament is made of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government.

The civil law follows English common law everywhere except in Quebec, where it follows the Napoleonic Code.

Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos, nickel and other elements, forestry products and ranks the first in the world in export of minerals. Although no longer the foremost sector of the economy, agriculture is of major importance to the economy as a whole. Canada is among the world`s leading wheat producers and is the second in the export of wheat.

Basically, Canada has a free-enterprise economy. A recurrent problem for Canada has been the dominant position of the US corporations and investors.















Australia


Australia lies to the south-east of Asia, between the Pacific and the Indian oceans. It is the world`s smallest continent which is almost completely surrounded by ocean expanses. Its total area is 7,682,300 sq. km.

The continent of Australia is divided into four general topographic regions: a low sandy eastern coastal plain, the eastern highlands, the central plain and the western plateau. Although Australia has a wide diversity of climatic conditions, the climate of Australia is generally warm and dry, with no extreme cold and little frost. It changes from comfortably mild in the south to hot in the central inferior and north.

The total population in 1986 was about 16 mln people with the average population density of about 2 persons per sq. km. most Australians are of British and Irish ancestry. More than 99% of the populations speak English.

The capital of Australia is Canberra. Australia has a federal parliamentary government. The Australia federation was formed on January 1, 1901, from six former British colonies, which thereupon became states. The Australian constitution combines the traditions of British parliamentary monarchy with important elements of the US federal system. Powers of the federal government are enumerated and limited. The government consists of the British sovereign and the Australian Parliament.

Australia is the world`s largest wool producer and one of the world`s largest wheat exporters. The main sources of foreign earnings are wool, food and minerals, which also provide raw materials for home processing industries.



















New Zealand


New Zealand is situated in the south-west Pacific Ocean on two large islands: the North Island and the South Island. Its total area is 268,112 sq. km.

Less than ¼ of the territory of the country lies below the 200 m contour line. The South Island is significantly more mountainous than the North Island. New Zealand has a temperate, moist ocean climate without marked seasonal variations in temperature or rainfall.

The total population in 1986 was about 3.3 mln people with an average population density of about 12 persons per sq. km. about 85% of the population is classified as Europeans. Most of them are of British descend. English is the universal language.

The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. Like the United Kingdom New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the British Queen (or the King) whose representative, the governor-general, is appointed for a five-year term. The government of New Zealand is democratic and modeled on that of the United Kingdom.

The economy of New Zealand has traditionally been based on pastoral farming. The last decades have seen a large expansion in light industries. New Zealand draws many thousands of tourists to its shores because of the beauty, diversity and compactness of its natural attractions.


























MILK IN OUR EVERYDAY LIFE

Everyone in the world has drunk milk at some point in his or her life. Indeed milk is the food which exclusively sustains us during the first few months of life. All mammals produce milk to nurture their young and the composition of different milks (see table 1) reflect the growth and development patterns of the different mammalian species. For almost all people "milk" is synonymous with milk from a cow and that is what is meant in this article unless stated otherwise.

The yield of milk from the domestic cow, Bos taurus, has increased drastically over the last century due to dairy cattle breeding and production efficiency gains. Most dairies today are high-tech operations. The time between leaving the dairy and arriving in the supermarket is generally very short, the same day in many cases. The UK and Europe on the whole, is a significant milk-producing region of the world, along with the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This largely reflects patterns of consumption.

Consumption of milk and dairy products varies from country to country and from person to person. In the UK and northern Europe people tend to consume milk quite regularly, even as adults. Think of the ways we use milk everyday – on breakfast cereals, in desserts like rice pudding or custards, or just as a drink. For most tea drinkers in Britain, a cup of tea is not a cup of tea without milk in it, but in other parts of Europe milk is not generally added to tea. Yet in some parts of Scandinavia, milk is a mealtime drink for many adults. But in many parts of the world, consumption of milk is very low.



























MILK PROCESSING

Milk separating

Separating is a process of division of milk on fraction with various density in the rotating separating device of a separator. In particular separating is used for division of milk on fatty (cream) and degreased fractions (skim milk).


Milk normalization.

 Normalization - the directed change of structure of milk with the purpose of reception of the ready product which is meeting the requirements of the standard on a mass fraction of components of milk and not dairy components.

On the enterprises for manufacture of dairy products arrives milk of various fat content whereas the developed product should contain a certain mass fraction of fat. In this connection at development of the majority of dairy products initial milk or cream are normalized. In the course of normalization a fat mass fraction in products has to be increased or reduced. Normalization is carried out in two ways: in a stream or by mixing.

Milk normalization in a stream can be carried out by means of separators-normalizators. Milk, warmed up till 40-45° C arrives in a separator-normalizator in which its division into the normalized mix of the set fat content and a quantity of cream take place.

Normalization of milk by mixing occurs in the capacities having mixers. For this purpose the calculated quantity of skim milk or cream is added to certain quantity of whole milk at careful hashing.


Milk homogenization


Homogenization is a process of crushing of fatty balls by influencing on milk of the external efforts caused by pressure difference. For milk homogenization special devices – homogenizators are used.









MILK MACHINING

Thermal processing of milk


Milk pasteurization

Thermal processing of milk at temperatures below a point of its boiling is called as pasteurization. At pasteurization the pathogenic microorganisms which are in milk are destroyed that disinfects it and raises firmness of dairy products.

By means of pasteurization is possible to destroy some lacks of milk taste and smell. Besides, by means of pasteurization specific properties (taste, smell or colour) are given to such dairy products, as baked milk, varenets, the Vologda oil, etc.


Milk sterilization.


The thermal processing of milk spent at temperature above 100°C is called as sterilization. In this case all microorganisms in a product are destroyed. 

In the course of sterilization there is more essential change of physical and chemical properties of milk in comparison with pasteurization. So, the sterilized milk loses ability to be curtailed. As a result of sterilization milk gets cream colour, intensity of colouring can be various. The packed up sterilized milk can be stored in the closed packages and bottles at a room temperature not less than 10 days.




















COOLING AND STORAGE OF MILK



The milk which has arrived on the enterprise should be stored before processing in the cooled condition. The purpose of cooling of milk consists in creation of the conditions considerably slowing down the development of microorganisms in it. When cooling milk to 2-4° C the development of microorganisms in it almost completely stops.

The most perfect equipment for milk cooling are lamellar cooling installations. They are intended for fast and thin-layered milk cooling in a stream to 2-4° C. The process of cooling occurs persistently in the closed channels, formed by the plates that provides high quality of cooling of milk.

From the cooler milk arrives in the capacity for temporary storage which is carried out with the purpose of uniform maintenance of the enterprise with raw materials during all labour shifts.

Milk is kept in two-wall vertical or horizontal capacities with the capaciousness to 30,000 litres. They are placed in industrial shops or a special milk-preserving branch for what considerable floor spaces are required. In order the milk in the process of storage not to settle, it is mixing within 15 minutes every hour. For this purpose capacities are supplied by mixers.

From capacities for storage milk arrives in industrial shops. After storage depending on appointment milk arrives on mechanical and thermal processing.   



















DAIRY PRODUCTS


Cream

The enterprises of the dairy industry let out for consumption cream of various fat content. Depending on a mode of thermal processing the pasteurized and sterilized cream, and also cream with fillings are made.

Cream with fillings  is produced by addition sugar, cocoa-powder and natural coffee to cream.


Sour-milk products

Sour-milk products are made from the milk which has passed obligatory thermal processing, by means of its souring by ferments of pure cultures of lactic bacteria. In all in our country about 80 kinds of various sour-milk drinks are made. To them kefir, varenets, fermented baked milk, yoghurt etc. belong.


Yoghurt

This drink represents a version of the curdled milk prepared from the normalized mix with the raised maintenance of dry fat-free dairy substances. It can be developed with addition of sugar, vanillin and natural fruit-berry syrups.


Kefir

Kefir belongs to dietary sour-milk drinks of the mixed fermentation: except lactic, there is also a spirit fermentation in it. Now kefir is the most widespread sour-milk drink in our country. From total amount of manufacture of sour-milk drinks on its share it is necessary about 70 %. For kefir manufacture the natural fungoid ferment prepared on kefiric fungi is used.


Sour cream

Sour cream is prodused by souring the pasteurized cream with the subsequent maturing of the received clot. In our country the sour cream assortment extends and totals about ten kinds which differ basically in the various maintenance of fat. To sour cream manufacture apply fresh cream of various fat content, and also frozen and dry, milk integral, degreased, dry degreased and unsalted butter the premium.

Sour cream with fillings. To the given kind we can refer student's and table sour cream at which development a dairy-albuminous component is added into cream. In the form of a component the condensed or dry skim milk, fiber dairy etc. are used.





ICE-CREAM TECHNOLOGY


In our country about 100 various names of ice-cream are developed. Ice-cream is receive by knocking down and freezing of dairy or fruit-berry mixes with sugar, applying thus to certain kinds various flavouring and aromatic fillings. Depending on structure and applied raw materials ice-cream is subdivided into the basic and amateur kinds. Following ice-cream concerns basic kinds: milk, creamy and iced gateau, received on the basis of dairy mixes without fillings, the same kinds of ice-cream with addition of fillings, and also covered with chocolate glaze. The fruit-berry ice-cream developed on a natural fruit-berry basis and aromatic one concerns to them. Raw materials for it is the sugar syrup with addition of food aromatic essences and oils.

Amateur kinds of ice-cream develop in smaller quantities, than principal ones. For ice-cream development various good-quality raw materials are used. They are subdivided into some groups.

Dairy products.  The main raw materials for outputting of ice-cream on a dairy basis are dairy products. Integral and degreased milk belongs to them, cream of various fat content, milk clarified whey, and also condensed and dried milk, cocoa with condensed milk and sugar, natural coffee with condensed milk and sugar, dry mixes of ice-cream, unsalted sweet butter and the premium amateur.

Sugary substances. At ice-cream development granulated sugar, sugar syrup, powdered sugar, bee honey, corn syrup, crystal glucose, food sorbite and ksilite are applied. Sorbite and ksilite have sweet taste, are harmless to an organism and are applied at development of ice-cream for sick of a diabetes.

Fruit-berry raw materials. For ice-cream preparation various fruits and berries, as cultural (plum, apricot, currant, etc.), and wild-growing ( blackberry, cranberry etc.) are used. They are applied fresh and frozen, in the mashed form, as juices, syrups and jams.

Egg products. At development of some kinds of ice-cream eggs or an egg powder are added in a mix. It raises flavouring qualities.

Flavouring and aromatic substances. For taste and smell improvement in ice-cream different flavouring and aromatic substances are added: cocoa-powder, natural coffee, tea, chocolate, various nuts, etc.








ICE-CREAM


Milk whey is applied in manufacture of the ice-cream developed on a dairy basis ("Chill"), from fruits and berries with addition of a dairy basis ("Sweet-sour"), the ice-cream for special purpose - "Vivacity" (with oxygen). Ice-cream "Chill" is produced from the clarified cottage cheese whey and a corn syrup. The whey is filtered and heated up to the temperature of 95° C and maintained within 20-30 minutes for fiber coagulation, then the whey is cooled to 30° C d and separate from the fiber. The clarified whey again is heated up to the temperature of 60°-65° C and corn syrup, starch and food dye, which gives to ice-cream straw-yellow colour, are added to it. The subsequent operations of development and storage of ice-cream "Chill" are similar to operations of technological process of manufacture of ice-cream of the basic types.

Ice-cream "Sweet-sour" develop on a fruit-berry basis with the use of fermented condensed milk whey. Milk whey is brought in a bath for mix preparation simultaneously with a fruit-berry basis, granulated sugar and other components.

Ice-cream "Vivacity" (with oxygen) develop from the clarified cottage cheese whey with addition of granulated sugar, lemon acid and mashed black currant. During the freezing the mix is saturated with oxygen instead of air .






















CHEESES


Cheese - the highly nourishing foodstuff received from milk by means of
fermental, acid or mixed coagulation of fibers, allocation of cheese mass with the subsequent processing and maturing.

Food value of cheese is caused by high concentration in it of milk components in which there are almost all vital components of food of a man. Food value of cheese is caused also by presence of vitamins in it. Fat-soluble vitamins of milk almost completely pass into cheese.

Cheeses are subdivided into following groups: firm cheeses, semifirm cheeses, soft cheeses, brined cheeses, the sheep cheeses and cheese mass for producing cream cheeses, cream cheeses, sour-milk cheeses. To quality of raw materials in cheese-making raised and specific demands are presented.


























BUTTER

Butter is the foodstuff produced from the cow milk and consisting mainly from dairy fat. Except fat there are all components of milk in butter: fibers, dairy sugar, vitamins, water.

Sweet-cream butter: The Vologda oil is sweet-cream unsalted butter with well expressed taste and smell of the pasteurised cream, having a homogeneous plastic dense consistence and homogeneous light yellow colour.

Manufacture of sour-cream butter is based on usage of pure cultures of lactic bacteria.

Butter with flavouring fillings. Such kinds of butter as chocolate, honey, fruit are made with fillings. Fillings are added in high-fatted cream right after their receptions. Cocoa, sugar, vanillin are added in a dry kind, fruit-berry fillings in the form of transparent juice ( cherry, raspberry, cranberry, bilberry, strawberry, apples), in the form of juice with pulp (plums, apricots, black currant, cornel) and in the form of syrups.

































DIFFERENT TYPES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

There are many products made from milk. Even milk itself comes in a range of different products on our supermarket shelves: skimmed, semi-skimmed, whole (or "full-fat"), Jersey, UHT, homogenized, long-life fresh milk, fermented milk, buttermilk, powdered and condensed milk are all examples. On top of this, there are some fun new products from milk under trial at the moment. Although milk is nearly always cows milk in the UK, it is also possible to buy milk from goats and sheep. In other parts of the world, it is normal to obtain milk from other milk animals too (in the Middle East this is from goats and camels; in the Far East, water buffalo are an important source; in Lapland, reindeer milk is consumed).

The fat content of milk when it collected at the dairy is about 3.5%. In Jersey milk it is a little higher, and gives it a creamier taste - this is termed "whole" milk. Various processes are then applied to the milk before it reaches consumers, primarily a heat treatment called pasteurisation to remove spoilage microorganisms. (It is possible to find "raw" unpasteurised milk or cheese made from raw milk but not very common). More information on the processes used in the dairy industry is given further on. Many years ago, full-fat milk was the most common milk consumed by households. However, today full-fat milk accounts for only about 25% of milk sold in the UK. Lower fat milks have become the "norm". Semi-skimmed milk has a fat content of about 1.5% and skimmed milk has had almost all of the fat removed (down to about 0.1-0.3%). In some places, it is also possible to buy milk with fat content between these two levels (about 1%).

There are many other products made from milk including:

  • Cream - the fat layer of milk is separated to make different types of cream. Single cream contains about 18% fat whereas double cream is about 48% fat and whipping cream about 40%. Pasteurisation can still be applied without affecting the ability to form a foam, which is essentially what results when air is whipped into such cream.

  • Yogurt is a very popular dairy product made by the fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria. Different fat contents reflect the source milk the yogurt is made from. Fruit flavours and cereals can also be added. Yogurts are often used as a delivery vehicle for other ingredients, such as probiotics. 

  • Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion made from 'cream by phase inversion' (milk as an oil-in-water emulsion, is discussed further on). Butter is about 80% fat. Reduced fat spreads based on dairy or non-dairy components are often more popular today. Spreads are often used to carry "functional" ingredients such as cholesterol-lowering plant derived sterols. 

  • Cheese is made from curdled milk by removal of the whey part (liquidy part) and then ripening of the curd part (solids part) using particular microbial cultures. There are a few thousand varieties of cheese in the world.  

  • Ice cream is another universally popular dairy product, made from milk of varying fat contents. The process used to create ice cream means that this product should not present problems for lactose-intolerant people, but milk solids are often added back, reintroducing lactose to the finished product. 

  • lactose-free milk is now also available in the UK for people who are lactose-intolerant. This modified milk is made by filtering regular milk to remove half the lactose. The enzmye lactase is then added to the milk to break down the remaining lactose into simpler forms which the body can absorb. 

  • Dairy derived food ingredients also feature significantly in the food industry for the functional or nutritional properties they give to the food. See what you can find on ingredients labels - such names as sodium caseinate and whey proteins, amongst others.











































PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES ASSOCIATED

WITH MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

There are a number of technologies which are important in the production of dairy products. Some of them are outlined here.

Most milk sold in the UK is pasteurised milk. Normal pasteurisation extends the shelf-life of milk in the fridge by a few days, a week at most. Pasteurisation is a relatively mild heat treatment, which is sufficient to destroy disease-causing microorganisms and inactivate enzymes. It is usually carried out using continuous flow equipment involving plate heat exchangers. (The opposite of a continuous procedure is a "batch" procedure, where materials are only treated in batches).To pasteurise milk, a heat treatment of 72oC for 15 seconds is applied, followed by rapid cooling to below 10oC. This is referred to as the high-temperature-short-time procedure (HTST). Older methods used a lower temperature and a longer time regime, of typically 63oC for 30 minutes, called the Holder method. Even higher temperatures can be used, for example 88oC for one second, referred to as flash pasteurisation. You may notice there is a time-temperature relationship exhibited here. You may have come across this before in other areas of science. Such relationships are often relied upon in food processing. Pasteurisation curves are used in the food industry showing the time and temperature relationship for a necessary reduction of microorganisms. An example is shown in the extension section. The destruction of an enzyme present in milk, phosphatase, also follows a similar time-temperature curve as for the destruction of the tubercle bacillus. Testing for the presence of the enzyme can be used as an indicator of inadequate heat treatment in milk.

Because pasteurisation is a relatively mild heat treatment, it causes minimal sensory and nutritive changes in the food. Some vitamin levels are reduced, mainly thiamin and vitamin C, but this is an unavoidable compromise of ensuring microbial stability. Any changes to the sensory properties, such as taste and texture, are inconsequential since very few people today have ever tasted non-pasteurised milk to make a comparison!

To give a longer shelf life to milk or to reduce the need for refrigerated storage, then higher heat treatment processes are used. In ultra high temperature processing (UHT), a temperature of 130oC is applied for one second. Packaging the treated milk in aseptic packaging, where oxygen is excluded, gives the milk a very long shelf life out of the fridge. In warmer countries or where delivery distances are great, UHT milk is often the usual product. UHT milk has a different flavour compared to pasteurized milk, but some people who are used to consuming it actually prefer the taste.

Another technology now used to extend shelf life of milk is a process using amicrobial filtration step prior to pasteurisation which removes further microbes and stops later spoilage. Today in the UK it is possible to buy milk with a fridge life of over three weeks unopened. The milk, sometimes referred to as extended shelf life (ESL) milk, tastes the same as regular pasteurised milk. Once the milk is opened, it is handled as regular pasteurised milk. As with all food products the choice of packaging is also important. An opaque bottle/carton prevents UV light from spoiling the milk.

Another processing technique of milk, touched upon earlier, ishomogenisation. Milk is forced through a small opening at high speed, breaking down the fat globules into smaller ones. This results in a physically stable emulsion in which the fat globules no longer coalesce into cream.

Dried milk powders, from either skim milk or whole milk, can also be produced by spray drying. In this procedure milk is finely dispersed in a spray tower by centrifugal atomization (spun out into tiny drops) and dried with hot air.









































NUTRITIONAL ISSUES

Milk is an important source of many nutrients, particularly for young people. In addition to protein, carbohydrates and fat, milk contains significant amounts of calcium, which is essential for developing and maintaining strong bones in children and adults. Calcium intake is an important concern at many stages of life: growth and development in children and young adults; women during pregnancy and lactation and also after menopause when osteoporosis can present a risk. Mild calcium deficiency is not automatically diagnosed because the body tends to maintain serum levels at the expense of skeletal reserves, i.e. from our bones. Milk also contains both fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A (fat soluble) and vitamins B12 and B2 (water soluble).

These nutrients are all important for growth and health. The European Schools Milk Scheme, discussed in the 'Real Insights' section, is founded on the principle of access of highly nutritious, good quality dairy products for children across Europe, in recognition of the nutritional importance.

Most food pyramids recommend 2-3 servings of dairy products a day. The contribution of fat (particularly saturated fat) from dairy products to the diet is also recognised and accordingly, lower-fat options are often advised. For example, it is now recommended that school children (older than 5 years) drink semi-skimmed milk rather than whole milk.


The main constituents of milk are shown below in the Table

Constituent

Cow milk

Goat milk

Sheep milk

(Human milk)

Energy (kcal)

66

60

95

69

Protein (g)

3.2

3.1

5.4

1.3

Fat (g)

3.9

3.5

6.0

4.1

Lactose (g)

4.6

4.4

5.1

7.2

Calcium (mg)

115

100

170

34

Water (g)

87.8

88.9

83.0

88.2



THE CHEMISTRY OF MILK



The major protein in milk, accounting for about 80% of the total protein, is called casein. The other protein fraction is the whey proteins (lactalbumin, lactoglobulin and immunoglobulin). The casein is arranged in super-structures called micelles, which consist of protein together with phosphate, citrate and calcium. The micelle is itself an aggregate of sub-micelles. The milk proteins are of high biological value which means they are readily used by the body.

The fat in milk occurs in the form of droplets or globules, surrounded by a membrane and emulsified in the milk serum part (the whey part or the watery part). Milk is a so-called 'colloidal system', an oil-in-water emulsion. This emulsion is not naturally physically stable which is why creaming occurs if it is left to stand. The lighter fat globules rise to the top through the denser water phase and can be seen as a creamy, yellow coloured portion of the milk, above the whiter, more watery part. This colouration is due to the scattering and absorption of light on the fat globules. However, this phase separation is not seen if the milk has been homogenized, as the fat droplets are reduced to a size which does not cause coalescence (creaming).

Furthermore, to see creaming at the top requires clear packaging. Unless you receive doorstep delivery of full-cream, non-homogenized milk in glass bottles then you may not have seen this. Phase separation can be sped up through centrifugation. (In skimmed milk, the fat portion is separated out and then "skimmed off", hence the name).

The sugar in milk is called lactose and this is a disaccharide (two smaller units joined together). The chemical name for lactose is β–D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranose. Lactose is less sweet than sucrose, the sugar we find in the kitchen. If sucrose is 1.0 on the sweetness scale then lactose is only 0.16 units. In heated milk products, for example in condensed milk, there is also lactulosewhich is a little sweeter.





















CONSUMER ISSUES



Lactose intolerance

In some parts of the world, people consume very little or no milk at all. This is partly due to a natural intolerance to lactose (sugar in milk) that many people around the world possess. Normally lactose is broken down, or digested, by an enzyme called lactase. As we get older, the amount of the enzyme in our body decreases. Lactase declines rapidly after weaning in all mammals including humans. (It is very rare to be born without the enzyme lactase). In some people, particularly in certain parts of the world, the amount of this enzyme in the body is very low. If the body is unable to digest this sugar then symptoms such as bloating and diarrhea can result. Lactose intolerance is relatively low in northern Europe, estimated at around 5-15% of the population, but in parts of Africa and Asia it is found in 50-90% of people. People with lactose intolerance can sometimes take small amounts of milk without being too ill and can usually drink fermented milk products, since the biochemistry is changed during the fermentation process. Low lactose milks have also been developed. Milk products, such as cheese and ice-cream, should not in themselves present problems to lactose intolerant consumers but the practice of adding back milk solids reintroduces lactose. Reading ingredients labels is important for people with intolerances and allergies. Some lactose intolerance is not due to low lactase levels but to other things such as Crohn’s disease, Coeliac’s disease or acute gastroenteritis. Lactose intolerance should not be confused with milk allergy, a rarer situation, where consequences of consuming milk are more severe.





Milk Allergy



Some people have an allergy to the protein in milk, causing an immune-system response in the body. Anybody diagnosed with an allergy to milk needs to totally eliminate milk, dairy products and any foods containing milk ingredients from their diet. For such people, reading labels on food packaging is essential. Today there is a good selection of dairy alternatives, such as milk from soya and cereals, available to allergy sufferers. These products are popular with many other people too, who chose not to eat dairy products for one reason or another or who just enjoy the taste of these alternatives.









ORGANIC DAIRY PRODUCTS



Organically produced milk and dairy products represent a growing segment of the food industry in the UK and Europe. Most supermarkets now sell organic dairy products alongside their regular non-organic produce, giving consumers greater choice. Sometimes organic milk does not cost more than conventional milk. Reasons for opting for organic products vary – the main drivers can be related to human health, animal welfare, environmental or societal issues. Organic milk is produced under standards controlling production and handling. Generally, organic production falls under regulations concerned with chemicals and pesticide use, grazing access for cows, GMOs, antibiotics and hormones, where this is of relevance. For example, in the USA a hormone called bovine somatatrophin (BST, or bST), which is used to increase milk yields, is not allowed in organic milk. In Europe, this hormone is not allowed in any milk production, organic or conventional. It is also banned in Australia, New Zealand and Canada. In addition to chemicals, some argue that certain processes should not be accepted under organic criteria, for example homogenisation. (There are some reported consumer concerns about the effect of size-reduced fat globules and enzymes on the body, in particular with cholesterol and satiation response). Many organic milk products are homogenised but non-homogenised (usually organic) milk can be found in some supermarkets.































INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH IN DAIRY SCIENSE



Many studies have been undertaken in the dairy field- from the cow right through to new product innovation and development. A couple of examples are given below but you can find many others for certain. Just browse the internet!

A few years ago, researchers at a biotechnology firm in New Zealand discovered that some cows naturally carried a gene that gave them the ability to make milk of a reduced fat content, like skimmed milk. The research team screened thousands of cows. They found one cow in particular (which they named Marge) which produced milk of a very low saturated fat content and higher polyunsaturates, and with higher omega-3 oils than conventional milk. The key to the research was the discovery that this special Friesian cow with this random genetic mutation, could pass her genes onto her calves and ultimately allow the production of low fat milk from a herd of cows. Skim milk straight from the cow! See BBC News

Going to the other end of the supply chain now, R&D scientists at an international food company have discovered new ways to deliver probiotics in an ice cream product. The ice cream, called Milk Time, contains the probiotic BB12 Bifidobacterium lactis which is commonly used in dairy products, particularly in drinking yogurts. However, yogurts as chilled products, are susceptible to temperature fluctuations on transport and storage and, as a result, the probiotic levels in the yogurt can decline by the time it reaches the supermarket shelf. In this new ice- cream product, the bacteria are frozen alive in the ice cream and remain in a state of suspended animation and in constant numbers until they are reanimated at the time when the product is eaten. 































Пособие по профессиональному английскому языку для специальности "Технология молока и молочных продуктов"
  • Иностранные языки
Описание:

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов II курса по специальности «Технология молока и молочных продуктов». Учебное пособие включает грамматический справочник, диалоги, страноведческие тексты и тексты профессионального содержания, предусмотренные рабочей программой в соответствии с требованиями ГОСО.

Пособие может быть использовано на занятиях по профессиональному английскому языку, а также для самостоятельной работы студентов.

Автор Ганиева Ирина Михайловна
Дата добавления 15.05.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
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