Главная / Иностранные языки / Подготовка к ЕГЭ. Как написать эссе?

Подготовка к ЕГЭ. Как написать эссе?

How to Write an Argument Essay

There are five main steps. 

Step 1: Read the essay

Read the question. Decide what kind of essay it is - opinion, compare/contrast, problem and solution, cause and effect, or a mixture. The type of question will decide the layout and your ideas.

Step 2: Underline

Underline key vocabulary in the question and write words with the same or related meaning. This will really save you a lot of time later on. It will also help to avoid repetition of words, and will show that you understand the question.

Step 3: Get Ideas

Decide if you are for or against the idea. Usually it is best to give both sides (for and against - one paragraph each) and then to give your opinion in the conclusion. However there are other ways of laying out your essay.

Step 4: Decide Layout

You should decide on a layout. The easiest is 3773. That means four paragraphs: introduction (3 sentences) one side (7 sentences), the other side (7 sentences) and the conclusion (3 sentences). This will give you 20 sentences. An average of about 12 words each, that is 240 words. Perfect!

Step 5: Write

After you have written your plan, write your essay. Follow the steps in this website for writing the introduction, body, and conclusion. Check for fragments, run-ons and comma splices.

Parts of an Essay

Essays, like sandwiches or burgers, are divided into different parts. These parts are the:

  • Introduction

  • Body

  • Conclusion


hello_html_m5cc3ba55.jpg

Introduction

The Introduction opens the essay. It is a short paragraph - usually about THREE sentences.

In an argument essay, it usually describes or summarizes both sides of the present situation and says what you are going to do in your essay. 

You can write either Situation or Opinion introductions. There’s not much difference between them.

Situation Introductions

Write two sentences to describe the two sides of the present situation. The third sentence – the Thesis sentence – will describe what you are going do in your essay.

  • Sentence 1: One side of the present situation

  • Sentence 2: The other side of the present situation

  • Sentence 3: Thesis: What you are going to do in your essay

Who should take care of our old people?

Sentence 1

In my country, most old people live happily with their children

Sentence 2

Increasingly, however, many families cannot take care of their parents

Sentence 3 (Thesis)

This essay will describe some of the problems involved with taking care of old people, and discuss who should be responsible.

Does Aid to Poor Countries Work?

Sentence 1

For the last fifty years, poor countries have been receiving huge sums of money from rich donor countries.

Sentence 2

Some of this money has improved lives, while much of it has disappeared or made no difference.

Sentence 3 (Thesis)

In this essay, I will discuss some arguments for and against foreign aid.

Should dangerous sports be banned?

Sentence 1

Every year, thousands of people are injured or killed in sports such as boxing or motor-racing.

Sentence 2

Because of this, many people are opposed to such sports, and want them to be stopped or controlled.

Sentence 3 (Thesis)

This essay will look at some of the arguments for and against banning dangerous sports.

Opinion Introductions

In this kind you give two opposite opinions in the first two sentences. The third sentence says what you are going to do.

Does space exploration benefit mankind? (1)

Sentence For

Many people are excited about space exploration.

Sentence Against

However, others feel it is a massive waste of money

Sentence 3 (Thesis)

This essay will look at some of the arguments for and against space exploration.

Does space exploration benefit mankind? (2)

Sentence For

Space, for many people, really is the final frontier. They are excited by the exploration and potential of space.

Sentence Against

However, not everyone agrees that this money is well-spent. Many people feel that we should solve problems here on earth before beginning our journey to space

Sentence 3 (Thesis)

This essay will look at some of the arguments for and against space exploration.

Do Athletes Deserve Their High Salaries?

Sentence 1

Every day, we read about new record contracts and salaries earned by sportsmen and women. Some people do not agree with these huge payments

Sentence 2

Others believe that our sports heroes deserve every penny.

Sentence 3 (Thesis)

This essay will look at some of the arguments for and against the high salaries of athletes.

As well as situation or opinion introductions, you can use the following variations:

  • Past and Present: One sentence about the situation in the past, one about the situation today.

  • Here and Elsewhere: One sentence about the situation in one place, one sentence about the situation or problem in another place.

  • You and Other People: One sentence about what most people do or think, one sentence about what you believe, or do, or feel.

Finally, if you are having problem thinking about an introduction, leave some space (enough for three or four sentences) and write or type it later – AFTER you write the body or conclusion.

Thesis Sentence

A thesis statement is a sentence (or two) that states what you are going to do in your essay. It is a kind of signpost or map that shows the reader what direction you will take. It usually comes at the end of the Introduction.

In this essay, I will outline the arguments for and against sex education in schools.

In this essay, I will examine some reasons for the growth of the tourism industry.

hello_html_m2423113d.jpg

You can leave out "I."

This essay looks at ideas in favour of and against early marriage.

This essay will discuss the benefits of having universal free health care.

Show how many parts your essay will have

Sometimes the reader can tell which paragraphs will follow the thesis statement.

I am going to analyse the effects of drugs on the individual, the family, and society. 

In an essay with the thesis statement above, there will clearly be three parts - one on the effects of drugs on the individual, one part with the effects on the family, and another with the effects on society.

Be Strong

Sometimes you don't need a "will" or "going to". Your thesis statement is so strong that it is clear what your opinion is.

Beating children brutalizes parents, damages the parent-child relationship, and is completely unnecessary.

In an essay with the thesis statement above, there will clearly be three parts - one on the effects of corporal punishment on parents, one part with the effects relationship, and another which claims that beating is not needed.

Words to use in the thesis sentence 

analyze, look at, examine, discuss, outline, consider, describe

Body

The Body is the main part of the essay. What makes a body look good? Paragraphs, that’s the answer! If your paragraph is in good shape, your body will look good and feel good. Use Paragraphs! Students who don't have paragraphs fail!  

The body of the essay should ALWAYS be divided into paragraphs. Never write just one long paragraph. Why?

  • The white space makes your essay easier to read.

  • Having paragraphs shows that you have (probably) put related ideas together. 

How many paragraphs in the body? Either two paragraphs (3773) or three (35553).

When do I use 3773 or 35553 layouts?

When do I use two paragraphs or three paragraphs in the body? When do I use 3773 or 35553? It depends on your ideas.

  • Use TWO paragraphs (3773) if you are giving both sides of the argument or situation - one paragraph for, and one against (or the opposite). 

  • Use THREE paragraphs if you are only giving one side

So...

 

3773

3773


 

35553

35553

Intro

hello_html_m18f46057.png

hello_html_m18f46057.png


Intro

hello_html_m18f46057.png

hello_html_m18f46057.png

Para 1

hello_html_355fefa2.png

hello_html_m236715ad.png


Para 1

hello_html_m236715ad.png

hello_html_355fefa2.png

Para 2

hello_html_m236715ad.png

hello_html_355fefa2.png


Para 2

hello_html_m236715ad.png

hello_html_355fefa2.png

Conclusion

hello_html_m18f46057.png

hello_html_m18f46057.png


Para 3

hello_html_m236715ad.png

hello_html_355fefa2.png





Conclusion

hello_html_m18f46057.png

hello_html_m18f46057.png

  • Use TWO paragraphs (3773) to agree in one paragraph and then disagree in the second paragraph. 

  • Use TWO paragraphs (3773) to disagree in one paragraph and then agree in the second paragraph. 

  • Use THREE paragraphs (35553) if you are agreeing in all three paragraphs. 

  • Use THREE paragraphs (35553) if you are disagreeing in all three paragraphs. 

Finally, even if you are completely confused and your ideas are all mixed up, you should still make a paragraph. Just skip a line somewhere. Your essay will be easier to read.

Here’s what you need to have in a body paragraph.

  • Topic Sentence

  • Argument or Reason 1

  • Example, Explanation, or supporting detail

  • Argument or Reason 2

  • Example, Explanation, or supporting detail

  • Argument or Reason 3 (Three is a magic number. Always aim to have 3 ideas.)

  • Example, Explanation, or supporting detail

  • Paragraph summary (optional)

Let’s look at an example.

Is Education Being Devalued?

Topic Sentence

People have several arguments against the need for degrees.

Argument or Reason 1

They say that having so many graduates devalues a degree.

Example, Explanation, or supporting detail

People lose respect for the degree holder.

Argument or Reason 2

It is also claimed that education has become a rat race,…

Example, Explanation, or supporting detail

since graduates have to compete for jobs even after years of studying.

Argument or Reason 3

Another point is that studying for such a long time leads to learners becoming inflexible.

Example, Explanation, or supporting detail

By that I mean that they know a lot about one narrow subject, but are unable to apply their skills.

Even more supporting details…

Employers, on the other hand, prefer more flexible and adaptable workers.

People have several arguments against the need for degrees. They say that having so many graduates devalues a degree. People lose respect for the degree holder. It is also claimed that education has become a rat race, since graduates have to compete for jobs even after years of studying. Another point is that studying for such a long time leads to learners becoming inflexible. By that I mean that they know a lot about one narrow subject, but are unable to apply their skills. Employers, on the other hand, prefer more flexible and adaptable workers.

Read more about the Body of the essay here.

Conclusion

The Conclusion is the end of the essay. It is a short paragraph - about THREE sentences. It is the last part of the essay and it is the part that the reader may remember most. It often has the same idea as the Introduction, only in different words. It should be clear and avoid confusing the reader. The reader DOES NOT expect new information in the conclusion. Never add a new idea just because you have thought of it at the end! 

The reader expects the conclusion to do some or all of the following

  • rephrase the question

  • summarize the main ideas

  • give your opinion, if you haven't given it already

  • look to the future (say what will happen if the situation continues or changes)

Vocabulary is Important

The conclusion is very similar to the introduction. However, you should avoid repeating the same words. This is why a few minutes spent at the start of the exam writing down synonyms (words with the same meaning) and related words is very helpful. 

After all, if you only have a 250-word essay but use the same word 10 times, this will not show the examiner what you know

Wrapping Paper

Another way to look at the Introduction and the Conclusion is to think about gift wrapping paper.  Your intro and conclusion wrap around your essay like a piece of bright paper "wraps" a present. They are not the main part of the essay, but they do make your essay look good.

Your conclusion 'wraps' up the essay. We don't put something valuable, like money or gold, hidden in the wrapping paper, so don't put new information or important ideas in the conclusion.

Conclusions: Examples

Here are some examples of conclusions.



Should we test products on animals?

I agree that we need to make sure that animals who are used for testing new products have the minimum of suffering. However, I am convinced that animal testing is necessary, and that it will continue to benefit humans in new and wonderful ways.

Should we beat children?

In conclusion, physical punishment can be a useful method of discipline. However it should be the last choice for parents. If we want to build a world with less violence we must begin at home, and we must teach our children to be responsible.

Who are the better parents – men or women?

I think this is not an either/or question. Both men and women have strengths and skills that are important for children’s psychological growth. We need to ensure that both parents play an important role in the family in order to give children a good start in life.

Who learns quicker – adults or children?

Finally, I feel that we cannot generalize about children or adults being better learners. It depends on the situation and the motivation of the person, and the level of enthusiasm he or she has for learning.

Should dangerous sports be banned?

In summary, our society would be healthier if more people took part in sports of all kinds. We should continue to try to prevent accidents and injuries. However, we should also ensure that sports are challenging, exciting, and, above all, fun.



Подготовка к ЕГЭ. Как написать эссе?
  • Иностранные языки
Описание:

Объем: 200-250 слов. Допустимое  отклонение  от  заданного  объема  составляет 10%. Если  в выполненном задании С2 менее180 слов, то задание проверке не подлежит и оценивается в 0 баллов. При превышении объема более чем на10%, т. е. если в выполненном задании С2 более 275 слов, проверке подлежит только та часть работы,  которая  соответствует  требуемому  объему.  Таким  образом,  при проверке задания С2 отсчитываются от начала работы 250 слов, и оценивается только эта часть работы.

 

При оценивании задания С2 особое внимание уделяется способности экзаменуемого продуцировать развернутое письменное высказывание. Если более 30%  ответа  имеет  непродуктивный  характер (т.е.  текстуально совпадает  с  опубликованным  источником), то  выставляется 0 баллов  по критерию «Решение  коммуникативной  задачи»,  и,  соответственно,  все задание оценивается в 0 баллов.

Автор Нефёдова Светлана Геннадьевна
Дата добавления 09.01.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел
Просмотров 581
Номер материала 48713
Скачать свидетельство о публикации

Оставьте свой комментарий:

Введите символы, которые изображены на картинке:

Получить новый код
* Обязательные для заполнения.


Комментарии:

↓ Показать еще коментарии ↓