Главная / Иностранные языки / Методическое пособие по теме "Компьютерные и коммуникационные системы"

Методическое пособие по теме "Компьютерные и коммуникационные системы"


Областное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

«Ангарский техникум строительных технологий»
















Английский язык

Тема: КОМПЬЮТЕРНЫЕ и КОММУНИКАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ





Методическое пособие к выполнению

самостоятельных работ по учебной дисциплине

«Иностранный язык» для обучающихся

очной формы обучения по специальности

«Информационные системы»























Ангарск, 2014

Рассмотрено на заседании ПЦК

гуманитарного цикла

протокол №__ от____2014 г.

Председатель ПЦК________

Ефремова Н.В.

Утверждаю:

Директор АТСТ

___________ В.Н. Леснов

Рассмотрено и одобрено

на заседании методического совета

Протокол №_____ от _____________

Председатель методического совета

_____________ О.Н. Ермакова







Автор: Ларионов Виктор Александрович, преподаватель иностранного языка ОГАОУ СПО«Ангарский техникум строительных технологий»



Рецензент:





























СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Пояснительная записка

Computers

Computers in my life

Developing of Telecommunications

Internet Addiction 

Internet and Modern Life

Internet Facts 

Mail Service           

Microsoft Company

Satellites and Telecommunications

Space Exploration (1)       

Space Exploration (2)       

Television (1)

Television (2)      

Television is doing Irreparable Harm 

Television in Modern Life (1)

Television in Modern Life (2)

Television in Modern Life (3)

Television in Our life

The Future of Telecommunications

The Future of the Internet

The History of Computer Development

The Internet

The Road to the Stars        

TheSolarEmpire     

Virtual Reality

Social networks

Social networking. Joined-up thinking.

Facebook kills your memories

Web design

You Can Build Your Own Website

Ways to Build Your Own Social Network

How To Attract Members to Your Social Networking Sites

Social Networking – The Future of the Internet

Improve your Business with Online Social Networking

Social Networking Sites: Changing The Face Of Online Marketing

How to Create an Attractive, User Friendly Web Site

How To Create Usable Websites

Logo Design Mania

Graphics on your Web Pages - Why Color is so important?

Ten Of The Most Common Mistakes Made In Web Design

The 5 Biggest Mistakes of Web Design

Glossary

Список литературы








ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯЗАПИСКА

Основной целью данногопособия является освоение английского языка для эффективного выполнения задач в профессиональной деятельности, связанной с информационными системами, а также для дальнейшего развития  иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции (речевой, языковой, социокультурной, компенсаторной, учебно-познавательной). При освоении профессионально ориентированного содержания пособия обучающийся погружается в ситуации профессиональной деятельности и межпредметных связей, что создает условия для дополнительной мотивации, как к изучению иностранного языка, так и к освоению выбранной специальности. Языковой материал профессионально направленного модуля предполагает введение нового, более сложного и одновременно профессионально ориентированного материала, формирующего более высокий уровень коммуникативных навыков и умений.

В результате освоения материала данного пособия обучающийся должен уметь: 1) переводить (со словарём) иностранные тексты профессиональной направленности(формирование навыков технического перевода); 2) самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речь, пополнять словарный запас; 3) общаться устно и письменно на английском языке на профессиональные темы.

Владение вышеуказанными навыками возможно при усвоении лексического (1000-1200 лексических единиц) и грамматического минимума, необходимого для чтения и перевода (со словарём) иностранных текстов профессиональной направленности. В пособии не имеется грамматического материала для углубленного изучения, который изучается параллельно по учебной литературе.Приоритетной направленностью данного пособия является формирование у учащихся навыков изучающего чтения на основе текстов по специальности и овладение новой терминологией, необходимой для последующей самостоятельной работы с оригинальными неадаптированными специализированными текстами.

В качестве контрольно-измерительного материала по результатам всех пройденных в пособии тем будут использованы эссе учащихся на тему «Computerization» в объеме не менее 20 распространенных предложений.

Методическоепособие по теме «КОМПЬЮТЕРНЫЕ И КОММУНИКАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» соответствует программе по английскому языку для студентов очного отделения.

Методическое пособие состоит из 41 текста с глоссарием в приложении (в виде научно-популярных статей, учебных текстов, а также тематических эссе американских и британских студентов) по компьютерной и технической тематике со словарем и перечнем проверочных вопросов к каждой теме. Подобранный лексический материал в сочетании с распространенными грамматическими структурами будет способствовать расширению и обогащению как активного, так и пассивного словаря изучающих иностранный язык.














Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

1. Computers

Computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of instructions called program and then carry out them. The modern world of high technology could not be possible without computers. Different types and sizes of computers find uses throughout our society. They are used for the storage and handling of data, secret governmental files, information about banking transactions and so on.

Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing and they have enhanced modern communication systems. They are essential tools in almost every field of research, from constructing models of the universe to producing tomorrow's weather reports. Using of different databases and computer networks make available a great variety of information sources.

There are two main types of computers, analog and digital, although the term computer is often used to mean only the digital type, because this type of computer is widely used today. That is why I am going to tell you about digital computers.

Everything that a digital computer does is based on one operation: the ability to determine: on or off, high voltage or low voltage or — in the case of numbers — 0 or 1 or do-called binary code. The speed at which the computer performs this simple act is called computer speed. Computer speeds are measured in Hertz or cycles per second. A computer with a «clock speed» of 2000 MHz is a fairly representative microcomputer today. It is capable of executing 2000 million discrete operations per second. Nowadays microcomputers can perform from 800 to over 3000 million operations per second and supercomputers used in research and defense applications attain speeds of many billions of cycles per second.

Digital computer speed and calculating power are further enhanced by the amount of data handled during each cycle. Except two main types of computers, analog and digital there are eight generations of digital computers or processing units. The first generation was represented by processing unit Intel 8086.

The second generation central processing unit was represented by processing unit Intel 80286, used in IBM PC AT 286. The third generation is Intel 80386, used in IBM PC AT 386. The microprocessors of the fourth generation were used in computers IBM PC AT 486. There are also central processing units of the fifth generation, used in Intel Pentium 60 and Intel Pentium 66, central processing units of the sixth generation, used in computers Intel Pentium 75, 90,100 and 133. Few years ago appeared central processing units of seventh and eighth generations. They are much more powerful and can perform from 2000 to over 3000 million operations per second.

 Questions:

1. What is computer?
2. What is the main purpose of all computers?
3. Where are computers used?
4. What is the index of computer speed?
5. What speeds do modern computers have?
6. How many generations of digital computer are there?
7. What is the first generation processing unit?



Vocabulary:

electronic device — электронноеустройство
to receive —
получать, принимать
set of instructions —
набор/сводинструкций
to carry out —
выполнять
society —
общество
storage —
хранение
handling —
обработка
transaction —
операция
to enhance —
повышать, увеличивать
essential —
существенный
tool —
инструмент, орудие
network —
сеть
source —
источник
analog —
аналоговый
digital —
цифровой
ability —
способность, возможность
to determine —
определять
voltage —
напряжение
discrete operation —
дискретноедействие
to perform —
выполнять, осуществлять
defense —
оборона, защита
to attain —
достигать
amount of data —
объемданных
except —
заисключением, кроме
processing unit —
вычислительноеустройство


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

2. Computers in my life

Computer addicts are the minority of computer users but there is no doubt that more and more young people are computer literate. Acomputer study is a subject in many schools and many young people have personal computers. About one in three hundred computer owners spend almost all their time using computers.Ninety six per cent of them are males of all ages. All of them spend an average of twenty hours per week on home computers. The majority of the adults also use computers at work. All the computer addicts are very intelligent. They have been interested in science and technology from a very early age and they are usually very shy people who like being alone.

A survey in a school showed that fewer girls are interested in computers because girls are less likely to have a computer. Even if they have one, they use then less frequently than boys. Possibly it is because we think of computers as something to do with math and science, which are traditionally ‘male’ subjects. Possibly it is because most of the computer teachers are men, who give the girls less attention. Possibly parents think it is less important for girls to have computer skills.

Computer addicts are usually very shy people. Using computers gives them confidence. They love debugging and solving problems, develop programs and love learning programming languages. They learnt to communicate with other users through computer networks and the people they met in school and work think of them as experts who could help and advice when they had problems with their machines. A few spend their time 'hacking' and one addict left a message on a computer of Buckingham House. Very few computer addicts play computer games, but many people use a computer exclusively for games.

Some parents worry about computer games because they think their children won't be able to communicate with real people in the real world. But parents do not need to worry. According to research computer addicts usually do well after they have left school. Parents also do not need to worry that computer addiction will make their children become unfriendly and unable to communicate with people.

It is not the computer that makes them shy. In fact, what they know about computers improves their social lives. They become experts and others come to them for help and advice.

For most children computer games are a craze. Like any other craze, such as skate-boarding, the craze is short-lived. It provides harmless fun and a chance to escape.

If we didn't have these computer addicts, we wouldn't have modern technology. They are the inventors of tomorrow.

   

Questions:

1. What are computer addicts like?
2. Have you ever used a computer?
3. Why are computers used?
4. Why are more boys than girls interested in computers?
5. Is computer addiction harmful?
6. Do you use computers at school/university/work? What do you use them for?
7. Would you say you are computer-literate? Why?


Vocabulary:

addict — сильноувлеченныйчем-либо
minority —
меньшинство
owner —
владелец
male —
мужчина; мужской
average —
средний
majority —
большинство
survey —
исследование, обзор, опрос
confidence —
уверенность
debugging — finding and removing problems in computers and computer programs;
отладка (программы); наладка (машиныилимеханизма); устранениенеполадок, устранениенеисправностей

'hacking' — gaining access to computers when it is not allowed
to do well — преуспевать


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

3. Developing of Telecommunications           

I would like to tell you about telecommunications and their developing.We cannot deny the role of telecommunications in our life. The Internet, phones, telegraph, cell phones, radio, television are all the means of communication or telecommunication. Nowadays we live in information era, when information is the key and engine of progress. Our society needs perfect means of information exchange that is why all types of telecommunication are under the permanent developing.

Currently hundreds of millions of people use wireless communication means. Cell phone is no longer a symbol of prestige but a tool, which lets to use working time more effectively. Considering that the main service of a mobile connection operator is providing high quality connection, much attention in the telecommunication market is paid to the spectrum of services that cell network subscriber may receive.

Today we can easily connect to the Internet using our cell phone or to take a picture or to take a short movie, using our video cell phone.

Late in the nineteenth century, communication facilities were augmented by a new invention — telephone. In the USA its use expanded slowly and by 1900 the American Telephone and Telegraph Company controlled 855,000 telephones.

After 1900, telephone installations extended much more rapidly in all the wealthier countries. The number of telephones in use in the world grew at almost 100 per cent per decade. But long-distance telephone services gradually developed and began to compete with telegraphic business. A greater contribution to long-range communication came with the development of wireless technology.

Before the outbreak of the First World War wireless telegraphy was established as a means of regular communication with ships at sea and provided a valuable supplement to existing telegraph lines. In the next few years the telephone systems of all the chief countries were connected with each other by radio. Far more immediate was the influence that radio had through broadcasting and by television, which followed it at an interval of about twenty-five years.

Telephones are as much a part of infrastructure of our society as roads or electricity, and competition will make them cheaper. Losses from lower prices will be countered by higher usage. Most important of all, by cutting out the need to install costly cables and microwave transmitters, the new telephones could be a boon to the remote and poor regions of the earth. Even today, half the world's population lives more than two hours away from a telephone.

Satellite phones are not going to deliver all their benefits at once.

Lots of other new communication services — on-line film libraries, personal computers that can send video-clips and sound-bites as easily as they can be used for writing letters, terrestrial mobile-telephone systems cheap enough to replace old sets — are already technically possible.

 



Questions:

1. What means of telecommunication do you know?
2. Why do we try to develop all types of telecommunication?
3. Can we connect to the Internet using our cell phone today?
4. What was invented late in the nineteenth century?
5. What technology made a great contribution to a long-range communication?
6. Was there wireless telegraphy as a means of regular communication before the outbreak of the First World War?
7. What new telecommunication services do you know?


Vocabulary:
telecommunication — телекоммуникация, дальняясвязь; телефон, телеграф, радио
todevelop —
развивать, совершенствовать
todeny —
отрицать, отказыватьсяотчего-либо
cellphone —
мобильныйтелефон
exchange —
обмен
permanent —
постоянный
tool —
инструмент
effectively —
эффективно
toconsider —
считать, полагать
operator —
оператор
toprovide —
обеспечивать, снабжать
network —
сеть, система
subscriber —
подписчик, клиент
toreceive —
получать, принимать, воспринимать
facility —
оборудование, аппаратура, приспособления
toaugment —
увеличивать, прибавлять
invention —
изобретение
toexpand —
расширять, увеличивать
installation —
установка, размещение
toextend —
распространять, расширять
togrow (past grew, p.p. grown) —
расти, увеличивать
gradually —
постепенно, понемногу
tocompete —
конкурировать, соревноваться
contribution —
содействие, вклад
wireless —
беспроволочный, дистанционный
outbreak —
внезапноеначало
toestablish —
основывать, создавать
valuable —
ценный, полезный
supplement —
дополнение, добавление
immediate —
внезапный, безотлагательный, немедленный
influence —
воздействие, влияние
tobroadcast (past broadcast, p.p. broadcast) —
передаватьвэфире, вещать
interval —
промежуток, интервал
infrastructure —
инфраструктура
electricity —
электричество
microwave —
микроволновый
transmitter —
передатчик
boon —
благо, дар; преимущество, удобство
remote —
отдаленный, далекий
benefits —
услуги, выгоды, привилегии
terrestrial —
земной, наземный


 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

4. Internet Addiction 

Last week, in a private rehabilitation clinic outside Edinburgh, Leo Edwards, a sixteen-year-old schoolboy, was going through severe withdrawal symptoms. His body often shook violently and uncontrollably, and at mealtimes he regularly threw cups and plates around the dining room. The boy's addiction had nothing to do with alcohol, drugs, gambling or food. His problem was 'Net obsession'— an over-dependency on the Internet.

An international group of psychologists has recently suggested that anyone who surfs the Internet for long periods is clinically ill and needs medical treatment. According to their report, Internet addicts should be treated in the same way as alcoholics, drug addicts, compulsive gamblers and people with eating disorders.

Leo Edwards is not an isolated case. Russell Hopkins, aged fifteen, from Gateshead in north-east England, is a typical online addict.

Every day after school, and after dinner until three or four in the morning, he will be found in his room surfing the Net or playing computer games. By the end of the day he will have spent more than six hours online. Understandably, his parents are extremely worried. Not only has his school work suffered, but Russell's addiction has also destroyed his social life and his spare-time interests. For instance, he has just dropped out of his school's basketball team in order to spend more time at his computer. Instead of spending next weekend having a good time out with friends, he'll be spending it indoors surfing the Internet.

Russell has recently joined an Internet online support group. It may seem ironic that many of the support groups for Internet addicts are online but at least Russell has sought help. Not everyone does. Dr. Ann Hoffman, who runs an online support group, says, "People don't realize that being online for more than four hours a day amounts to addiction and that they have a serious problem. I predict that the number of people who join online support groups will have risen dramatically within three years."
 

Questions:

1. How did Leo respond to withdrawal from the Internet?
2. What do some psychologists compare Internet addicts to?
3. How is Russell a typical Internet addict?
4. What two things has he stopped doing?
5. What does Dr. Hoffman predict?
6. Do you prefer going online to watching TV?
7. What information do you search the Net for?


Vocabulary:

withdrawal symptom — абстинентныйсиндром, синдром
отмены withdrawal — уход
addiction — (
здесь) пагубнаяпривычка
drugs —
наркотики
gambling —
игравазартныеигры
dependency —
зависимость
to surf the Internet —
рыскатьпоИнтернету
disorder —
болезнь
spare-time —
свободноевремя
to predict —
предсказывать


 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

5. Internet and Modern Life

The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundreds of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.

The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.

Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for millions of people.

Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundreds of millions of users and their number is growing.

Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.

In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable, alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.

But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.

However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security. When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available. Notwith-standing, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.

Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no effective control in the Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future, the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed in two words— an anarchist's dream.

 

 

Questions:

1. WhatistheInternet?
2. When and where did the history of Internet begin?
3. Why was the Internet designed?
4. What is modem?
5. Where are most of the Internet host computers?
6. What is the accurate number of internet users?
7. What is the most popular Internet service today?
8. What are other popular services available on the Internet?
9. What is the most important problem of the Internet?
10. Why is there no effective control in the Internet today?
11. Is there a commercial use of the network today?


Vocabulary:

network — сеть
to embrace —
охватывать, окружать
user —
юзер, пользователь
to design —
задумывать, придумывать, разрабатывать
to survive —
выжить
nuclear war —
ядернаявойна
to pollute —
загрязнять
dangerous —
опасный
path —
путь, маршрут
available —
доступный, имеющийсявраспоряжении, наличный
the net —
интернет, сеть
packet switching —
пакетноепереключение
invention —
изобретение
accurate —
точный
to count —
считать, сосчитать
approximately—
приблизительно, примерно
to receive —
получать
message —
послание
to provide —
снабжать, доставлять, обеспечивать
reliable —
надежный
alternative —
альтернативный
provider —
провайдер, поставщик
security —
безопасность
router —
маршрутизатор
to intercept —
перехватить (сигнали.т. д.)
to encode —
кодировать, шифровать
notwithstanding —
тем не менее, однако, все же
to crack —
взломать
huge —
большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
to circulate —
передвигаться/двигаться в пределах чего-то
tremendous —
разг. огромный, гигантский, громадный; потрясающий
 








Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

6. Internet Facts 

The prototype for the Internet was created in the sixties by the US Defense Department. To ensure that communication could be kept open in the event of a nuclear attack, it created a computer network known as Arpanet — the Advanced Research Project Agency Network.

The first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another was made by researchers at the University of California in Los Angeles and the Stanford Research Institute on 20 October 1969.

The first people to coin the term 'internet' were two scientists, Vinton Cerf (known as 'father of the Internet') and his collaborator Bob Kahn, who in 1974 devised a means by which data could be transmitted across a global-network of computers.

An Oxford graduate, Tim Berners-Lee, set up the first 'www server' (a Server receives and sends messages) to store the archive of the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland.

The first e-mail ever sent was in 1972 between computers in two American universities. The most frequently used search word on the net is "sex", typed in 1,550,000 times every month.

The most mentioned male on the Internet is President Bill Clinton, whose name is linked to 1,542,790 sites.

The most mentioned female on the Internet is the actress Pamela Anderson, whose name is linked to 1,542,282 sites.

 

Questions:

1. Who was the prototype for the Internet created by?
2. Why was the prototype for the Internet created?
3. Who was the first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another made by?
4. Who is known as father of the Internet'?
5. Why was the first 'www server'set up?
6. What is the most frequently used search word?
7. Do you think 'The Internet' will have an important influence on our daily lives?


Vocabulary:

Defense Department — Министерствообороны
to ensure —
обеспечивать
network —
сеть
to coin —
придумывать
collaborator —
сотрудник
to devise —
изобретать
means —
средство
to store —
сохранить
net —
сеть
to link —
соединять, связывать


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

7. Mail Service           

Historical references to postal systems in Egypt date from about 2000 ВС. That time mail was carried from place to place by horse or horse-drawn wagon. It was predominantly government mail. On the other side of the world, in China, mail service had been started early in 12th century ВС. It was used mostly to convey official documents.

The Roman Empire built the most advanced postal delivery system known until that time except for the service in China. In the Roman Empire reliable communication from Rome to governors and military officials in faraway provinces was a necessity. The speed with which government dispatches and other mail could be carried about the empire was amazing for that time. In Europe of the 19th century, stagecoaches began to carry letters and packages, but most mail was still being transported the same way as in the Roman Empire.

Since that time many things have changed. Today we can send our letters using also airmail, the quickest mailing service.

Nowadays there are post-offices in every town and city. If you want to post an ordinary letter or a postcard, you need to buy an envelope with required stamp, write the address on it and put your letter in and send it. For a registered letter, an airmail letter or an ordinary letter to another country, one must buy and stick other stamps on the envelope.

If you want to send a telegram, you can either take it to the nearest post-office or dictate it over the telephone. But if you have the Internet, there is no need to go to the local post-office, you can just connect to the Internet and using your mail program, send a letter or letters to where you need. The only condition is whether your recipient has or not a computer and the Internet. E-mail is cheaper and instant.

If you want to use traditional method and would like your letter to arrive more quickly, you can send it by airmail or express mail.

If you want to send a parcel, you must go to the post-office, hand your parcel to an assistant, who weighs it on scales and gives you the necessary stamps. The amount you have to pay depends on the weight of the parcel.

 

Questions:

1. When did the postal systems appear in Egypt?
2. When did mail service start in China?
3. What kind of postal delivery system did the Roman Empire build?
4. What was the main feature of the Roman Empire's mail service?
5. How was the mail transportation organized in Europe in the 19th century?
6. What is today's quickest mailing service?
7. What do we need to do if we want to post an ordinary letter or a postcard?
8. What must one buy for a
registered letter?
9. What kind of mail service does Internet offer?
10. What do you need if you want to send a parcel?


Vocabulary:
referenceссылка
todateдатироваться
tocarryвезти; носить
horse-drawnwagonгужевойфургон
toconveyпереправлять
advancedпередовой
deliveryдоставка
reliableнадежный
governorгубернатор, наместник
militaryofficialsвоенныедолжностныелица
farawayprovincesотдаленныепровинции
todispatchпосылать, отправлять
amazingудивительный, поразительный
stagecoachпочтовыйдилижанс
postcardоткрытка
envelopeконверт
stampмарка
registeredletterзаказноеписьмо
tostickприклеивать
conditionусловие
recipientполучатель
messageсообщение
requiredнужный, необходимый
airmailавиапочта
instantмгновенный, немедленный
toarriveприбывать
parcelпосылка
scalesвесы
toweighвзвешивать
todependonзависеть


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

8. Microsoft Company

Paul Allen and Bill Gates founded the Company in 1975.

Microsoft is best-known American company involved in software production. Microsoft's wealth and power is growing up for years. It is a giant company. Microsoft's $25 billion market value tops that of Ford, General Motors.

Some time ago, Microsoft dominated the PC market with its-MS-DOS operating system, the basic software that let the computer understand your commands and carry them out, appeared in the beginning of 80s. MS-DOS ran on 90 percent of the worlds IBM and IBM-clone computers. Then, Microsoft has extended that presence with releasing of Windows, which is probably the most important and popular operating system in the World. And now it dominates the market.

Firstly, Microsoft released Windows '95 in 1995. It was a graphics interface environment that ran on top of MS-DOS and replaced DOS in future versions. Then, Microsoft released Windows '98, Windows NT, Windows Millennium, Windows 2000 and Windows XP.

Microsoft also supplies about 50 percent of the world's software applications. Among them, there are three well-known Office Packs; they are also called Microsoft Office programs such as Excel (spreadsheets), Microsoft Word (word processing), Access (databases) and Outlook Express (e-mail)- There were releases in 1997, 2000, and 2002, when appeared Microsoft Office XP. Microsoft is also in the market of networking, multimedia and even books. And as an early supporter of the Macintosh computer, Microsoft virtually owns the Mac application market.

It has been calculated that Microsoft controls 80-85 % of the entire PC software industry. The company has hundreds of products and thousands of employees, making it one of the largest companies. Many of the company's shareholders are now millionaires and a few including Bill Gates and Paul Allen are billionaires. Microsoft is no doubt the fastest growing company in the PC software industry.


 


Questions:

1. Who founded the Company?
2. When was Microsoft founded?
3. What does the company produce?
4. What was the first Microsoft operating system that dominated the PC market?
5. How many Windows operating systems did Microsoft release?
6. Is it a rich company?
7. Does the Company dominate the PC market?


Vocabulary:
to found — основывать
to involve — касаться, затрагивать
software — программное обеспечение, программы
wealth — стоимость
PC market — рынок ПК персональных компьютеро
в
MS-DOS operating system — операционная система МС-ДОС
to carry out — выполнять
to extend — расширяться, увеличиваться
to release — выпускать
graphics interface — графический интерфейс
to supply — поставлять, снабжать
application — приложение
spreadsheets — программа табличных вычислений
word processing — текстовый редактор
networking — организация/создание сетей; объединение в сеть; подключение к сети
multimedia — мультимедиа (использующийразличныесредстваинформации)
virtually — виртуально
entire — целый, весь
employee — служащий
shareholder — акционер, пайщик, владелец/держательакций
doubt — сомнение

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

9. Satellites and Telecommunications

Our world is becoming an increasingly complex place in which, we are very dependent on other people and organizations. An event in some distant part of the globe can rapidly and significantly affect the quality of life in our home country.

This increasing dependence, on both a national and international scale, forced us to create systems that can respond immediately to dangers, enabling appropriate defensive or offensive actions to be taken. These systems are operating all around us in military, civil, commercial and industrial fields.

A worldwide system of satellites has been created and it is possible to transmit signals around the globe by bouncing them from one satellite to an earth station and then to another satellite and soon.

Originally designed to carry voice messages, they are able to carry hundreds of thousands of separate simultaneous calls. These systems are being adopted to provide for business communications, including the transmission of voice and facsimile messages, data and video data.

It is probable that future wide use of satellites in the area of telecommunications will provide a great variety of information services to transmit directly into our homes, possibly including personalized electronic mail. The electronic computer is at the heart of many such systems, but the role of telecommunications is not less important- There will be a further convergence between the technologies of computing and telecommunications. The change of this kind will lead us to the database culture, the cashless society, the office at home, the gigabit-per-second data network.

One cannot doubt that the economic and social impact of these concepts will be very significant. Already, advanced systems of communication are affecting both the layman and the technician.

The new global satellite-communication systems offer three kinds of service.

The first one is voice messages. Satellite telephones are able to make calls from anywhere on the Earth to anywhere else. That makes them especially useful to use in remote, third-world villages (some of which already use stationary satellite telephones), for explorers. Today's mobile phones depend on earth-bound transmitters, whose technical standards vary from country to country. Satellite telephones can solve this problem, but it is not a cheap service.

The second service is messaging. Satellite messages have the same global coverage as satellite telephones, but carry text alone, which is extremely useful for those with laptop computers. As we see, the Internet works in space too. The only problem for ordinary users is one-way transmissions. This problem is solved by using combine transmissions, when you make a call using land communications and receive ordered information through your satellite plate.

The third service is tracking. Voice and messaging systems also tell their users where they are to within a few hundred meters. Combined with the messaging service, the location service could help rescue teams, to find lost adventurers, the police to find stolen cars, exporters to follow the progress of cargoes and so on. Satellite systems provide better positioning information to anyone who has a receiver for their signals.

To my thinking, satellite method of communication is the future for all kind of telecommunications.


Questions:

1. Can some events in some distant part of the globe rapidly and significantly affect the quality of life in our home country?
2. Why are we forced to create systems that can respond immediately to dangers, enabling appropriate defensive or offensive actions to be taken nowadays?
3. Has a worldwide system of satellites been already created?
4. What does a worldwide system of satellites provide?
5. What services do the new global satellite-communication systems of fer?


Vocabulary:

increasingly — всебольшеибольше
complex —
комплекс
dependent —
подчиненный, зависящий
the globe —
мир, земнойшар
to affect —
воздействовать
scale —
масштаб
to force —
заставлять, принуждать
to respond —
отвечать, реагировать
immediately —
немедленно, тотчасже
to enable —
даватьвозможностьилиправоначто-л.
appropriate —
подходящий, соответствующий
offensive —
агрессивный, наступательный
worldwide system —
всемирнаясистема
to transmit —
передавать, транслировать
to bounce —
передаватьпоцепочке
to design —
разрабатывать, предназначать
separate —
отдельный
simultaneous —
одновременный
facsimile message —
факсимильноепослание, факс
convergence —
конвергенция, схождениеводнойточке
to lead (past led, p.p. led) —
вести, направлять, приводить
network —
система, сеть
to doubt —
сомневаться
impact —
толчок, удар, импульс
concept —
концепция
significant —
значительный, важный, существенный
layman —
непрофессионал, любитель
to offer —
предлагать
to make (past made, p.p. made) call —
звонить
remote —
отдаленный, далекий; дистанционный
explorer —
исследователь
to depend on —
зависетьот
transmitter —
передатчик
to vary —
изменяться, меняться, разнообразить
to solve —
решать
coverage —
покрытие, зонадействия, охват
laptop —
лэптоп, небольшойпортативныйкомпьютер
one-way transmission —
односторонняяпередача
tracking —
трекинг, отслеживание
within —
впределах
rescue —
спасение
adventurer —
искательприключений, путешественник
stolen —
украденный
receiver —
приемник


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

10. Space Exploration (1)       

Entering the twenty-first century, we have an unimaginable array of technology and a generation of young people schooled in these technologies.

Three decades ago people placed six flags on the Moon. Our automatic space stations reached almost all planets of Solar System.

Today we no longer try for new space achievements; instead we celebrate the anniversaries of the past. Our work is unfinished.

I have read a large amount of books and magazines, in addition to the science books. People have been preparing to land on Mars, but because of some obstacles, we have not realized it yet.

If we compare technologies of 1960s and 1970s, when major achievements in space exploration were made and technologies we have today, we might be surprised.

The Apollo Lunar Module had a computer in it, as we all know. The Lunar Module computer had 4,096 bytes of erasable storage. Current processors reach over 3000MHz, hundreds times more that it was that time and modern personal computers often have over 500 million bytes of erasable storage, to say nothing of modern fixed storage. 30 years of advancement have given us the ability to do even more in rocketry and computing and everywhere else. Our future achievements should not be dwarfed by our past achievements.

We need to explore space, using a combination of automated probes and manned missions.

Humans need to explore space, because by not doing so, we are denying our creative and curious nature.

  

Questions:

1. When did people place flags on the Moon?
2. Have all planets of-Solar System been visited by our automatic space stations?
3. Why do we need to explore space?


Vocabulary:
unimaginable — невообразимый
array — множество, совокупность
to place — разместить, установить
to reach — достичь, добраться
Solar System — Солнечная система
achievement — достижение, успех
to celebrate — праздновать, веселиться, радоваться
anniversary — годовщина, юбилей
obstacle — помеха, преграда, препятствие
to realize — осуществлять, выполнять
exploration — изучение, исследование
erasable — оперативн
ый (о памяти)
advancement — развитие, достижение, прогресс, успех
ability — способность
rocketry — ракетнаятехника
to dwarf — останавливать рост; препятствовать развитию
manned mission — пилотируемый полет/миссия
curious — любопытный, любознательный, пытливый

 




Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

11. Space Exploration (2)       

Mankind always dreamed of overcoming gravitation and reaching other planets. But it was only in the 1960ies that this dream was to become reality.

On the 12th of April 1961 the spaceship «Vostok» was launched into space with a man on board and after orbiting our planet successfully returned to the Earth.

The first man to overcome gravitation and orbit the Earth was Yuri Gagarin. This day went down in history of mankind as an outstanding achievement, opening the space era.

In the course of space exploration there have been lots of achievements of world science and technology. This period saw the launching of many earth satellites, numerous space laboratories. Among the achievements we may enumerate the landing of automatic stations on the Moon, the flights of space laboratories towards Venus and Mars.

These are the years of manned space flight programmes: Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman-cosmonaut to make a space flight, A. A. Leonov achieved the first «spacewalk» in 1965, the first Soviet experimental station with four cosmonauts on board went into orbit, the first American expedition landed on the Moon.

The Soviet "«Lunokhod», automatic orbital stations «Soyuz» and other space laboratories opened up a new period of space exploration. From the first experiments scientists went over to systematic exploration of space.

Recently there have been calls to reduce expenditure on space research programmes. I think it would be a serious mistake to allow this to happen.

There is a direct link between the development of space research programmes and different earth technologies. The higher the former are the more developed the latter are.

 

Questions:

1. What did mankind always dream about?
2. When did this dream become reality?
3. When was the spaceship «Vostok» launched?
4. Was Yuri Gagarin the first man to overcome gravitation and orbit the Earth?
5. As what day did the 12th of April go down in history?
6. What has there been in the course of space exploration?
7. What did this period see?
8. Enumerate the stages of manned space flight programmes.
9. What opened up a new period of space exploration?
10. What calls have there been recently?
11.Woulditbe a serious mistake to allow to reduce expenditure on space exploration?
12. What kind of link is there between the development of space research programmes and different earth technologies?



Vocabulary:
onboardнаборту
mankindчеловечество
eraэра
inthecourseofвходе
worldscienceandtechnologyмироваянаукаитехника
numerousмногочисленный
toenumerateперечислять
flightполет
wasthefirsttomakeбылпервый, ктосовершил
cosmonautкосмонавт
tolandприземляться
itwouldbeaseriousmistaketoallowthistohappenбылобысерьезнойошибкойдопуститьэто
earthtechnologiesземныетехнологии
theformerпервый (издвух)
the latterпоследний (издвух)
thehigher... themoredevelopedчемвыше... темболееразвиты

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

12. Television (1)

Television, also called TV, is one of our most important means of communication. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of homes.

The name «Television» comes from Greek word meaning «far», and a Latin word meaning «to see», so the word «television» means «to see far».

About three-fourths of the 1500 TV stations in the US are commercial stations. They sell advertising time to pay for their operating costs and to make profit. The rest are public stations, which are non-profit organizations.

Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs because they must attract larger number of viewers in order to sell advertising time at high prices. These programs include light dramas called situation comedies; action-packed dramas about life of detectives, police officers, lawyers and doctors; shows featuring comedians, dancers and singers; movies; quiz shows; soap operas; cartoons. Commercial TV broadcasts also documentaries and talk shows. Documentary is dramatic, but nonfictional presentation of information. It can be programs about people, animals in faraway places or programs on such issues as alcoholism, drug abuse, racial prejudice. On talk shows a host interviews politicians, TV and movie stars, athletes, authors. There are also sport programs and brief summaries of local, national and international news. Advertising is an important part of commercial TV. Commercials appear between and during most programs. They urge viewers to buy different kinds of products — from dog food to hair spray, and from cars to insurance policies.

Public television focuses mainly on education and culture. There are programs on wide range of subjects — from physics and literature to cooking and yoga. Public TV also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies as well as programs about art and history. PublicTVattractsfewerviewersthancommercialTV.

  

Questions:

1. Whatdoesthewordtelevisionmean?
2. What kind of stations are there in the US?
3. Why do commercial stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs?
4. What programs are broadcasted on commercial TV?
5. What programs does public TV broadcast?
6. Which kind of TV — commercial or public — attracts more viewers?


Vocabulary:
movingpicturesдвижущеесяизображение
Greekгреческий
Latinлатинский
commercialstationкоммерческаястанция
advertisingtimeрекламноеэфирноевремя
operatingcostsиздержки
profitприбыль
publicstationобщественныестанции
tobroadcastпередавать
entertainmentразвлечение
toattractпривлекать
viewerзритель
dramaтелеспектакль
situationcomedyкомедияситуаций
action-packedполныйсобытий
lawyerадвокат
comedianактер-комик
quizshowвикторина
cartoonмультипликационныйфильм
documentaryдокументальнаяпередача
talkshowток-шоу
issueпроблема, вопрос
drugabuseнаркомания
racialprejudiceрасовыепредрассудки
hostведущий
tointerviewбратьинтервью
athleteспортсмен
summaryобзор
advertisingреклама
commercialрекламныйролик
tourgeубеждать
tofocusсосредоточиваться
playпьеса
artискусство


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

13. Television (2)      

Television nowadays has become one of the most important mass media. It informs, educates and entertains people. It influences the way people look at the world and makes them change their views. In other words, mass media, and especially television, mould public opinion. Millions of people like to watch TV in their spare time. The TV set now is not just a piece of furniture. It is someone who is one of the families. There are two viewpoints on television. Some people think that television is doing a lot of harm. People begin to forget how to occupy their free time. It prevents them from communicating with each other, from visiting friends, or relatives. And indeed, people used to have hobbies, they used to go outside for amusements to the theatres, cinemas, sporting events. They used to read books and listen to music. Now all free time is given to television. But there are a lot of people who consider TV to be helpful because it gives us a lot of information. We become better informed by watching documentaries, science programs and by learning the most important economic, social and political issues of the day. We can see famous people, great events that will pass into history. Television gives wonderful possibilities for education: you can take a TV course in history, economy, in learning foreign languages and in many other subjects. Television brings the world in your living-rooms. We see people in our country and in other lands, and learn their customs, occupations, and problems. TV gives us opportunities to see the best actors and performances, to hear the latest news, to listen to political discussions. To crown it all, TV simply helps us to relax after a hard day's work, giving a great variety of entertaining and musical programs. Still, it's not a good thing for children to be glued to the TV screen all day long. It's very harmful for their health and for developing personalities, because children prefer low-standard hits, horror films or banal serials. All this by no means contributes to what we call making a personality.

 

Dialogue:
- Are you a passionate TV viewer?
- I can't say so. In fact I only watch those programs that I find interesting and helpful.
- What are those programs?
- Well, I enjoy "The Travellers' Club" and "The World of Animals". They are regular TV programs. They help me to study history, geography, biology.
- And what about information programs?
- There are plenty of them now. It goes without saying
that, I try to watch the most important of them, "News", "Time" and others. They keep me informed in all the topical issues of the day.
- What TV programs do you watch for entertainment?
- I relax when I watch musical shows, humorous programs, TV games such as "The Lucky Chance", "Brain Ring" and others.
- What is your attitude towards advertising on TV?
- I find it boring and annoying.


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

14. Television is doing Irreparable Harm 

"Yes, but what did we use to do before there was television?" How often we hear statements like this! Television hasn't been with us all that long, but we are already beginning to forget what the world was like without it.

Before we admitted the one-eyed monster into our homes, we never found it difficult to occupy our spare time. We used to enjoy civilized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, we used to go outside for our amusements to theatres, cinemas, restaurants and sporting events. We even used to read books and listen to music and broadcast talks occasionally. All that belongs to the past.

Now all our free time is regulated by the 'goggle box'. We rush home or gulp down our meals to be in time for this or that programme. We have even given up sitting at table and having a leisurely evening meal, exchanging the news of the day. A sandwich and a glass of beer will do — anything providing it doesn't interfere with the programme. The monster demands and obtains absolute silence and attention. If any member of the family dares to open his mouth during a programme, he is quickly silenced.

Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, homework undone and sleep is lost. The telly is a universal pacifier. It is now standard practice for mother to keep the children quiet by putting them in the living-room and turning on the set. It doesn't matter that the children will watch rubbishy commercials or spectacles of sadism and violence — so long as they are quiet.

Television encourages passive enjoyment. We become content with second-hand experiences. It is so easy to sit in our armchairs watching others working. Little by little, television cuts us off from the real world. We get so lazy, we choose to spend a fine day in semi-darkness, glued to our sets, rather than go out into the world itself.

Television may be a splendid medium of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. We only become aware how totally irrelevant television is to real living when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, far away from civilization in quiet, natural surroundings, we quickly discover how little we miss the hypnotic tyranny of King Telly.
 

Vocabulary:

to admit — допускать
to occupy — занимать
goggle box —разг. телевизор
to gulp — быстро глотать, хватать (пищу); заглатывать; проглатывать (неразжевывая)
to dare — отваживаться, осмеливаться
rubbishy — пустяковый; вздорный; дрянной; никуданегодный
to prevent from — мешать, недопускать; оберегать (from — от)

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

15.Television in Modern Life (1)

A Scotsman, John Logie Baird, transmitted the first television picture on 25 October 1925.

The first person on television was a boy who worked in the office next to Baird's workroom in London.

In 1927 Baird send pictures from London to Glasgow. In 1928 he sent pictures to New York and also produced the first colour TV pictures.

A first-rate colour TV set and a video cassette recorder have become an ordinary thing in the household today.

Modern television offers the viewers several programs on different channels. Such as:

Soap opera: a programme often on two or three times a week, which follows the lives of a group/community of people. The stories are often exciting, dramatic and hard to believe.

Quiz show or Game show: individuals, teams or families who answer questions or play different games against each other. The winner gets a prize, e.g. a car, a holiday, money.

Chat show: a programme where a presenter talks to famous people about their lives and careers, sometimes there is music as well.

Documentary: a film with factual information, often analyzing a problem in society.

A series: a number of programs about the same situation or the same characters in different situations. This may be a comedy series or a drama series.

Current affairs programme: a programme about today's social/political problem.

In addition to regular newscasts you can see plays and films, operas and ballets, and watch all kinds of contests, quizzes, and sporting events. You can also get a lot of useful information on the educational channel. A good serial (perhaps, a detective story or a screen version of a classical novel) can keep the whole family in front of the telly for days, and don't we spend hours and hours watching our favorite football or hockey team in an important international event?

Television most definitely plays a very important part in people's lives. But is this a good thing or a bad one? Haven't we become lazier because of television? Don't we go out less often than we used to? Don't we read less?

We tend to view more and listen less, as time goes on. Take, for example, meetings between famous people in various walks of life. We like seeing the people taking part in these discussions. Merely hearing their voices is not quite the same thing.

We also like to watch television programs dealing with animals and birds and all kinds of living things in their natural surroundings, as well as to watch sporting events in actual progress. Above all, we love seeing dramatic entertainments of all kinds; the plays of many leading dramatists; dramatized versions of the works of famous novelists; lovely one-act plays, comic turns, and amusing episodes of all sorts.

We can hear symphony concerts, operas and oratorios and popular melodies all transmitted with lifelike clarity. We have an opportunity of hearing well-informed talks on archeology, history, geography, science and technology. We hear critics talking about new books, films, plays and works of art. We hear living poets reading their own poems.
 

Questions:

1. Why do we prefer to see things on the screen, and not only to hear voices , speaking about them over the radio?
2. For what do we like to watch TV programs about animals and birds, travels and travelling?
3. Why do we like to watch sporting events in actual progress?
4. What dramatic entertainments can we see on the TV screen?
5. What makes TV musical programs so fascinating?
6. What lectures and well-informed talks can be heard?


Vocabulary:

newscast — последние известия (передаваемые по радио, телевидению)
walk of life — общественное положение; занятие, профессия
turn — очередной номер программы, выход; интермедия, сценка
amusing — забавный, занимательный, занятный

show — шоу
daily — ежедневный
weekly — еженедельный
monthly — ежемесячный
news — новости
current affairs program — программа о текущих событиях
special report — специальный репортаж
lifefootage — прямой эфир
documentary — документальный фильм
children'sprogramme — программа для детей
cartoon — мультфильм
educational program — образовательная программа
weather report, forecast — прогноз погоды
variety show — эстрадная программа
quiz program — викторина
feature film — художественный фильм
thriller — триллер, остросюжетный фильм
western — вестерн
serial — сериал
soap opera — мыльная опера
commercial — телевизионная реклама
videoclip — видеоклип, tobroadcast — транслировать
to telecast — передавать телепрограмму
life broadcast, showprogram — программа, идущая в прямом эфире
broadcast-speech, interview, discussion — транслируемая речь, интервью, дискуссия
to appearontheprogramme — появляться в программе
to coversomething — охватывать, давать материал
sound track — фонограмма
test card — сетка
close-up — крупный план
caption — титр
still — кадр


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

16. Television in Modern Life (2)

Television plays a very important role in our life. It is a powerful source of entertainment and information, a door through which the whole world can enter our homes. Some people prefer to spend their free time watching light TV programs while others prefer watching political and educational programs. We can watch many really interesting programs: informational, musical, for children and for adults, sporting, and many different games.

But what did we use to do before there was television? Before we admitted the "one-eyed monster" into our homes, we never found it difficult to occupy our spare time. We used to enjoy civilized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, we used to go to theatres, restaurants and sporting events. We even used to read books and listen to music.

All that belongs to the past. Now all our free time is regulated by the "goggle box". We rush home or gulp down our meals to be in time for this or that programme. We have even given up sitting at table and having a leisurely evening meal» exchanging the news of the day. The monster demands and obtains absolute silence and attention. If any member of the family dares to open his mouth during a programme, he is quickly silenced.

Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, homework undone and sleep is lost.

Television encourages passive enjoyment. We become content with secondhand experiences. It is so easy to sit in our armchairs watching others working. Little by little, television cuts us off from the real world. We get so lazy, we choose to spend a fine day in semi-darkness, glued to our sets, rather than go out into the world itself.

Television may be a splendid medium of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. We only become aware how totally irrelevant television is to real living when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, far away from civilization in quiet, natural surroundings; we quickly discover how little we miss the hypnotic tyranny of one-eyed monster.

 

 


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

17. Television in Modern Life (3)

Television plays a very important role in our life. It is a powerful source of entertainment and information, a win door through which the whole world can enter our homes.

There is virtually no family that does not have a TV set. Some people prefer to spend their free time watching light TV programs while others prefer watching political and educational programs.

After the decrease of television censorship we can watch many really interesting programs: informational, political, musical, educational, for children and for old people, sporting, and many different games. It is difficult to say what TV programs one likes most of all. From the informational and political programs I prefer "Night News", because in my opinion, they discuss different important events of our country and abroad.

Many people like such musical programs as "New Songs About Main Things" "M-TV" and some others because music helps them to get through difficult times or to get over bad mood.

New programs, such as "Dancing with the Star" and "The First Million" are enjoyable and entertaining ones.

Schoolchildren can learn better geography, zoology, and biology by watching regular TV programs. It is rich in many facts taken from everyday life, history of the country, literature and science.

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

18. Television in Our life

Television now plays an important role in our life. It is difficult to say if it is good or bad for us. It is clear, that television has advantages and disadvantages.

But are there more advantages than disadvantages? In the first place, television is an entertainment. But it is not only a convenient entertainment. For a family of three, four or five,for example, it is more convenient and less expensive to sit comfortably at home than to go out to find entertainment in other places. They don't have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre or cinema. They turn on the TV-set and can watch interesting films, concerts, football matches.

But some people think that it's bad to watch TV. Those who watch TV need do nothing. We are passive when we watch TV. Television shows us many interesting programmes. But again there is a disadvantage here: we watch TV every evening, and it begins to dominate our lives.

My friend told me that when his TV-set broke down, he and his family found that they had more time to do things and to talk to each other. There are other arguments for and against television.

Very often the programmes are bad. Sometimes they show too much violence in films and news programmes. There is also too much pop music and ads. Ads on the whole are convenient for grown-ups. But is it good for children to watch all those ads where they show all kinds of underwear and what not?

 



Questions:

1. What advantages does television have?
2. What disadvantages does television have?
3. What did my friend find when his TV-set broke down?
4. What do they sometimes show?



Vocabulary:

entertainment — развлечение
toturnon —
включать
passive —
пассивный
todominate —
доминировать
tobreakdown —
ломаться
argument —
аргумент
violence —
жестокость
popmusic —
поп-музыка
ads (advertisements) —
реклама, объявления


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

19. The Future of Telecommunications

I would like to tell you about telecommunications and their future.

We cannot deny the role of telecommunications in our life. The Internet, phones, telegraph, cell phones, radio, television, satellite television, video cell phones are all the means of communication or telecommunication. Nowadays we live in information era, when information is the key and engine of progress. Our society needs to develop means of information exchange for its future developing and growth that is why all types of telecommunication are under the permanent developing»
Future is speed and power. New technologies in electronics continue to develop. Computers become more compact, faster and inexpensive. Technology exerts revolutionary influence on society only when it is universal. Real revolution in manufacture, accumulation, treatment of matter began when first universal machines appeared and telecommunication systems were created. In ancient machines energy source was combined with machine itself, but in process of development, division of manufacture, new means of transmission and consumption of energy took place.

Revolutionary modifications in use of energy connected with appearance of universal electric machines and power grids, social changes to informational society are observed in all the countries.

On base of analogy between matter, energy and information we can have ideas about future. Earlier, for example, number of manufactured metal played the strategic role and was the description of development. Now we save metal, energy and we think about energy saving technologies.

It is very difficult to predict many steps of telecommunication development. Telecommunications change world very much and probably will change the human being.

 

Questions:

1. What means of telecommunication do you know?
2. Why are all types of telecommunication under the permanent developing?
3. What is the engine of progress nowadays?
3. Can we connect to the Internet using our cell phone today?
4. What was invented late in the nineteenth century?
5. Are social changes to informational society observed in all the countries?
6. Why do we develop the telecommunication system?


Vocabulary:
telecommunications — телекоммуникация, дальняясвязь
todeny —
отрицать, отказыватьсяот
cell-phone —
мобильныйтелефон
exchange —
обмен
todevelop —
развивать, совершенствовать
growth —
прирост, рост
permanent —
постоянный
compact —
компактный
toexert —
оказыватьвлияние
revolutionary —
революционный
influence —
воздействие, влияние
manufacture —
производство
treatment —
обработка
ancient —
древний, старый
source —
источник
tocombine —
комбинировать
transmission —
передача
consumption —
потребление
modification —
модификация, усовершенствование, изменение
powergrids —
энергетическиесистемы
toobserve —
наблюдать
description —
описание
topredict —
предсказывать, предвидеть


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

20. The Future of the Internet

Everywhere we go, we hear about the Internet. It's on television, in magazines, newspapers, and in schools. One might think that this network of millions of computers around the globe is as fast and captivating as television, but with more and more users logging on every day and staying on longer and longer, this «Information Superhighway» could be perhaps more correctly referred to as an expressway of big city centre at rush hour.

It is estimated that thirty five to forty million users currently are on the Internet. According to a recent statistics, an average Internet call lasts five times as longer as the average regular telephone call. 10 percent of the Internet calls last 6 hours or longer. This can cause an overload and, in turn, cause telephone network to fail.

The local network was designed for short calls which you make and then hang up, but Internet calls often occupy a line for hours. With so many users in the Internet and their number is growing by 200 percent annually, it certainly provides new challenges for the telephone companies. The Internet, up to the beginning of the 90s was used only to read different texts. Then in the early 90's, a way was made to see pictures and listen to a sound on the Internet. This breakthrough made the Internet to be most demanded means of communication, data saving and transporting.

However, today's net is much more than just pictures, text, and sound. The Internet is now filled with voice massages, video conferencing and video games. With voice massages, users can talk over the Internet for the price of the local phone call.

Nowadays we no longer have to own a computer to access the Internet. Now,-devices such as Web TV allow our television to browse the Web and use Electronic Mail. Cellular phones are now also dialing up the Internet to provide E-mail and answering machine services. The telephone network was not designed and built to handle these sorts of things. Many telephone companies are spending enormous amounts of money to upgrade the telephone lines.

K. Kao and G. Hockman were the first to come up with the idea of using fiber optic cables, as opposed to copper wire, to carry telephone signals. Fiber optics uses pulses of light to transmit binary code, such as that used in computers and other electronic devices. As a result the amount of bandwidth is incredibly raised. Another solution for the problem is fast modems which satisfy the need for speed.

By accessing the Net through the coaxial cable that provides television to our homes, the speed can be increased 1,000 fold. However, the cable system was built to only send information one way. In other words, they can send stuff to us, but we can't send anything back, if there is no modem available.

Yet another way is being introduced to access the Internet, and that is through the use of a satellite dish just like the TV dishes currently used to deliver television from satellites in space to your home. However, like cable connection, the information can only be sent one way.

Faster ways of connecting to the Internet may sound like a solution to the problem, but, just as new lanes on highways attract more cars, a faster Internet could attract many times more users, making it even slower than before.

To help solve the problem of Internet clogs, Internet providers are trying new ways of pricing for customers. So, in business time any connection to Net cost more than your connection in the night.

In conclusion, I should add that if we want to keep the Internet usable and fairly fast, we must not only improve the telephone lines and means of access, but also be reasonable in usage.

 

 


Questions:

l. How many users are currently in the Internet?
2. How long does an average Internet call last?
3. What can cause the overload of the telephone system?
4. What was the main purpose of the Internet up to the 90s?
5. Do we need to have a computer to get access to the Internet today?
6. Who was the first to come up with the idea of using fiber optic cables?
8. What is the alternative way to get access to the Internet today?


Vocabulary:

network — сеть
to captivate —
пленить
to logon —
входить, подключаться
to last —
длиться
overload —
перегрузка
to grow (pastgrew, p.p.grown) —
расти, увеличиваться
breakthrough —
крупное достижение, прорыв
voice massage —
голосовое послание
video conferencing —
видео-конференц-связь
Web TV —
веб-телевидение
to browse —
просматривать
cellular phone —
сотовый телефон
to dialing up —
набирать номер, звонить
answering machine —
автоответчик
to handle —
обращаться, иметьделос
amount —
количество
fiber optic cables —
оптико-волоконный кабель
opposed —
зд. вместо
binary code —
бинарный код, двоичный код
amount of bandwidth —
пропускная способность
fast modem —
быстрый модем
coaxial cable —
коаксильный кабель
to increase 1,000 fold —
увеличить(ся) в 1000 раз
satellite dish —
спутниковая тарелка
lane —
линии движения
clog —
засорение, препятствие
customer —
клиент, покупатель
business time —
бизнес-время

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

21. The History of Computer Development

The rapidly advancing field of electronics led to construction of the first general-purpose electronic computer in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. It was Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer or ENIAC, the device contained 18,000 vacuum tubes and had a speed of several hundred multiplications per minute. Its program was wired into the processor and had to be manually altered.

Later transistors appeared. The use of the transistor in computers began in the late 1950s. It marked the advent of smaller, faster elements than it was possible to create with the use of vacuum-tube machines. Because transistors use less power and have a much longer life, computers alone were improved a lot. They were called second-generation computers.

Components became smaller and the system became less expensive to build.

Modern digital computers are all conceptually similar, regardless of size and shape. Nevertheless, they can be divided into several categories on the basis of cost and performance.

The first one is the personal computer or microcomputer, a relatively low-cost machine, usually of desk-top size. Sometimes they are called laptops. They are small enough to fit in a briefcase. The second is the workstation, a microcomputer with enhanced graphics and communications capabilities that make it especially useful for office work. And the server computers, a large expensive machine with the capability of serving the needs of major business enterprises, government departments, scientific research establishments. The largest and fastest of these are called supercomputers.

A digital computer is not actually a single machine, in the sense that most people think of computers. Instead it is a system composed of five distinct elements: a central processing unit, input devices, memory storage devices, output devices and a communications network, called a «bus» that links all the elements of the system and connects the system itself to the external world.

Talking about a central processing unit or the heart of computer; I would like to add that there were several generations of microprocessors. The first generation was represented by processing unit Intel 8086. The second generation central processing unit was represented by processing unit Intel 80286, used in IBM PC AT 286. In the end of 80s such computer costs about 25-30 000 rubles in the former USSR. The third generation is represented by Intel 80386, used in IBM PC AT 386. The microprocessors of the fourth generation were used in computers IBM PC AT 486. There are also central processing units of the fifth generation, used in Intel Pentium 60 and Intel Pentium 66, central processing units of the sixth generation, used in computers Intel Pentium 75,90,100 and 133. Few years ago appeared central processing units of seventh and eighth generations.

Computer speeds are measured in gigahertz today. Recently, an optical central processing unit has been invented, which is capable of executing trillions discrete operations per second or it is as fast as the speed of light.

So, we are at the threshold of new computer era, when artificial intelligence could be invented. There are no questions with «if», the only question is «when». And time will show us either computers become our best friends or our evil enemies as it is shown in some movies.



Questions:

1. When was the first general-purpose electronic computer constructed?
2. When did the use of transistor in computers begin?
3. Are all modern digital computers conceptually similar?
4. What is laptop?
5. What is a server computer?
6. What is supercomputer?
7. How many elements can be distinguished in a computer?


Vocabulary:
rapidly — быстро
general-purpose —
универсальный, многоцелевой
device —
прибор, устройство
vacuum tube —
вакуумная трубка
several —
несколько
multiplication —
умножение
to wire into —
записывать на
manually —-
вручную
to alter —
изменять, менять
transistor -
транзистор
to create —
создавать
to improve —
улучшать, совершенствовать
expensive —
дорогой, дорогостоящий
to build (pastbuilt, p.p. built) —
построить
digital —
цифровой
conceptually —
концептуально
similar —
похожий, подобный
regardless —
невзирая на
nevertheless —
тем не менее, однако
desk-top —
десктоп, компьютернастольногоразмера
laptop —
ноутбук
to fit —
подходить
briefcase —
портфель, чемоданчик
workstation —
рабочая станция
to enhance —
улучшить, увеличивать
capability —
способность
server —
сервер
enterprise —
предприятие
research establishment —
исследовательское учреждение
to be composed of —
состоять из
central processing unit —
центральное вычислительное устройство
distinct —
разный, различный
input device —
устройство ввода информации
memory storage device —
устройство хранения информации
output device —
устройство вывода информации
communication network —
система коммуникаций
bus —
зд. шина
tolink —
соединять
external —
внешний

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

22. The Internet

The Internet is a huge network of computers spanning this planet and is now started to bring in the surrounding area like space. Some computers like servers share data, others just surf the web as clients downloading the data. Public Internet began in the late 70's. In the 70*s web users used an interface called telnet, but now that program is mainly obsolete. Telnet is most widely deployed in accessing college email accounts.

The Internet is very helpful, because it's a huge database of knowledge, from the pictures of family trips to an analysis of quantum mechanics. Everyone should have the Internet because of its near instantaneous communication and huge wealth of knowledge. But how to go on the Internet and do a search for information we need. There are two ways to do it.

The first is when you know an internet address of data you need and the second one is when you try to find information you need by using a search program. In the beginning we have got to enter any browser you like. It could be an Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator or Opera, etc. If we have a broadband connection, we connect to the Internet at once. If not, we have to set up and connect to our dial-up service. Finally, if we want to find some information in the Internet, we are to type an address of this data in the browser we use or simply use the existing search-programs such as the google search program, rambler search program, yandex search program or yahoo search program.

They are very simple and popular networks of sites. In these programs we can just type the word or name of thing, we would like to find and then press enter. A search program solves this problem. We get our results in the same window. After we get our results, we simply choose whatever site best matches our query or keep searching.

Besides data, one can get from the Internet, we can also send and receive e-mail or electronic mail. This internet service is cheaper than ordinary mail and much quicker. It is becoming popular day by day. We can get some news from the Internet, because there are many informational servers in the web.

 

 

Questions:

1. What is the Internet?
2. What are servers?
3. When did public Internet appear?
4. What was the most popular mail interface used in 70s?
5. What kind of browsers do you know?
6. How can we find information in the Internet?
7. Is it cheaper to use the Internet mail service instead of ordinary post office?
8. What search programs do you know?


Vocabulary:

huge — большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
network —
сеть
to span —
обхватывать, охватывать
surrounding —
окружающий
to share —
делить, распределять, разделять
data —
мн. от datum; данные, факты, сведения; информация
to surf —
зд. Находиться в сети
to download —
нагружать, пересылать (полиниисвязи)
interface —
интерфейс, адаптер
obsolete —
ненужный, вышедший из употребления; старый
to deploy —
использовать, употреблять;развертывать
email accounts —
учетные записи электронной почты
quantum mechanics —
квантовая механика
instantaneous —
мгновенный; немедленный, незамедлительный
browser —
вчт. броузер, браузер, окнопросмотра; программапросмотра
broadbandconnection —
выделенноеподключение
dial-up —
удаленныйдоступксети
totype —
печатать, напечатать
search-program —
программа-поисковик
site —
сайт
tosolve —
решать, разрешать; находитьвыход-
tomatch —
подходить, соответствовать
query —
запрос, вопрос
toprovide —
снабжать, доставлять; обеспечивать

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

23. The Road to the Stars        

When did man first begin to think of space travel?

Man began to think of space travel in the second century A. D. At that time a Greek, Lucian of Samos, wrote a fantastic story about a man who was carried to the Moon by a storm. In his second story about space, Lucian's hero flew to the Moon with a pair of wings which he had made himself.

But for the next 1400 years, in the years of the inquisition, people could not even think of travelling to the Moon.

About 300 years ago the famous Italian astronomer Galilei looked through his telescope and told people about the other worlds which he had seen. Again people began to think of reaching other planets.

In 1634, there appeared a story about a journey to the Moon by Johannes Kepler, the German astronomer. He discovered how the planets moved around the Sun. Kepler was a scientist but in his book his hero was carried to the Moon by «magic moon people», who could fly through space. Kepler gave a detailed description of the Moon which he had seen through his telescope.

After Kepler's book, there were many others about space travel.

The first serious story of space travel was written in 1640 by Bishop Wilkins of England. He described physical conditions on the Moon and he also said about the ways in which man could possibly live on the Moon.

The first man who wrote about a rocket as a spaceship was the Frenchman, Cyrano de Bergerac. In his book his space travellers flew to the Moon and the Sun in the rocket.

When those books were written, nobody seriously thought about space travel. Then in 1865 Jules Verne, the French novelist, wrote the story «From the Earth to the Moon», in which he tried to show the scientific principles of space travel. By the time that H. G. Wells, the English author, wrote «The First Men on the Moon» in 1901, man was already at the beginning of a new era in the development of air travel and conquering outer space.
 

 

Questions:

1. When did man first begin to think of space travel?
2. What did the famous Italian astronomer Galilei tell people about?
3. What did the German astronomer discover?
4. When was the first serious story of space travel written?
5. What other books about space were written?

Vocabulary:
spaceship — космический корабль
travel — путешествие
scientist — ученый
wings — крылья
conquering — завоевание
physical conditions — физические условия
detailed — детальный
description — описание


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

24. The Solar Empire       

The Solar system is the place where we live. It contains the central star, which is called the Sun, nine planets with their own satellites, many comets, billions meteorites and thousands asteroids.

The closest planet to the Sun is Mercury. Mercury is hard to see from the Earth because it is so small and so close to the sun. At certain times of the year, it can be seen just after sunset or before sunrise. The rest of the time it is lost in the sun's glare. Mean distance from the Sun is 58,000,000 km. Mercury's diameter is 4880 km. The surface temperature of Mercury can rise up to 800 Р during the day and can fall up to -360 F during the night. Because of such difference in day and night temperatures there is no atmosphere. It is the Bible Hell. The year on Mercury lasts 88 days.

The second planet from the Sun is Venus. Venus, the brightest object in the sky except for the Sun and the Moon, is often visible for several hours just after sunset or before sunrise. The entire planet is covered by thick clouds. The planet is dead because of huge greenhouse effect. The temperature under clouds can rise up to 900 F. There is no day and night because of thick clouds, covering Venus's sky. Venus* diameter is 12 100 km. The year on Venus lasts 226 days. Both Venus and Mercury have no satellites.

Our planet is the third planet from the Sun. Its diameter is 12j 760 km. Mean distance from the Sun is 150 million of kilometres. The only natural satellite, orbiting the Earth is the Moon.

The Moon is the closest astronomical body to the Earth and we know more about it than about any other object in the heavens. Many surface features are visible to the unaided eye on the Moon, and a pair of binoculars reveals a great amount of detail. A small telescope shows vast seas of lava, large mountain ranges and hundreds of craters of all sizes. Mean distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,400 km. The surface temperature of Moon can rise up to 248 F during the day and can fall up to -274 F during the night. The Moon's diameter is 3476 km. Its mass is about 85 times smaller than the Earth mass.

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It is about twice smaller than the Earth. Its diameter is 6,800 km. The year on Mars lasts 686 days. Mars appears reddish in our sky, even to the naked eye. This is caused by the rich content of rust (iron oxide) in the top soil. Mars has two small moons: Phobos and Deimos. Mean distance from the Sun is 228,000,000 km. Its surface temperature varies from 72 F to -271 F.

The fifth planet from the Sun is Jupiter. Jupiter is the Solar System's largest planet. Its composition is more like a star than a planet. Jupiter's diameter is 143,800 km. The Jupiter year is 11 years, 321 days long. Mean distance from the Sun is 778,000,000 km. Jupiter belongs to outer giant planets of the Solar System. Jupiter has 39 moons.

The sixth planet from the Sun is Saturn. Mean distance from the Sun is about one billion and a half kilometres. Its beauty in even small telescopes is breath-taking. This planet has rings. The rings consist of billions of particles, ranging from a few centimetres to a few meters in diameter. The sixth planet has about 30 moons.

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. The planet has a system of at least nine rings. Both Uranus and Saturn belong to giant planets. Uranus year is 84.01 years long, because the mean distance from the Sun is 2,870,000,000 km. Uranus has 21 satellites.

Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun. It is the last giant planet of the Solar System. It is similar in size, and composition to Uranus. The year on Neptune lasts about 165 years, because the average distance from the Sun is 5 billion and a half kilometres. Neptune has 14 satellites.

Pluto is the farthest planet from the Sun. The mean distance from the Sun is nearly 6 billion kilometres. Pluto is smaller than the Moon. It is the only planet that has not been visited by a spacecraft. IthastheonlyoneknownmoonCharon.

 

 

Questions:

1. How many planets are there in the Solar System?
2. What is the closest planet to the Sun?
3. How long does Mercury's year last?
4. What is the second planet from the Sun?
5. How long does Venus' year last?
6. How many satellites have Venus and Mercury?
7. What is the closest astronomical body to the Earth?
8. What is the fourth planet from the Sun?
9. Why does Mars appear reddish in our sky?
10. How long does Mars' year last?
11. What are outer giant planets of the Solar System?
12. What is the farthest planet from the Sun?
13. What planets of the Solar System have rings?
14. What is the Solar System's largest planet?



Vocabulary:
to contain — содержатьвсебе, включать, иметьвсвоемсоставе
satellite —
астрон. сателлит, спутник
asteroid —
астрон. астероид; малаяпланета
Mercury —
астрон. планетаМеркурий
hard —
трудно
sunset —
заход солнца
sunrise —
восход солнца
glare —
блеск, сияние
to rise (pastrose, p.p. risen) —
подниматься (о температуре)
to fall (pastfell, p.p. fallen) —
падать (о температуре)
to last —
длиться
Venus —
астрон. Планета Венера
bright —
яркий
the Moon —
Луна
huge —
большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
green house effect —
парниковый эффект
to orbit —
вращаться вокруг
heaven —
небеса, небо
binoculars —
бинокль
to reveal —
обнаруживать, показывать
vast —
обширный, громадный; безбрежный
mean —
средний
surface —
поверхность
to appear —
зд. являться
reddish —
красноватый
naked eye —
невооруженный глаз
rust —
ржавый
Phobos —
Фобос
Deimos —
Деймос
Jupiter —
астрон. Юпитер
outer giant planet —
внешние планеты-гиганты
Saturn —
астрон. планетаСатурн
particle —
частица
Uranus —
астрон. планета Уран
Neptune —
астрон. планета Нептун
similar —
подобный, похожий
Pluto —
астрон. планета Плутон
Charon —
Харон



 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

25. Virtual Reality

Not long ago computers were considered an amazing invention. Today they form part of our everyday life. The latest thing today is Virtual Reality. A Virtual Reality system can transport the user to exotic locations such as a beach in Hawaii or the inside of the human body.

The Virtual Reality system is still in the early stages of its development. At the moment it is necessary to put a large helmet on your head to see the simulated world and you have to wear a special glove on your hand in order to manipulate the objects you see there. Lenses and two miniature display screens inside the helmet create the illusion that the screen surrounds you on every side.

You can «look behind» computer— generated objects, pick them up and examine them, walk around and see things from a different angle.

Already today Virtual Reality is used in medicine. In hospitals, surgeons could plan operations by first «travelling» through the brain, heart or lungs without damaging the body. It is also used in police training schools. In schools pupils could explore the Great Pyramid or study molecules from the inside. Developers of Virtual Reality say its potential is powerful.

The word which comes closest to describing Virtual Reality is «simulator». Virtual Reality technology resembles the flight simulators that are used to train pilots. But of course there are dangers as well as benefits. In the wrong hands Virtual Reality can be used for power fantasies and pornography.

 

Questions:

1. What is Virtual Reality?
2. Why do you need to wear helmet and special glove?
3. What are the possible uses of Virtual Reality?
4. What are some of the disadvantages of Virtual Reality?
5. Do you think Virtual Reality is an important invention or not?






Vocabulary:

Virtual Reality — виртуальнаяреальность
invention —
изобретение
helmet —
шлем
lenses —
линзы
illusion —
иллюзия
surgeon —
хирург
simulator —
симулятор

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст.

26. Social networks

A social structure made of nodes that are generally individuals or organizations. A social network represents relationships and flows between people, groups, organizations, animals, computers or other information/knowledge processing entities. The term itself was coined in 1954 by J. A. Barnes, who defined the size of a social network as a group of about 100 to 150 people.

Social networking is the practice of expanding the number of one's business and/or social contacts by making connections through individuals. While social networking has gone on almost as long as societies themselves have existed, the unparalleled potential of the Internet to promote such connections is only now being fully recognized and exploited, through Web-based groups established for that purpose.

Based on thesix degrees of separation concept (the idea that any two people on the planet could make contact through a chain of no more than five intermediaries), social networking establishes interconnected Internet communities (sometimes known as personal networks) that help people make contacts that would be good for them to know, but that they would be unlikely to have met otherwise. In general, here's how it works: you join one of the sites and invite people you know to join as well. Those people invite their contacts to join, who in turn invite their contacts to join, and the process repeats for each person. In theory, any individual can make contact through anyone they have a connection to, to any of the people that person has a connection to, and so on.

Abbreviated as SNS a social networking site is the phrase used to describe any Web site that enables users to create public profiles within that Web site and form relationships with other users of the same Web site who access their profile. Social networking sites can be used to describe community-based Web sites, online discussions forums, chatrooms and other social spaces online.


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

27. SOCIAL NETWORKING. JOINED-UP THINKING

From The Economist print edition

Social-networking sites are not just for teenagers. They have business uses too

THE most avid users of social-networking websites may be exhibitionist teenagers, but when it comes to more grown-up use by business people, such sites have a surprisingly long pedigree. LinkedIn, an online network for professionals that signed up its ten-millionth user this week, was launched in 2003, a few months before MySpace, the biggest of the social sites. Consumer adoption of social networking has grabbed most attention since then. But interest in the business uses of the technology is rising.

Many companies are attracted by the marketing opportunities offered by community sites. But the results can be painful. Pizza Hut has a profile on MySpace devoted to a pizza-delivery driver called Ted, who helpfully lets friends in on the chain's latest promotional offers (“Dude, I just heard some scoop from the Hut,” ran one recent post). Wal-Mart started up and rapidly closed down a much-derided teenage site called The Hub last year. Reuters hopes to do better with its forthcoming site for those in the financial-services industry.

Social networking has proved to be of greatest value to companies in recruitment. Unlike a simple jobs board, social networks enable members to pass suitable vacancies on to people they know, and to refer potential candidates back to the recruiter. So employers reach not only active jobseekers but also a much larger pool of passive candidates through referrals. LinkedIn has over 350 corporate customers which pay up to $250,000 each to advertise jobs to its expanding network. Having lots of people in a network increases its value in a “super-linear” fashion, says Reid Hoffman, LinkedIn's founder. He says corporate use of his service is now spreading beyond recruiters: hedge funds use it to identify and contact experts, for example.

Jobster, a Seattle-based social-networking site, is entirely devoted to recruitment. Jobseekers can post their own profiles and tag their skills; these tags are then used to match candidates against jobs posted by employers. Unlike on LinkedIn, companies can set up private networks to ensure that the right kinds of people are alerted to openings and that the data they post remain under their control. Information needs to stay behind when a user leaves the company, argues Jason Goldberg, Jobster's founder.

Where LinkedIn emphasises scale and Jobster emphasis esspecialisation, Visible Path, a start-up based in New York, focuses on the strength of individual relationships. The firm analyses e-mail traffic, calendars and diary entries to identify the strongest relationships that exist inside and outside a company. An obvious application is to generate leads: a salesman can use the service to identify who within his network has the closest links to a prospect, and request an introduction.

Such techniques are also gathering momentum in “knowledge management”. IBM recently unveiled a social-software platform called Lotus Connections, due out in the next few weeks, that lets company employees post detailed profiles of themselves, team up on projects and share bookmarks. One manufacturer testing the software is using it to put inexperienced members of its customer-services team in touch with the right engineers. It can also be used to identify in-house experts. Software firms will probably start bundling social features of this kind into all sorts of business software.

To work well in the business world, social networking has to clear some big hurdles. Incentives to participate in a network have to be symmetrical, for one thing. The interests of MySpace members—and of jobseekers and employers—may be aligned, but it is not clear why commission-hungry salespeople would want to share their best leads with colleagues. Limiting the size of the network can reduce its value for companies, yet confidentiality is another obvious concern for companies that invite outsiders into their online communities. “Social networking sounds great in theory, but the business benefits are still unproven,” says Paul Jackson of Forrester, a consultancy. But if who you know really does matter more than what you know, it has obvious potential.


Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

28. FACEBOOK KILLS YOUR MEMORIES

Shello_html_m3a5e7b23.gifocial-networking services disconnect us by scattering our lives into tiny compartments. Years down the road, we're going to regret it when we try to delve into our boxes of virtual memories and find they're not there.

hello_html_m3a5e7b23.gif

Somewhere on a CD I have nearly every e-mail I've written since 1991. It's a chroni­cle of my life, loves, and personal changes that is far more accurate than the misty haze of memory. "That chronicle was made possible by interoperable and locally stored e-mail. In this regard e-mall is a lot like letter writing: Paper letters arе inter­operable (generally anyone can read them, even hundreds of years later, since translation codes are freely available for older lan­guages) and locally stored (bundled up in a box). E-mail can typically be downloaded as ASCII and burned to CD, which is as interoperable as we get nowadays.

But social-networking sites may destroy our ability to keep our memories, because our online discourse is neither interoperable nor locally stored. If you get a MySpace message, there's no way to remove it from MySpace and store it on your PC (other than rough copying and pasting, which is pretty tedious if you're a heavy Spacer), or transfer your MySpace friends, data, and accumulated messages to whatever faddish service will be next down the road.

Facebook is even worse, because so much Facebook information is metadata, a stream of "pokes" and "virtual gifts'' and other non-e-mail-related information that adds up to a history of human interaction.

The practice of writing letters on paper has lasted several thousand years - we can read Sumerian shopping lists if we want to - and is still going on. And e-mail in general can be exported to easily decoded ASCII, making the past 40 years' worth of e-mail readable in the future.

But what about Facebook event streams? Never mind 20 years from now when Facebook goes out of business: you could lose that metadata three years from now when everybody gets tired of the net­work and moves to another system. The situation is made even worse because your Facebook “e-mail doesn't belong to you. If Facebook one day decides to delete all your messages, there's nothing you can do.

These walled gardens demand that you consume information on their terms, not your own. I hate Evites and other online invitation services that make you go to a Web site to get the info about your friend's party. It wouldn’t be difficult at all for these services to put the invitation details in the e-mail they send you, except that would mean you wouldn't have to establish yet another account on yet another site.

Finally, the walled-off nature of social-networking services disconnects us by scattering our lives into many tiny, non-interlocking compartments. You receive all your paper mail at one address: with e-mail forwarding (and call forward­ing), you can do a pretty good job of consolidating e-mail and phone calls, too. But MySpace messages, Facebook mails, Evites, and all that other social-networking guff stubbornly refuse to leave the host Websites, making "checking your messages" a tedious process of hitting a half dozen sites. Your messages become impossible to consolidate, file, or sort.

The social-networking companies love this: it's called "stickiness," and it keeps users coming back. But years down the road, we're all going to regret it when we try to delve into our boxes of virtual mem­ories and find they aren't there, or we just get tired of having to visit several different sites to check up on our friends.

Cell-phone text messages are another problem, but a more ambiguous one because companies' approaches vary, there are the angels, such as Nokia, whichhas built its phones with an awesome application called Lifeblog that lets you down­load photos and text messages to sew them into a locally stored archive of your life. And there are the devils, like Verizon Wire­less, that make getting your texts ontoyour PC as difficult as humanly possible.

Social-networking sites could learn from an arena where this problem has actually been solved: instant messaging. Long ago, users of AIM, MSN Messen­ger, and Yahoo! Messenger were forced to load three different programs to talk to all their friends. Then multiplatform mes­sengers like Trillian came along and solved the problem, A Trillian-like solution for social-networking sites would simultane­ously log in to several services, present integrated friend lists and news feeds, and let us archive messages, history, and data on PCsfor future reference.

Social-networking sites are Web sites, so they can be scraped and manipulated with simple HTML scripts. Where are the enterprising Python programmers writing screen-scraping scripts to liberate our private messages from their little Web 2.0 boxes? It's time to reunite all these com­munications, before we look back and find that we recorded years of our lives on dead and forgotten Web sites.


Questions:

Why do social-networking sites prevent us from keeping our memories?

What is the main problem of these sites according to the author? Does he see any solution?

Are other media more suitable and convenient than online discourse (letters, e-mails, text messages, instant messages)?

Do you agree with the author that it is important to keep track of human interaction?

The last sentence of the article runs: “It's time to reunite all these communications, before we look back and find that we recorded years of our lives on dead and forgotten Web sites.” Do you agree with the statement?

Do you think that networking sites connect or rather disconnect people?



Прочитайте и переведите текст.

29. Web design

The arrangement and creation of web pages that in turn make up a web site. There are many aspects to this process, and due to the rapid development of the Internet, new aspects are continually being added. As far as business oriented web sites go, the basics currently consist of (in order of importance): a)The "visibility" of the site on the Internet, particularly within the major Search Engines. b) The informational value of the site, from its target public's point of view. c) The aesthetic / professional appearance of the pages. Web design is the designing and graphical presentation of content shown on the Internet in the form of Web sites and other Web applications using many different forms of media. The basic design of most pages on the Web use HTML, CSS, and the newest form of language, XHTML. Many sites today also integrate various forms of dynamic, interactive content using E-Commerce, and server-side languages such as PHP and ASP. Web design contrasts with Web development, which includes Web server configuration, writing Web applications, and server security.



Прочитайте и переведите текст.

30.You Can Build Your Own Website

There is really no reason why anyone wanting these days cannot build one on his or her own. Gone are the days when only high tech people possessed the ability to build amazing websites. Building a website on your own is fun, affordable and surprisingly easy.

In the past, you needed to learn HTML (hyper-text markup language) to build a website. Today all you need is site builder software. More and more hosting companies have expanded their services .

A benefit of building your own website is the option of using a website template. Simply find a template in a design that is similar to what you want. Next use the site builder by changing colours and images. Then add on any additional features you desire such as video plug-ins or forms. Changing what you do not like about a template is much quicker and easier to do than starting a website design from scratch.

Good site builder software incorporates WYSIWG (What You See Is What You Get) editors so you can edit text in any way you see fit. This software allows you to create your website pages similar to editing a document plus you have the ability.

When shopping for a site builder check to see if it includes options to easily add on additional functionality to your website. You want the site builder. You want add on features such as forums, image galleries, and shopping carts.

Now that you know that building your own website isn't as complicated as you may have previously thought, give it a try. All it takes is to use a site builder and you will have a website designed in no time.



Questions:

What does it take to create a web site?

Which features are easy to customize?

What does a user need to take into account choosing site building software?


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

31.Ways to Build Your Own Social Network

The news may overflow with stories about the social networking giants, such as Facebook and MySpace , but a horde of companies are doing their best to reduce the fundamental features of these websites to mere commodities. These up-and-coming companies provide so-called “white label” social networking platforms that enable their customers to build their own social networks (often from scratch) and to tailor those networks to a range of purposes.

The idea of white labeling a network is to make the platform provider as invisible as possible to the social network’s users and to brand the network with the builder’s identity or intent. While definitions of “social networking” may vary, social networks are primarily defined by member profiles and some sort of user generated content.

There are roughly three types of companies that have emerged in the space of white label social networking. The first provides hosted, do-it-yourself solutions with which customers can largely point and click their way to a brand new social network. Companies of this type interact minimally with their customers and rather focus on providing the network-building tools that they demand.

We have taken a sample of seven of these companies - Ning , KickApps , CrowdVine , GoingOn , CollectiveX , Me.com and Haystack - all of which provide free baseline services, and reviewed them individually below. Credit for initial research into these companies goes to Jeremiah Owyang who compiled a comprehensive list of white label social networking services.

The second type of company provides social networking software for download and installation onto one’s server. The third type works very closely with clients to build a social network based on their needs. These companies might suite your needs much better than any do-it-yourself social networking service, so you may want to check out companies such as Social Platform (a personalized service) or phpFox (a downloadable solution).

Out of the services that we review below, we found that Ning provides the best platform for setting up good-looking, sophisticated social networks with minimal effort. KickApps provides the best platform for integrating social networking components into existing websites. CrowdVine and Haystack are viable options for organizations that are looking for simple social networks to improve personalized communication online. CollectiveX is most suitable for existing groups that want to collaborate online. And GoingOn provides a promising hybrid solution with capabilities shared by both Ning and KickApps.




Прочитайте и переведите текст.

32. How To Attract Members to Your Social Networking Sites

One of the best ways to attract members for your online community is through the quality of your content. If you have high quality, unique, relevant and up-to-date content then you are far more likely to attract members. The same goes for blogs - if you are writing quality articles, you will naturally attract visitors. You can convert these visitors into regular readers and members by encouraging them to use the commenting system.

The one problem with social networks is that in comparison, they are far more closed. Most content is generated through profile pages and the internal messaging system, so how do you attract members?

 Express yourself in your profile.

There are lost of social networks that look alike. They use the same scripts that almost all other sites are using, and almost the same default design for their member's profiles. If you want your social profile to succeed in attracting members, it needs to look different and be unique from all the thousands of other profiles out there.

Your profile needs to immediately convey what it is all about. Visitors to your profile will form an impression, be it negative or positive, in the first few seconds that they see your page. You need to express yourself clearly in those first few seconds so as to hook their interest about you. Use images, symbols, and catchy and relevant words to ensure that your visitor will know exactly what your page is all about.

 Give out as much information as you are willing to give, if possible.

If you aren't shy at all in giving out information about yourself to others, do this to help in attracting new friends and acquaintances. However, it is not really wise to publish a huge amount of personal information so be picky in choosing which ones to hand out. Several social networking sites have an option where you can restrict viewing of your profile to members of your network only. This can be worked out to your advantage if you are hesitant about displaying your personal information online. Just place enough information that will surely catch their attention and arouse their curiosity. This will then lead to them to send you requests to add them to your network.

 Spice up your profile!

No one wants to look at a boring profile. Add music, pictures, and even videos or widgets to spice it up. Believe me, there are circumstances where a user will add you up just because they have seen your cool profile. A really spiced up profile will get you on top of everyone's list. Some social networks even display profiles of those users having some of the best designed pages on their popularity pages.

 Leverage and promote.

As with all social networks, you will need to promote your social network if you want to attract members. If you have other websites, leverage their traffic and promote the community on them. If you already have a website on the same subject as your social network, consider incorporating the social network right into that website. Exchange links with relevant websites, consider paid advertising, include your website in the signature of your emails and any forums that you are a member of.

Members are the best referral tool you will ever have. A recommendation from a friend is far more effective than any form of paid advertising you can do. Ensure your social network offers the facility for members to recommend profiles or the actual site itself to friends by email. You may be surprised at just how many new members your existing network can bring you.


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

33. Social Networking – The Future of the Internet

The very origin of the internet was as a giant social network.  It was a system called ARPANET that, for the most part, connected University systems together.  This system became a true social network once an email system was invented to be used on the network.

Once the internet exploded - the dot-com boom brought a major commercialization of the internet and enormous investments into ads and attempts to get people to make purchases over the internet.   However the medium of the internet did not lend itself to massive sales because people were largely concerned about privacy and the security of financial transactions.  Even today - many people will not make purchases online because of these concerns.

However, from its very beginnings, through the dot-com bust, and continuing today - social networking has been at the very core of what drives the success of the internet.

What People Use the Internet for

In the late 1990's, CarnegieMellonUniversity conducted a field trial study to understand how people use the Internet at home.  The study separated the various categories of internet use by demographics.  However the most significant finding of the study was that, "The most popular reasons they cited for using the Internet were to get information relevant to a hobby or a personal interest, to communicate with family and friends, and to ‘enjoy myself'".

In other words, the most popular use of the internet wasn't for purchasing goods, but instead it was to conduct research for a hobby, and to communicate with other people.

The very origins of the internet, and the findings of this study clearly prove that the heart of the internet itself is socialnetworking.

The Future of Social Networking

The fact that social networking was the very foundation of the internet tells us that it is essential to its future.  People log onto the internet to talk to people across the world on forums, they write blogs to tell people across the world about their lifestyle and home life in their region of the country or to share with other business owners the secrets of their business successes.  Still others communicate through messaging systems like Skype, MSN, or Instant Messengers which offer various forms of communication including chat, voice, and messaging systems. 

Social Networking on the internet has become a variety of technologies and web pages that are used to connect people to people in ways that were only imagined in science fiction novels ten years ago.  Today we can video conference, post images and files on collaborative forums, and we can share videos and information through profile pages on the thousands of social network websites that are peppered throughout the internet.

Specialty Social Networks target specific niches that are related to particular hobbies, businesses or industry.  These niches are where the most successful entrepreneur will focus his advertising resources.  Specialty Social Networks provide businesses with a rapt audience related to specific topics such as antiques collecting, web design, automobile repair, or millions of other potential interests.  Just about every of these interests and hobbies require supplies, information, and services that a savvy business person can subtly offer on the social network.  As long as the business person doesn't spend their entire time on the network trying to sell their product or service, but instead focuses on meeting people and making friends, they will find more success in social networks than they will in any other ad campaign anywhere on the internet.

Social Networks in Ten Years

The new internet of the future is one that will seamlessly integrate technologies of images, voice, and data all into one entire networked system that is now known as the internet.  In the future, it is very likely that the social networking sites that currently exist on the internet will mature, as will their users, into sites that offer a multitude of technologies that seamlessly mesh with our everyday life.  The internet will integrate with television sets and telephones.  We will have the ability to communicate with our social network contacts through the television, telephone, cell phone or computer - as they will all share common voice and data communication technologies. 

Contact with our entire social network will no longer be only through the computer - it will be possible to contact any contact within the network regardless of where you are in the world.  Automobiles will all have active connections to the internet, and movies, radio, and all communications will be fed to cars, busses, trucks, trains and planes.  No matter where you are ore what you are doing, you will no longer need to locate a computer to get in touch with a business colleague or a friend on your social network.  You will be connected everywhere.

 The future of Social Networks is the future of the entire internet.  This is what the internet has always been primarily used for, and it is what the internet will continue to be used for in the future. 


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

34. Improve your Business with Online Social Networking

Everyone who has ever attempted to start a business, either on or off the web, knows that the key to business success is social networking.  Getting the word out that you are in business, and that the product or service that you sell is important and valuable, is central to building a strong customer or client base. Online Social Networking Websites can help.

 Make Yourself Known

The key to a successful business is attracting customers or clients.  The most effective way to do that is to somehow let people who have a need for your product to learn about your existence. 

While ads essentially work to some degree, for the most part they are virtually ignored by potential customers or clients.  Most people who decide to purchase a product don't do so immediately in response to an ad.  They will research the product or service that they need, and they will ask friends and family for advice and referrals. This is where the value of social networking comes in.

Offline, if you have friends who have been your customers or friends who are involved in the same sort of business that you are - you often will end up getting mentioned in conversations that they have with their own business partners.  It might be as simple as a business partner telling your friend that they really have a need for web design services.  Your friend, who knows that you run a web design business and that you do excellent work, will offer the business contact your name and number.  You now have a potential customer who is much more willing to purchase your product or service than any customer who would be responding to an ad.

Online Social Networking works in very much the same way.  As you build an online social network of business partners and customers who you meet to discuss the industry or business ideas, you will develop a reputation among this social network as an expert in your particular field.  The contacts that you form and foster in your social network will begin to mention you to members of their social network - and before you know it, your own social network (and potential customers and clients) will begin to grow exponentially.

There is no faster known system to building a business than developing and fostering an active social network.  "Word-of-Mouth" is the key to business success - and online social networks can take advantage of that phenomenon to a great degree through the power of the internet.  Because of online social networking sites, your social networking for business can expand outside of your local geographical area and immediately grow into the online global marketplace.  This is an enormous advantage for any business.

Making Friends and Influencing People

The key to making social networking sites work for your business, is to first and foremost "make friends."   This is exactly what it sounds like.  Social networking sites provide you a wide multitude of ways to introduce yourself to people and to strike up conversations.  This may be on a forum, a chat room, or a simple messaging system within a social networking website.  Whichever the preferred method of the site is, make sure you constantly run careful searches of the website's membership related to the industry that your business is a part of.  Once you find other folks out there who do the same things that you do - introduce yourself.  Send a message or reply to their forum posts and strike up a conversation related to the business or industry. 

Enjoy yourself - it's about having a fun discussion and getting to know other people as individuals.  There is an entire world of interesting and fascinating people out there - don't limit yourself to thinking in terms of customers or clients.  Think of people in terms of friends and colleagues, who may happen to require your services.  Present your product as a way to assist or to fill a need related to some issue or problem that might be expressed in their messages or forum posts.  Don't "sell yourself" - simply offer your services and support to the person with the tone of a friend who is offering assistance.

Additionally - don't limit yourself to members who are part of the same industry as you.  Make sure to brainstorm related industries of businesses that generally have a need for your service.  For example, if you are a writer - you might consider searching for social contacts who work in the publishing industry.  If you are a website designer, you might look for social contacts who work for companies who express a need for an internet presence.  Thinking outside of the box to find opportunities to offer your services or product is critical to using your social network to drastically grow your business.

Remember - people don't buy from salesmen, they prefer to buy from friends.  So don't be a salesman - be a friend.

Where To Start

While generic social networking websites can be very valuable tools for developing important contacts who may require your services or product - the most efficient way to develop contacts who will actively be seeking help from other industries is to join a business social networking website.  These websites are focused on connecting businesses to each other.  It's the business version of MySpace - except extremely well designed, and not overrun by teenagers.

Three of the most popular business social networking sites include LinedIn, ryze business networking, or Tribe - just to name a few of the most popular.

Once you join, you simply create a profile detailing your business and what you do for work, your interests, and additional information that will help to define who you are and what you do. Then - you can start browsing profiles and comments, and start meeting people and making friends.

Dale Carnegie once said:  "You can make more friends in two months by becoming more interested in other people than you can in two years by trying to get people interested in you." Remember this - and practice it when you work to create new contacts.  Take an interest in what they do.  Learn what they're interests are and what they are actively pursuing.  Not only will you make some great friends, but you will discover that opportunities for your service to help them in their efforts simply present themselves on their own.

 Social Networking Sites can help you to succeed in your business because they offer us ways to get away from simply obtaining "sales" - and to instead embrace mutual respect and collaboration with friends.


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

35. Social Networking Sites: Changing The Face Of Online Marketing

At the start of the social network big bang, as people scrambled to join up or be left out, some had staunchly declared that they would never give in to the social pressure of signing up and creating their profiles. If friends drifted out of touch because of that, then so be it. Eventually though, they gave in to the pressure and signed up for accounts and created and designed their own profiles.

People are social beings by nature. We don't always want to be with other people, but we do like to know how and what they're doing. Social networks are a way for us to stay in touch while keeping our distance. They are also, somewhat conflictingly, a way for us to narrow the gap and build closer, more intimate non-physical relationships. People ultimately share on social networks. They share thoughts, virtual hugs, news, opinions and recommendations, and other kinds of content.

So ultimately, online social networks are one of the best ways considered to succeed in online marketing. In the world of online marketing, the sharing of content, news, opinions and recommendations is quite important. Numerous studies and researches have shown that people attach great worth to recommendations from other people, particularly from those within their social circles.

Search patterns are changing and new ways are emerging. Instead of entering a few keywords in a search engine to find local electricians or accountants, people log in to their Facebook, MySpace, Friendster, or other social network accounts and ask their friends. Good and bad experiences are readily shared and that goes a long way toward making or breaking business reputations.

Many online marketers are recognizing and heeding the importance of engaging in social networking themselves. This helps them to establish brand awareness, creditability, build up their reputation as sellers, and to initiate damage control, should events not go according to plan.

Business-minded people or online marketers, as they call them, join social networking sites for a number of reasons. These are for promoting their products, to keep them updated on trends of their selected industries, to establish links for customers and competitors alike for sharing of information, and lastly, to keep their targeted audiences and customers informed of product developments and other activities related to their niche.

Whatever the reasons for joining up, online marketers need to remember that social networks are interactive and require constant updating to maintain public interest. They need to engage in dynamic conversations, not only on their pages, but also on competitor pages. Marketers need to be as visible as possible because out of "site" profiles and pages equals out of mind. They also need to brace themselves because not all comments that come their way will be favorable. It's imperative that companies know how to respond to negative feedback rationally and calmly so that they don't alienate their audience.

Another aspect of social networking that online marketers need to consider is that these days, people devote more time to networking than Internet surfing. People's experience of the Web has changed, which means that businesses now have to vie with social sites, as well as competitors, for online attention. This has lead to many companies advertising on social networks.

Advertising on social networks has many advantages:

Chances of reaching the right audience are improved because they're all huddled together.

Niche networking sites that cater to particular fields or interest groups can be targeted.

Campaigns can be tailored to specific groups, rather than assuming generic, all encompassing forms, the success of which is quite hit-and-miss.

The key is not to put all of your marketing eggs in one great big social basket. While social networking has been around for a while, and many experts predict that it will be around for many years to come, don't underestimate the public's low threshold for boredom. Many people who jumped on the social bandwagon when it first set out, now suffer from social overload and don't even remember the passwords to their accounts.

While it is good to engage in social networking to promote and market your products, keep in mind that social networking sites, while they are the craze right now, might not last forever. So while it's still hot, jump on in right now and profit from it.


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

36. How to Create an Attractive, User Friendly Web Site

Author: Gary Klingsheim

There are few things more important on the web than "usability," because the Internet is an interactive space and not a one-way street. You want to improve the visitor's experience, make choices simple, be pleasing to the eye and not overuse the flashy add-on du jour. In addition, your site will tell visitors a lot about your company just from the way it looks, loads and functions, before they even read a single word. The importance of creating an attractive, user-friendly website simply cannot be overstated.

For reasons that are almost too numerous to list - marketing, sales, psychology, trust building, perceived professionalism, etc. - the way your website is experienced by users should be foremost in your mind. The following eight important reminders will get you going in the right direction, but you're the one who knows your customers so the finer points of personalization and "character" are up to you.

1. The importance of focus. You need to think like your visitors do. This is key to your site's success. Your customers simply want to find what they need, make the payment and get back to real life (jobs, family, tennis, whatever). If you can make their lives a bit simpler and easier, they'll reward you for it. If, on the other hand, you make their lives more complicated, they'll "surf away" and stay away.

2. The importance of understanding the medium. You are not creating a slideshow, a YouTube video, a TV commercial or a PowerPoint presentation. You are building a website for commercial purposes. You need to provide easy, simple, clear navigation on every page, since you never know how people will link to your site and what they will see first. Visitors to your site, no matter how hard you try, will not always go where you would like them to go, or do what you want them to do. Remember that, and give them a few tools to move around the site, like a sitemap and/or internal search engine.

3. The importance of non-aggression. Most Internet users, especially experienced ones, like to stay in control of their movements. Research suggest that your first-time visitors are "hunting," not "deciding," so do not make unnecessary demands for clicking, scrolling, resizing windows or anything else. Neither should you put up any roadblocks that will slow down their hunting, like time-consuming "Flash and splash screens."

4. The importance of reduced load times. Tied into #3 is the notion of your site's real and perceived "speed." Carefully consider each page element and make each one earn its place, based on functionality, not "wow" value. Keep graphic file sizes small and do whatever else you need to do to have a fast-loading, easy to use site.

5. The importance of customer needs: Define all the kinds of people you expect to visit your site and consider what they'll be looking for. Ensure that the navigation design helps the greatest number of people find the most popular items in the least amount of time. Don't "bury" essential information so that visitors have to dig down two or three levels to find it.

6. The importance of simplicity. Flash is a powerful tool, especially helpful in demonstrating things that are difficult to describe in words, but it is so pathetically overused that it has turned people off. It can be a huge distraction, too, since animation and bright (moving) colors are exceptionally hard for our eyes to ignore even when our brains want to.

7. The importance of proportionality. Although Javascript is used on some sites to display all the links to the other pages, there is really no reason to do this when simple, straightforward, low-overhead HTML works fine. When you employ a "new, improved" or more complex means of doing something - anything - you have to take into account browser compatibilities, possible bugs and user resistance. Don't use more technology than it takes to accomplish something cleanly, clearly and consistently.

8. The importance of avoiding surprises. You should use the expected, usual and standard placements for expected, usual and standard site elements. Site navigation is not something you want to be too creative with, as it needs to be immediately understandable and usable. Such consistency across the World Wide Web is actually a good thing, as it tends to make people's lives a bit easier when they feel they are in "familiar territory." Generally speaking, your various website components should look and work as people think they're supposed to.

To borrow from Oscar Wilde, consider also the Importance of Being Earnest. More specifically, you want to be seen as being earnest, meaning that you want every visitor to understand, implicitly if possible but explicitly if necessary, that you are doing everything possible to make their site visit a simple, straightforward experience. "No muss, no fuss" is a great slogan to remember.

Therefore, rather than get caught up in profound design metaphors or using your bandwidth to display every possible website trick and/or treat, you should focus on making your site into a solution for your customers. Make it easy for them to do what they need to do and then get on with their lives. Perhaps the most important thing you can give a site visitor, then, is respect and appreciation.


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

37. How To Create Usable Websites

Author: Tony Colon

A usable site will: Help users achieve a goal, usually to find something, such as information, or obtain something, such as an article; Make it easy for them to achieve that goal; Make it possible to achieve the goal quickly; Make achieving that goal a pleasant experience.

Good Content is Critical - A site with good content, regardless of its subject, is one that provides products or information that is useful or beneficial to users. A good usable site will make it clear what information or content is available and at what price AND what is not available. A good usable site should define clearly all subscription packages offered.

Ease of Access to Information - Good navigation, precise location indicators, secondary navigation, clear linked text and a well-organized structure all contribute to making information easy to find for a wide range of different users. Bearing in mind that many users are inexperienced, it may be necessary to include explanations of things you consider self explanatory. For example, an inexperienced user may need an explanation of how to use a drop down menu. Remember, make it as easy as possible for people to use your website.

Quick Access to Information - This is the aim of the majority of web users. It can be broken into two important aspects: Speed of Page Loading and Speed of Access to Content.

Speed of Page Loading - This requires, in particular, attention to images to ensure they are properly optimized and do not excessively delay load time. It may also mean breaking up long articles and ensuring that important content is at the top of the page where it will load first.

Speed of Access to Content - This is where the 3-click rule comes in - no important content should be more than 3 clicks from the home page. Some standards even say that it should be no more than two clicks. One helpful way to speed access to content is to consider each type of user, select the content that they are most likely to be interested in and create links from the home page to one piece of content for each group. This will get them quickly to the appropriate part of the site.

Cleanly Designed Pages - Cleanly designed pages are pleasant to look at and easy to read. It is almost impossible to make a site with an image shown as a tiled background usable - the whole thing is too distracting and confusing. It takes no great design skills to create clean pages; it just requires thought and adherence to the principle that when it comes to design, less usually is more.

Download Status - Most paid membership websites are limited to online access and information download rather than selling products. There should be clear download instructions provided. Your website should also state the size of the file in kilobytes and the estimated time of download for a user having a 56K modem, DSL, Cable and so on.

Usability Problems - While for large commercial sites investment in full-scale usability studies may be essential, few small sites can afford such luxuries. However, identifying problems with usability for your site need be no more complicated than asking a few (honest) friends to act as guinea pigs on your site and, if possible, watching them silently as they do this.

Watching users try to find information at your site can be both instructive and quite surprising. Remember that if at any stage you feel the urge to intervene and explain, then you have identified a usability problem.

  1. The site does not state its purpose clearly Java applets, huge images, banner ads or flashy elements slow down loading; 10 seconds is about as long as the average user will wait for a page.

  2. The site requires specific software to be used. Have you ever actually changed browsers or downloaded a piece of software just to see a site?

  3. Poor navigation, too little navigation, too much navigation and, not uncommonly, no navigation at all.

  4. Bad design leading to poor readability.

  5. Discomfort due to ugly design or inconsistent design. Almost always because a designer overestimated their skills.

  6. Irrelevance of content - for example the business site that includes biographies and photos of each of the board members. Happy egos on the board = bored website-visitors!

  7. Complexity or excessive originality of design, which requires users to learn how it works in order to use it.

  8. Inaccessibility because the site cannot be used by browsers for people with disabilities.


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

38. Logo Design Mania

Author: Kristine Llabres

When you are about to design your very own logo take into consideration how you plan to use it. For instance, a logo created for website or full color stationery printing will be designed for faxing and imprinting on coffee mugs and other items. Most companies crave to use their logo for more than just a single application. Graphic designs that possess gradients, transparences and special effect filters tend to cost more to reproduce and often need to have an additional simplified version created. Your logo represents your very company. How it appears tells the potential customers what kind of business you have. See to it that your logo represents you just enough. For instance if your business is about financing, your logo must be high tech, conservative and contemporary, creating a quirky design could instantly take away its credibility.
The company’s philosophies, goals, missions, and objectives are also taken into consideration. Make sure that you are using the proper format for the application. You can either make it Adobe illustrator that is editable both in PC and in MAC software. Your company logo is very important in branding your business. It should be strictly unique and would clearly depict you. The ultimate purpose is for the people to recognize your logo and associate yourself with it. Make sure that your chosen logo stands out in the crowd.
Make sure that you really like the logo before finally deciding on that. It will be for you and your business so; you have to like it as much as you like your own business. As years go by you may opt to update your logo but it should always have the same basic feel to it. After all, this is how people would recognize you and your business.

Make sure that 20 years from the time you created your logo design you will still like the same color. The same holds true for the kind of font. Sure these nuances can be changed but often they are very important part of the design so they get it perfect at the same time during the first meeting.
Create your own logo and make sure that it clearly speaks of you and your business!


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

39. Graphics on your Web Pages - Why Color is so Important?

Author: Dmitry Graphicson

Graphics on your web pages - why color is so important? Let's imagine you want to start an online project. What is the first thing you make your idea come true? Surely, a web site! But ask yourself if you need an ordinary web site that will make no impression on your visitors, your potential customers? Of course you want something special from the point of view of usability and of course of graphics on your web site. Professional web graphic design is what will attract your visitors at first! Let's leave the usability question to the experienced web developers and focus on graphics since it is the issue we are going to talk about in this article.

So, you have a general idea what your web site should look like. What is then the most important thing you should concentrate before you start? Have no answer? We will help you :) - this is the color! Right color spectrum equipped with remarkable flash animation will make your web site attractive and rememberable whereas a bad color combination may whittle down all your undertakings. The fact itself that you have customers on your web site means that a general color combination has been chosen right. However, to make your web site more visitable, you should think about a really successful combination of colorful graphics on your web pages and your web graphic design represented by a perfect color match. Even a person being far from psychology will tell you that every color has its own meaning and same colors in different cultures may have absolutely different meaning. Let's focus now on general color combinations available for professional web design and what meaning content each color brings.

First of all, professional designers never use more than three colors. Multicolored web graphic design distracts customers' attention from the essence and sometimes even irritates. What are the colors you wonder that would make everybody happy? Usually these are the colors that inspire calmness, confidence and serenity such as green, blue, white. A combination of blue colors presented in professional web design is extremely popular as well as a combination or white and blue. Such colors as pink, lilac and orange are also popular among designers due to the fact that pink color associates with softness and generosity, whereas orange and lilac are favorite colors amid kids. But the main principle of choosing colors for your web graphic design should be your target group.

Web sites for women should be accomplished in soft pale shades, such as pink, lilac, white. Web site for men may use gray and dark tints, web site for children should contain bright, vivid colors such as orange, yellow, violet, green. And of course you should never forget about cultural differences and ethnic aspects while selecting the graphics solutions for your web site.

Let's consider it on an example of simple white color. For European countries white color stands for marriage, angels, peace. However, for most Oriental countries white color does not bear emotions as positive as for Europe. For China white color stands for death and mourning, for India means unhappiness etc. That's why understanding of color theory is so important especially for the beginners. When you create your first web site you want it to be as expressive as possible, bright and vivid, that's why the most popular mistake of young designers is to use the colors they like. As a result the web site looks like a Christmas tree.

Obviously a multicolored web site containing all the rainbow spectrum is not what will make your business look confident and serious. There is a combination of primary colors such as reds, yellows and blues that may serve as a basis for different further color combinations. If you are a beginner and have some doubts concerning how to combine this or that color, the best way to reach the harmony is to use warm colors with warm colors (red, orange, yellow) and cold ones with cold ones (purple, green, blue). Good color combinations are also possible with tints of the same color (for ex. red and pink, dark and light blue), but what you really should always keep in mind is the target group you are going to hit.


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

40. Ten Of The Most Common Mistakes Made In Web Design

Author: Kenneth Scott

Designers can keep more of their website visitors by avoiding common mistakes. The following list describes some of the most common design errors associated with websites.

It is a mistake to put too many ads on your website. You have probably decided to use ads to make some money from your site, but don't fall into the trap of fitting in more ads than you should. And don't use ad formats that seriously intrude on a visitor's experience of your site.

You should keep the use of media plug-ins to a maximum of one per page. If you're using Flash, for example, you shouldn't have a media player. If you decide to use Java, you can't also use Flash. You may use the same plug-in twice, however.

Web design experts strongly advise against using a Flash introduction on your website. While most people understand that these introductions are a bad idea, designers still get clients who don't know how much Flash intros are disliked and criticized.

Having unclear layouts and navigation schemes is a major mistake. Business sites, in particular, tend to use many steps to perform really simple tasks. If you are receiving many e-mails from visitors asking how to use your site, you need to make some improvements in your layout and navigation. If you find that there are specific tasks people want to do more often than others, put these on the front page of the site.

All external links those that take a user off your site should be specifically marked by making them a different color or by using a symbol of some type. You should also have external links open up in new windows so visitors do not leave your site completely when they click on them. While you might like it when links become visible only when users mouse over them, or when you keep the link colors from standing out from the rest of the text, these are a big mistakes. Visitors want to know where the links are without hunting for them. Use contrasting colors and even underline your links.

Another bad design idea is to include a link that will send an e-mail without marking it clearly to identify it as an e-mail link.

Broken links are annoying to website visitors. You should check your links on a regular basis to ensure that they still work.

Don't use strange fonts. Use Arial, Georgia, Tahoma, and Verdana. If you use obscure fonts, you'll find that most visitors won't have them, and those that do will find your text difficult to read. Only use non-standard fonts in a logo or in headings and only if they are displayed as images.

Body-text that is poorly sized can ruin a website. Make sure your text is a standard size. If it is too small or too large, it is difficult to read. Try to use relative text sizing rather than pixel sizing. This allows visitors to utilize their preferred text size at your site.


Прочитайте и переведите текст.

41. The 5 Biggest Mistakes of Web Design

Author: Robin Eldred

Your business needs a website. Here's a quick primer on how not to screw it up.

Anyone who faces the challenge of having a website built faces a very daunting task, indeed. You know your business needs a web site, or perhaps you need to rebuild what you've already got. Getting is right is a delicate balance of business objectives, usability for the web, and search engine promotion. Getting it wrong is what this article is designed to help you avoid.

Here are the five biggest mistakes you must avoid.

1. Not establishing objectives

Without a thorough plan to kick things off, what are you building? It's like showing up at the airport one day and saying, "I'm going on a vacation." Where are you going? Where will you stay when you get there? How long will you go for? Can you afford it? Did you ask your boss for the time off?

To start, figure out what you want the benefits of your website to be. Forget about the bells and whistles required to make it happen; that's the job of your web designer. Establish what you want your website do for your business. Some examples: generate leads, sell your products/services right on the website, reduce administrative tasks, brand your company, pre-qualify prospects, recruit employees - the things a website can do for your company are virtually limitless. Establish your objectives and ensure that you and your web designer understand them fully.

2. Ignoring your customers

We're talking about your messaging here. It's so easy to write your content from an internal perspective. What you want to say, what you think is compelling, what you think matters. What about your customers? Don't forget that you need to convince them to do business with you. The key to writing good, customer-centric content is to understand the "why". Why should your customers buy from you? You might think you know, but a good dose of objective research will uncover the truth. Capitalize on your unique selling proposition from the perspective of how it benefits your customers.

You will also need to use proper web style in your writing. Your content should be well organized, highly scannable, easy to digest, and to the point. If you can organize it in a "pyramid" style, even better. This is where the most important, compelling information is presented first, and deeper information follows (such as technical specifications). Depending on your strengths this may be difficult for you to produce, so you may consider hiring a professional writer or copywriter.



3. Forgetting the marketing

When your website is built, it is an island; and a deserted one at that. Your customers don't know about it and neither do the search engines. You need to tell them. You need to market your website.

Getting your website noticed by the right people is key. You're not actually marketing to search engines here. Search engines are simply a means to an end. You need to market to your customers. You must understand that your customers use different online methods to find what you sell; and this most likely includes search engines.

You may also consider newsletter advertising, email advertising, PR campaigns, social networking, etc. The exact approach you need to take depends on your objectives, how your target audience looks for what you sell, your budget, your industry, etc.

4. Not measuring the results

So, how did you do? You built a great web site and marketed the heck out of it. How many people came to your site? How many became leads? How many leads did you turn into customers? How much were they worth? What content did your visitors like and not like? {Insert your own redundant questions here}

Just like any marketing venture, you must measure the results in order to find out if it was successful. I'm talking about things like:

A tracking plan . Your leads might call you instead of buying online or using your contact form. You need a plan to track them, and how they found you. If you're running offline marketing campaigns, setup a separate domain name or create a unique web page. Online forms specific to a marketing campaign can be really useful as well.

Statistics and reporting . Good statistics can tell you a lot about how people use your website. Google Analytics is a wonderful package, easy to install, and totally free. More than this, you need to understand the numbers, and draw conclusions. This takes quite a lot of practice and understanding. A professional web design or marketing company can help you with this.

Adapt . Use your results, don't just read them. This will invariably require consulting with an expert again, but you need to act on your results to improve them. This is an on-going process. Forever.

5. Getting Paralyzed

A lot of web design projects never see the light of day because they get mired down in perpetual planning. There comes a time when you need to act. You won't get it perfect the first time out (or ever), but you've got to move. If you aim, re-aim and re-aim forever, you'll never actually get off a shot. Aim - shoot - repeat.

A quick caveat: I'm not telling you to put up a poorly written and poorly constructed web site just to have something; that can be very dangerous. A bad website can turn customers away and, even worse, have them poison your business through negative word of mouth. What I am telling you to do is to not get paralyzed trying to perfect your plan. Hiring the right team of experts can get you on track, and get things moving.

Hopefully this article helps steer you away from the most common (and dangerous) pitfalls of web design. Whether you hire a professional, create your site internally, or do it on your own from start to finish, keep these tips in mind.










































Appendix

GLOSSARY

Ad management and Tracking

Banner advert management and tracking software for high traffic websites. 100% Browser-Based application, allows your customers and monitor their ads effortlessly and at their own convenience.  

Affiliate marketing

Affiliate marketing is a method of promoting web businesses (merchants/advertisers) in which an affiliate (publisher) is rewarded for every visitor, subscriber, customer, and/or sale provided through his/her efforts.  

Analytics

Web analytics is the study of the behavior of website visitors. In a commercial context, web analytics especially refers to the use of data collected from a web site to determine which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives; for example, which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase.

Data collected almost always includes web traffic reports. It may also include e-mail response rates, direct mail campaign data, sales and lead information, user performance data such as click heat mapping, or other custom metrics as needed. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance, and used to improve a web site or marketing campaign's audience response.  

Applet

A small program designed to run over the internet. It's held on a serer but works inside a web browser.  

ASP

Active Server Page. Server side program scripting to create dynamic web pages integrated with the HTML of a page. 

Bandwidth

The allocated amount of data that can be transferred over our network during a fixed amount of time expressed in bits per second (bps).  

Banner advertising

A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking them to the web site of the advertiser. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF, JPEG, PNG, SWF), JavaScript program or multimedia object employing technologies such as Java, Shockwave or Flash, often employing animation or sound to maximize presence. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i.e. either wide and short, or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners. These images are usually placed on web pages that have interesting content, such as a newspaper article or an opinion piece.

Blogging

Short for weblog, a blog is similar to diary online that can be edited using a simple content management system (CMS).  

Bookmark

A link to particular website, stored by a user for future use.  

Browser

Software that is used to interpret HTML commands and display web page content. The two most widely used browsers are Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Internet Exporer (IE).  

Cache

A web browser feature, which stores copies of regularly accessed files on a computers hard disk to speed access.  

Case sensitive

Used to indicate that characters typed in will only be recognised if entered in the correct case.  

Click through rate

The number of times visitors click on a link, or advert on a page, as a percentage of the number of times the page has been displayed.  

Content Management System

Content Management System (CMS). A program that automates the management of the content you add to your site.  

Content

The words, graphics, photos, audio, video and downloadable docs that make up your web site.  

Cookie

Web cookies are parcels of text sent by a server to a web browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser each time it accesses that server. web cookies are used for authenticating, tracking, and maintaining specific information about users, such as site preferences and the contents of their electronic shopping carts.

Cookies are subject to a number of misconceptions, mostly based on the erroneous notion that they are computer programs. In fact, cookies are simple pieces of data unable to perform any operation by themselves. In particular, they are neither spyware nor viruses, despite the detection of cookies from certain sites by many anti-spyware products.

Most modern browsers allow users to decide whether to accept cookies, but rejection makes some websites unusable. For example, shopping baskets implemented using cookies do not work if cookies are rejected.  

CSS

CAScading Style Sheets. A feature of HTML that enables designers to specify style information, such as fonts, size, colour, background as well as define the placement of elements on a web page.   

DNS Records

The Domain Name System (DNS) serves as the "phone book" for the Internet; it translates human-readable computer hostnames, e.g. signature.gb.com , into the IP addresses that networking equipment needs for delivering information. In providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service, DNS is an essential component of contemporary Internet use.  

Domain name

Domain name (web addresses, URL) is main apart of a web address that is it's unique identification, for example 'letsrentit.co.uk'.

E-commerce

E-commerce consists primarily of the distributing, buying, selling, marketing and servicing of products or services over the Internet.  

Encryption

Conversion of data from it's original form to one that cannot be understood by others. Only the sender and recipient have the key to convert the data back to its original form. The purpose is to prevent unauthorised people from viewing data as it travels across the internet.

Error 404

404 is an HTTP status code. Error 404 indicates a client error. The server is saying that you've done something wrong, such as misspell the URL or request a page which is no longer there.  

File sharing

File sharing is the practice of making files available for other users to download over the Internet.

Flash

Vector graphic software from Adobe that allows a single animation or video file to play on all browsers, with the Flash plug-in installed.

Flickr

Flickr - almost arguably the best known online photo management and sharing application. Flickr is a photo sharing website and web services suite, and an online community platform. The service is widely used by bloggers as a photo repository.

Frame

In a Web site, frames are the multiple, independently controllable sections on a Web presentation. This effect is achieved by building each part as a separate HTML file and having one "master" HTML file identify all of the parts. Surveys of users indicate that many people do not like sites using frames.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol. Enables you to copy or send files from one computer to another via the internet. Anonymous FTP is a method for downloading files from an FTP server without using a login account  

Functional specification

A functional specification (functional spec) is a formal document used to describe in detail for web developers a website's intended capabilities, appearance, and interactions with users. A functional specification is a blueprint and continuing reference point as the developers write the programming code.  

Hits

The number of times a web object ( a page a picture within a page) has been viewed or downloaded.

Homepage

The main or first page of a website.  

Hosting

The act of storing and providing information over the internet. Hosting Companies offer hosting space for lease, enabling companies or individuals to set up their own websites or other internet content.  

HTML

(Hypertext Markup Language) is the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on the World Wide Web. The markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page for the user. Each individual markup code is referred to as an element or tag. HTML is a formal Recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and is generally adhered to by the major browsers, Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator, which also provide some additional non-standard codes. The current version of HTML is HTML 4.0. However, both Internet Explorer and Netscape implement some features differently and provide non-standard extensions. This makes building web site very challenging, even for the professional.  

Hyperlink

A pointer to another document, most often a pointer to another web page.  

javascript

JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development, but is also used to enable scripting access to objects embedded in other applications.  

Link

A pointer to another document, most often a pointer to another web page.

Link building

Link building is an essential part of internet marketing. The internet and sites like signature.gb.com need links to other sites in order to receive traffic and to give resources to visitors. Strategic link building is about establishing your competitive position in the online marketplace that already exists.

Mashups

Content used in mashups is typically sourced from a third party via a public interface or API, Web feeds ( RSS or Atom) and web services.

Many people are experimenting with mashups using Google, eBay, Amazon, AOL, Windows Live, and Yahoos APIs.

Meta tag

A specific HTML tag that contains information about the page itself. Typical use of meta tags are to include information for search engines to help them index your site better.

Navigation structure

The hierarchical relationship between pages in a website, mapped out in a site diagram, which is then used to determine the links that will appear in each page's navigation bar.

 PayPal

PayPal is an e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the Internet. It serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods such as cheques and money orders. PayPal performs payment processing for online vendors, auction sites, and other corporate users, for which it charges a fee.

Pay per click advertising

Pay per click (PPC) is an advertising technique used on websites, advertising networks, and search engines. Advertisers bid on "keywords" that they believe their target market (people they think would be interested in their offer) would type in the search bar when they are looking for their type of product or service. For example, if an advertiser sells red widgets, he/she would bid on the keyword "red widgets", hoping a user would type those words in the search bar, see their ad, click on it and buy. These ads are called "sponsored links" or "sponsored ads" and appear next to and sometimes above the natural or organic results on the page. The advertiser pays only when the user clicks on the ad.  

Push marketing

Push/ pull marketing analogy refers to the purchasing experience (CRM) between customer and your website. A customer/ browser "pulls" things towards themselves, while a site owner "pushes" things toward customers.  

PHP

PHP Hypertext Preprocessor is a scripting language often used to create dynamic web pages. A MySQL database holds the necessary information: PHP takes the required information and sets it out as a web page on demand  

Podcasting

Podcasting is a new type of online media delivery. You publish selected audio files via the internet and allow your users to subscribe via an RSS feed to automatically receive new files. Podcasting lets you create your own syndicated online talk-show or radio program, with content of your choosing.  

Rich media

Media with more than text and images, using sound, video and special effects via programs such as Flash and Shockwave, and often some interactive advertising capacity

SSL

Short for Secure Sockets Layer, a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL uses a cryptographic system that uses two keys to encrypt data − a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers. By convention, URLs that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http:.

Another protocol for transmitting data securely over the World Wide Web is Secure HTTP (S-HTTP). Whereas SSL creates a secure connection between a client and a server, over which any amount of data can be sent securely, S-HTTP is designed to transmit individual messages securely. SSL and S-HTTP, therefore, can be seen as complementary rather than competing technologies. Both protocols have been approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a standard.

Sticky marketing

Marketing stickiness is the amount of time spent at a site over a given time period. Stickiness is often measured in terms of page views. When defined as minutes per month, site stickiness is a function of number of visits (repeat usage) and time spent per visit (session stickiness).  

Traffic

The number of visitors to your website. It's measured with stats such as page views, hits and pages accessed  

URL

Uniform Resource Locator, previously Universal Resource Locator is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the Internet. A common way to get to a Web site is to enter the URL of its home page file in your Web browser's address line. However, any file within that Web site can also be specified with a URL. Such a file might be any Web page other than the home page, an image file, or a program such as a common gateway interface application or Java applet. The URL contains the name of the protocol to be used to access the file resource, a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a pathname, a hierarchical description that specifies the location of a file in that computer. On the Web (which uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP), an example of a URL is: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt

Viral marketing

Viral marketing is based on natural human behaviors and refers to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness. It can be word-of-mouth. Viral promotions may take the form of funny video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames, images, or even SMS text messages.  

VOIP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) is the routing of voice conversations over the Internet or through any other IP-based network.

WC3

World Wide Web Consortium.The group responsible for defining major standards used in web design, such as HTML and CSS.  

Wikis

A wiki is a website that allows visitors to add, remove, and edit content.  

XML

Extensible Markup language.A format for defining pieces of information and how they relate to each other within a set of documents.








Список литературы

  1. Пичугова И.Л. Профессиональный английский язык. Проектирование информационных систем – Томск, 2006.-328с.

  2. Вирджиния Эванс, Дженни Дули, Upload 1:Teacher's Book, Express Publishing, 2011.-341с.

  3. Oxenden Cl., Latham-KoenigCh., New English File Upper-Intermediate, Oxford University Press, 2008.-420с.

Интернет-ресурсы

1. TechTarget (NASDAQ: TTGT) http://techtarget.com/.

2. Web design library http://www.webdesign.org/.

3. Weblog Tech Crunch http://www.techcrunch.com/.

  1. Webopedia http://www.webopedia.com/ (computer and Internet technology definitions).

  2. www.alleng.ru/engl-top/.

  3. www.compnetworking.about.com/.

  4. www.lovelylanguage.ru

  5. www.begin-english.ru

  6. www.anglyaz.ru

  7. www.window.edu.ru












Методическое пособие по теме "Компьютерные и коммуникационные системы"
  • Иностранные языки
Описание:

Методическоепособие по теме  «КОМПЬЮТЕРНЫЕ И КОММУНИКАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ»  по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» соответствует программе по английскому языку для студентов очного отделения.

 

            Методическое пособие состоит из 41 текста с глоссарием в приложении (в виде научно-популярных статей, учебных текстов, а также  тематических эссе американских и британских студентов) по компьютерной и технической тематике  со словарем и перечнем проверочных вопросов к каждой теме.  Подобранный лексический материал в сочетании с распространенными  грамматическими структурами будет способствовать расширению и обогащению как активного, так и пассивного словаря изучающих иностранный язык. 

Автор Нестерова Юлия Павловна
Дата добавления 06.02.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другое
Просмотров 2025
Номер материала 55750
Скачать свидетельство о публикации

Оставьте свой комментарий:

Введите символы, которые изображены на картинке:

Получить новый код
* Обязательные для заполнения.


Комментарии:

↓ Показать еще коментарии ↓