УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ ЛИПЕЦКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
ГОБ ПОУ «Липецкий металлургический колледж»
Методические указания по проведению практических работ
по учебной дисциплине
для групп специальностей 2 курса:
140448 Техническая эксплуатация и обслуживание электрического и электромеханического оборудования (по отраслям),
151031 Монтаж и техническая эксплуатация промышленного оборудования (по отраслям),
230113 Компьютерные системы и комплексы
230401 Информационные системы (по отраслям)
220703 Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств (по отраслям)
Липецк 2014 год
Методические указания по проведению практических работ по
учебной дисциплине «Иностранный язык»
Составитель: Шабрина А. А., преподаватель английского и французского языков
_______________ /Лосева Н.В./
по учебной работе:
Методические указания по проведению практических работ предназначены для студентов ГОБ ПОУ «Липецкий металлургический колледж» следующих специальностей: 140448 Техническая эксплуатация и обслуживание электрического и электромеханического оборудования (по отраслям),
151031 Монтаж и техническая эксплуатация промышленного оборудования (по отраслям), 230113 Компьютерные системы и комплексы, 230401 Информационные системы (по отраслям), 220703 Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств (по отраслям) для подготовки к учебным занятиям с целью освоения практических умений и навыков.
Методические указания по проведению практических работ составлены в соответствии с примерной программой учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык» для профессий НПО и специальностей ПОУ, утвержденной Департаментом государственной политики в сфере нормативно-правового обеспечения образования Минобрнауки России от 16.04.2008 года; рабочей программой учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык» (дисциплина входит в общеобразовательный цикл базисного учебного плана следующих специальностей: 140448 Техническая эксплуатация и обслуживание электрического и электромеханического оборудования (по отраслям),
151031 Монтаж и техническая эксплуатация промышленного оборудования (по отраслям), 230113 Компьютерные системы и комплексы, 230401 Информационные системы (по отраслям), 220703 Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств (по отраслям)
Методические указания по проведению практических работ составлены в соответствии с содержанием рабочей программы учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык» (дисциплина входит в общеобразовательный цикл базисного учебного плана следующих специальностей: 140448 Техническая эксплуатация и обслуживание электрического и электромеханического оборудования (по отраслям), 151031 Монтаж и техническая эксплуатация промышленного оборудования (по отраслям), 230113 Компьютерные системы и комплексы, 230401 Информационные системы (по отраслям), 220703 Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств (по отраслям) дисциплины «Иностранный язык».
Результаты обучения (освоенные умения, усвоенные знания)
Формы и методы контроля и оценки результатов обучения
В результате освоения дисциплины обучающийся должен уметь:
- общаться (устно и письменно) на иностранном языке на профессиональные и повседневные темы;
- переводить (со словарем) иностранные тексты профессиональной направленности;
- самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речь, пополнять словарный запас.
В результате изучения учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык» обучающийся должен знать:
- лексический (1550-1600лексических единиц) и грамматический минимум, необходимый для чтения и перевода (со словарем) иностранных текстов профессиональной направленности.
Формы контроля и оценки результатов обучения:
- домашние задания проблемного характера;
- практические задания по работе с информацией, документами, литературой;
- защита индивидуальных и групповых заданий проектного характера.
Методы оценки результатов обучения:
- накопительная система баллов, на основе которой выставляется итоговая отметка;
- традиционная система баллов за каждую выполненную работу, на основе которых выставляется итоговая отметка;
- мониторинг роста творческой самостоятельности и навыков получения нового знания каждым обучающимся.
Методические указания к выполнению
практической работы для студентов
К выполнению практической работы необходимо подготовиться до начала учебного занятия.
При подготовке к практической работе используйте рекомендованную литературу, предложенную в данных методических указаниях, конспекты лекций.
К выполнению работы допускаются студенты, освоившие необходимый теоретический материал.
По окончании выполнения практической работы проверьте себя, ответив на контрольные вопросы для самопроверки.
Если практическая работа не сдана в указанные сроки (до выполнения следующей практической работы) по неуважительной причине, оценка снижается.
Great Britain: General Acquaintance.
Read and translate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles lying to the north-west of Europe .The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and some five thousand small islands. The country is usually called simply Great Britain.
The United Kingdom is one of the world’s smaller countries (it is twice smaller than France or Spain), with an area of some 244,110 sq. km.
The United Kingdom is made up of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and doesn’t include Northern Ireland. The capital of the UK is London.
Great Britain is separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel, the narrower part of which is called the Strait of Dover. From the west the UK is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, from the east by the stormy North Sea and the southern coast is washed by the English Channel. The Irish Sea lies between England and Ireland.
The climate, in general, is mild, chilly, and often wet. Rain or overcast skies can be expected for up to 300 days per year. These conditions make Britain lush and green, known for a variety of scenery found on such a small area: a low-lying land and hilly areas, flat fields as well as lofty mountains. The surface of Eastern England is flat. Scotland and Wales are hilly and mountainous. The mountains are not very high as compared with those of the world, the loftiest one - Ben Nevis (Scotland) - is only 4400 feet (1343m) in height. In the west the Cambrian Mountains occupy the greater part of Wales; in the north - the Cheviot Hills separate England from Scotland, the Pennines - to the south of the Cheviot Hills and Cumbrian Mountains are famous for the number and beauty of their lakes. There are sixteen lakes here and this part of the country, called the Lake District, is the most beautiful and the wettest part of Great Britain.
There are many rivers in Britain but very few of them are navigable except near the mouth for anything but smaller vessels. Many of the rivers have been connected with each other by means of canals. The principal rivers are the Severn, the Thames and the Trent. The Severn is the longest river in Britain but the Thames is the most important one. The Severn is 210 miles in length, the Thames is a little over 200 miles.
The seas surrounding the British Isles are shallow - usually less than 300 feet deep. The shallowness is in some way an advantage. Shallow water is warmer than deep water and helps to keep the shores from extreme cold. It is too the home of plenty of fish, a million tons of which are caught every year. Britain’s coastline contains numerous harbours serving as convenient ports, among which are London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Portsmouth and others.
Britain has the richest energy sources in the European Union (EU), and its abundant resources of oil and natural gas which were discovered in the North Sea off the eastern coast of Britain in 1969 are of vital importance to the British economy. Britain also has a number of nuclear energy facilities. Recently much research has been devoted to developing biofuels, solar energy, wind power, and waterpower.
The population of Great Britain (1996 estimate) is 58,489,975. The largest cities in Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds and Glasgow.
Great Britain is highly developed economically, preeminent in the arts and sciences, sophisticated in technology, and highly prosperous and peaceful. In general, British subjects belong to one of the more affluent states of Europe and enjoy a high standard of living compared to the rest of the world.
Exercise 1. Finish up the sentences according to the model:
Englishmen live in England, they speak English.
.........................in Scotland ..............................
.........................in Ireland................................. .
.........................in Wales .................................. .
.........................in Sweden ............................... .
.........................in Spain ................................... .
.........................in Denmark .............................. .
.........................in Holland ................................ .
.........................in Switzerland .......................... .
Exercise 2. Pick out from Text A synonyms of the following.
To contain, to name, to form, to divide, near, shore, prosperous, too, ship, suitable, lofty, crucial, well-known, several.
Exercise 3. Pick out from Text A antonyms of the following.
Far, deep, low, wide, to stand, disadvantage, mountainous, northern, dry, artificial, poor, small.
Exercise 4.Translate the following sentences into Russian and make up your own ones about the country (city) you live in using the italicized words and phrases.
The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands.
The shallow waters surrounding the island provide excellent fishing grounds.
The mild climate, ample rain and long growing season in Britain support a great variety of plants, which grow exceptionally well.
Great Britain’s western coast tends to be warmer than the eastern coast, and the southern regions tend to be warmer than the northern regions.
The mean annual temperature in the far north of Scotland is 6° C (43° F), and in warmer southwestern England it is 11° C (52° F).
Winds blowing off the Atlantic Ocean bring clouds and large amounts of moisture to the British Isles.
As the world's first industrialized society, Britain has a long history of dealing with environmental problems.
Britain has a diverse population that includes people with connections to every continent of the world.
Exercise 5. Answer the questions.
The UK is an island state, isn’t it? Where is it situated?
What countries is the UK made up of? What are their capitals?
What are the names of the waters washing the coasts of the British Isles?
Why is the climate of Great Britain mild?
What are the names of the mountains and where are they situated?
Are there a lot of long and deep rivers?
Why is the shallowness in some way an advantage?
What are the mineral and natural resources of Great Britain?
How many people live in Great Britain?
What can you say about the standard of living in this country?
The Political System.
Read and translate.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional (or parliamentary) monarchy without a written constitution. The country has a monarch (a king or a queen) as its Head of State. The monarch has very little power and can only reign with the support of parliament. Parliament consists of two chambers known as the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country, and they only meet together on symbolic occasions such as the coronation of a new monarch or the opening of Parliament. In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three which has true power. It is here that new bills are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members are in favour of a bill it goes to the House of Lords to be debated and finally to the monarch to be signed. Only then does it become law. Although a bill must be supported by all three bodies, the House of Lords only has limited powers, and the monarch has not refused to sign one since the modern political system began over 200 years ago.
“Her Most Excellent Majesty Elizabeth the Second by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith” is the official Head of State and, for many people, a symbol of the unity of the nation. For a thousand years England (and later the whole of the United Kingdom) has been united under one sovereign. The hereditary principal still operates and the Crown is passed on to the sovereign’s eldest son (or daughter if there are no sons).
The Queen has a certain role in state affairs, not only through her ceremonial functions, such as opening Parliament, but also because she meets the Prime Minister every week and receives copies of all Cabinet papers. Functions of the Sovereign are as follows:
opening and closing Parliament;
approving of the appointment of the Prime Minister;
giving her Royal Assent to bills;
Head of the Commonwealth;
Head of the Church of England;
Commander-in-Chief of the armed Forces.
The House of Lords has more than 1,000 members, although only about 250 take an active part in the work of the House. The chairman of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor, who sits on the Woolsack.
The House of Lords like the Monarch has now lost most of its powers and cannot influence the process of decision-making in Parliament. In practice, the powers of the House of Lords have been truncated to limited revising and delaying functions. Members of the House of Lords debate a bill after it has been passed by the House of Commons. Changes may be recommended, and agreement between the two Houses is reached by negotiation. The Lord’s main power consists of being able only to delay non-financial bills passed by the House of Commons for a period of a few months, but they can also introduce certain types of bills. One of the oldest functions of the House of Lords is judicial. It works as the highest and final Court of Appeal.
The two Houses of Parliament, the Lords and the Commons share the same building, the Palace of Westminster.
The House of Commons is made up of 650 elected members, known as Members of Parliament, or MPs. The Commons debating chamber, usually called “the House”, and has seats for only about 370 MPs. They are elected by popular vote and represent the counties and borough constituencies.
The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker. A Speaker is customarily reappointed to his office in each new Parliament. As soon as a party member becomes a Speaker he must abandon party politics.
The life of Parliament is divided into periods called “sessions’. A session normally lasts for about a year, from late October of one year to about the same date of the next year. MPs have holidays of about four weeks over Christmas, two weeks each at Easter and Whitsun, and about eleven weeks – from early August to mid-October – in the summer.
The beginning of a new session, called “the State Opening of Parliament”, is a fine ceremonial occasion, beginning with the royal procession from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster.
The United Kingdom is divided into 650 parliamentary constituencies, each with an electorate of about 60,000 voters. Each constituency is represented by one Member of Parliament in the House of Commons. The main political parties are usually represented at the elections and sometimes candidates representing minority parties stand. The winner is the candidate who gets more votes than any other single candidate.
The leader of the party with most votes becomes Prime Minister and forms a government, which can remain in power for up to five years. The second biggest party becomes the official Opposition. Its leader forms a “Shadow Cabinet”.
The Prime Minister chooses the date of the next General elections, but doesn’t have to wait until the end of five years. Voting takes place on Polling Day. The national result is known by the next morning at the latest.
As soon as it is clear that one party has a majority of seats in the House of Commons, its leader is formally invited by the Sovereign to form a government. The modern government is arranged in about fifteen departments each with a minister at its head. Normally, all the heads of the departments are members of the House of Commons, though sometimes one is in the House of Lords. They form the cabinet, which meets about once a week in Number 10 Downing Street, a rather ordinary-looking house, which also contains the Prime Minister’s personal office.
Exercise 1. Turn the following nouns into adjectives.
Constitution; politics; symbol; ceremony; parliament; democracy; finance; royalty.
Exercise 2. Find English equivalents in the text.
Избирательный округ; представить законопроект; оставаться у власти; быть сторонником чего-либо; наследственный принцип; ограниченные полномочия; достигать соглашения; представлять на выборах; судебная функция; подписывать документы; государственные дела.
Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences.
The United Kingdom is divided into …
2) Prime Minister is the leader of the party that …
3) The role of the monarch is …
4) The executive power in the UK belongs to …
5) The House of Lords can not reject bills that …
6) A “Shadow Cabinet” is formed by …
7) Members of the Government are not elected by the House of Commons, they are…
The official residence of the British Prime Minister is ...
The party which has majority of seats in the House of Commons forms …
10) MPs have holidays which last … .
Exercise 4. Agree or disagree to the following. Give your comments.
The Queen’s powers in Britain are unlimited.
The Prime Minister is the leader of the party, which has majority in the House of Lords.
The Queen opens the first session of Parliament with a throne speech.
The Royal family is the principal aristocratic house in Britain.
The Cabinet formulates comprehensive policy covering all major issues both at home and abroad.
The maximum life of the House of Commons has been restricted to 4 years since the Parliament Act 1911.
The House of Lords can influence the process of decision making in Parliament.
A bill becomes Act of Parliament when the Speaker signs it.
The Political Parties.
The British democratic system depends on political parties and there has been a party system of some kind since the 17th century. The Conservative and the Liberal parties are the oldest and until the last years of the 19th century they were the only parties elected to the House of Commons.
The Conservatives, often called the Tories, have always been the party of the Right, the party of big business, industry, commerce and landowners. It can broadly be described as the party of the middle and upper classes although it does receive some working class support. The party represents those who believe in private enterprise as opposed to state-owned undertakings. The Tories are the most powerful party and are often called a party of business directors. (The word “Tories” is an Irish name for thieves and was applied to the Conservatives by their opponents, but later they adopted the name to describe themselves).
The Tories were opposed by the Whigs, a rude name for cattle drivers. In the middle of the 19th century the Liberal Party (or the Whigs) represented the trading and manufacturing classes. Its slogan of that time was “Civil and Religious Liberty”. During the second half of the 19th century many working people looked at the Liberal Party as an alternative to the Conservatives and their policy. At the end of the 19th century and in the first two decades of the 20th century, the Liberals lost the support of working – class voters.
Around 1900 the Labour Party was formed as the political arm of the trade unions. It was the party that drew away working people’s support. The Labour Party has always had strong links with the trade unions and receives financial support from them. While many Labour voters are middle-class or intellectuals, the traditional Labour Party support is still strongest in industrial areas.
There are also some other parties: the Social Democratic Party, the Liberal Democrats. The Green Party, The Communist Party, the National Front, the Scottish National Party and the Welsh National Party.
Exercise 1. Turn the following verbs into nouns denoting the doer of the action.
To support; to vote; to manufacture; to own; to oppose; to believe; to elect; to win; to defend; to direct; to represent; to preside.
Exercise 2. Rearrange the sentences putting the words in the correct word order.
The party, the rich, traditionally, is, the Conservative Party, and, supported, privileged, by.
Today, representation, almost, parliamentary, insignificant, and, the Liberal Party, the membership, is, of.
A victory, was, at the beginning, the Labour Party, of, the formation, of, movement, the century, of, the labour.
Extremely, the Labour, the difference, policies, between, and, to tell, it’s, the Conservative, difficult.
To be, the major, parties, activists, members, tend, party, in, of, political, each, hard-working.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.
What are the dominant parties in modern Britain?
What is the difference between the two main political parties?
What do you know about the activities of the Green Party in Britain?
What is the role of the Liberal Party?
What is the ruling party in Great Britain now?
Economic Outline of the UK.
Read and translate.
The UK is a highly-developed country. It lives by manufacture and trade. For every person employed in agriculture eleven people are employed in mining, manufacturing and building. The United Kingdom is one of the world’s largest exporters of manufactured goods per head of population.
Apart from coal and iron ore Britain has very few natural resources and mostly depends on imports. Its agriculture provides only half of the food it needs. The other half and most of the raw materials for its industries such as oil and various metals (copper, zinc, uranium ore and others) have to be imported. Britain also has to import timber, cotton, fruit and farm products.
Britain used to be richly forested, but most of the forests were cut down to make more room for cultivation. The greater part of land is used for cattle and sheep breeding, and pig raising. Among the crops grown on the farms are wheat, barley and oats. The fields are mainly in the eastern part of the country.
In the past century Britain secured a leading position in the world as manufacturer, merchant and banker. After World War I the world demand for products of Britain’s traditional industries - textiles, coal and machinery - fell off, and Britain began expanding trade in new engineering products and electrical goods.
The crisis of 1929-1933 brought about mass unemployment and Britain’s share in the world industrial output decreased. World War II brought about a further weakening of Britain’s might. It has lost its colonies which used to supply it with cheap raw materials.
The original basis of British industry was coal-mining, and the early factories grew up not far from the main mining areas. Glasgow and Newcastle became great centers of engineering and shipbuilding. Lancashire produced cotton goods and Yorkshire woolen, with Sheffield concentrating on iron and steel. Birmingham developed light engineering.
The structure of industry changed substantially in the last half of the 20th century. As coal production declined, oil production replaced it as a major industry. Motor vehicle production became a significant part of the industrial base. British industrial production also expanded into communications equipment, including fiber optics, computers, computer-controlled machine tools, and robots.
The so-called Silicon Glen between Glasgow and Edinburgh is the site of many overseas computer firms. Scotland and Northern Ireland are still noted for their production of whiskey and textiles, especially linen from Northern Ireland and tweed from Scotland.
Nowadays Britain remains an important manufacturing country. Britain mostly produces articles requiring skilled labour, such as precision instruments, electronic equipment, chemicals and high quality consumer goods. It produces and exports cotton and woolen goods, leather goods and articles made of various kinds of synthetic (man-made) materials. The leading traditional manufacturing regions of England are Greater London and the cities and regions around Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, and Newcastle upon Tyne.
Britain has a large and sophisticated service sector. The service industries include finance, retailing, wholesaling, tourism, business services, transport, insurance, investment, advertising, public relations, market research, education, administration, and government and professional services. Telecommunications has become a dynamic growth industry, particularly with telex, facsimile, and e-mail communications.
Exercise 1.Give the Russian equivalents of the following.
Employ, be employed in industry (agriculture), mining, building, trade, manufactured goods, per head of population, apart from, raw materials, provide, timber, used to be, used to do smth., cattle and sheep breeding, demand, bring about, unemployment, share, articles, precision instruments, high quality consumer goods, retailing, wholesaling, insurance, advertising, public relations, government, particularly.
Exercise 2. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following.
Обрабатывающая промышленность, горно-добывающая промышленность, торговля, промышленные товары, строевой лес, крупный рогатый скот, сельскохозяйственная культура, пшеница, ячмень, овес, торговец, изделия текстильной промышленности, квалифицированный труд, сырье, кожа, обслуживающие отрасли промышленности, зарубежные фирмы.
Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences using the right words:
Great Britain is rich in ... (oil, gold, copper, silver, iron ore, zinc, coal).
Great Britain has to import ... (coal, agricultural products, electrical goods, chemicals, electronic equipment, oil, various metals, food products, cotton, timber, tobacco, wheat, fruit).
When the world demand for the products of Britain’s main industries-textiles, coal, machinery-decreased, it began seeking compensation in new engineering products, such as ... (cars, atomic power reactors, electrical goods, electronic equipment).
It is characteristic of Britain’s industry to produce ... (semi-finished goods, cheap articles, raw materials, high quality expensive goods, articles requiring skilled labour, precision instrument, electronic equipment).
The main products of Britain’s industry are ... (precision instruments, high quality consumer goods, electronic equipment, chemicals, textiles, ready-made clothing, manufactured goods, petrol).
A great number of new industries were added to the traditional ones such as ... (the aircraft industry, the textile industry, the electronic industry, the shipbuilding industry, the automobile industry, mining, engineering).
The main crops grown in Britain are ... (flax, cotton, wheat, barley, tobacco, vats).
In Britain they breed ... (cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, goats, deer, rabbits).
Exercise 4. Answer the questions.
What does the UK live by?
What does Great Britain export?
What raw materials does Great Britain import?
What did the crisis of 1929-1933 bring about?
When did Great Britain lose its colonies?
How did the structure of industry change in the last half of the 20th century?
What are Scotland and Northern Ireland noted for?
What are the main industrial articles produced by British industry?
Could you enumerate main British industries?
What areas does the service sector include?
Read and translate
This is the dialogue between Anna Smirnova, a Russian teacher of English, and Bernard Law, a London University lecturer. Anna is leaving London for Edinburgh next Saturday morning.
Anna: Bernard, could you do me a favour?
Bernard: Year, sure. I’ll be glad to if I can.
A.: Next Saturday morning I’m going to Edinburgh by car. What cities would you advise me to see on my way there?
B.: Well, it’s going to be a long journey. When are you expected in Edinburgh?
A.: Next Tuesday afternoon.
B.: Then you should try to see Northern England with Manchester, Leeds and Bradford and Midlands with Birmingham, Coventry and Sheffield. They are the most northwest industrial cities.
A.: What are they famous for?
B.: Well, the wool industry is centred in Bradford and Leeds. Other industries of these cities include the making of locomotives, agricultural implements, heavy iron and steel goods of all kinds, chemicals, glass, leather goods, artificial silk and pottery.
A.: And what about Manchester?
B.: You see, it’s the centre of cotton industry with a population of nearly one million. The University of Manchester, founded in 1880, is famous for its modern studies.
A.: Ah... that’s worth knowing. And I’ve heard that the district of Birmingham is known as the Black Country. Is it really so heavily industrialized?
B.: Oh, sure. It is a land of factories and mines and it owes its importance to iron industry. Iron goes to the steel, heavy machinery and shipbuilding industries of Newcastle and other cities.
A.: I wonder how they transport all these goods to other cities and countries? As far as I know Birmingham doesn’t have outlet on the sea-coast and doesn’t stand on any great river.
B.: You’re right. The nearest port is Liverpool - the main port of western England. It is first in Great Britain in export and comes second after London in imports. But most of the goods are transported to London and then distributed to different parts of the world.
A.: Bernard, you’ve mentioned Coventry as one of the industrial cities of Midland and I’d love to do the sights of this town to tell my friends about this Volgograd’s twin city.
B.: I have never heard about it. How interesting! What do they have in common?
A.: Don’t you know? Both Volgograd and Coventry were badly destroyed during World War II. Nowadays these cities exchange delegations and their contribution to Russian-British cooperation is appreciable.
B.: Then you should try to visit this city. I suggest you should spend at least a few hours in Coventry and see the Cathedral.
A.: I certainly will. Oh, I’m afraid I’ve taken up too much of your time. Thank you very much. I really appreciate your help.
B.: My pleasure. Enjoy your stay in Britain.
Exercise 1. Match English world with their Russian equivalents:
изделия из кожи
изделия из стекла
Exercise 2. Make up sentences using the table.
Motor cars, bicycles
Cutlery, special steel
to be developed in
Glass, leather goods
to be manufactured in
the Black Country
Exercise 3. Answer the questions.
What are the biggest industrial centres of the U. K.?
What are chief industries of the country?
What articles are manufactured in the Black Country?
Name the greatest ports and shipbuilding centres of Britain.
What cities are British textile centres?
What English city is the twin town of Volgograd?
What is Liverpool famous for?
What are the main English ports?
Exercise 4. Enumerate the main industries developed in your city.
Read and translate.
London is one of the most exciting and cosmopolitan cities in the world. To some – it is simply home, a place to live and work in, while to others who only visit – it means a city of history and culture, full of museums, galleries and historic buildings. But both visitors and residents appreciate its rich heritage, its fine architecture and amazing diversity of cultures. London’s most famous sights range from the historic Tower of London and the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace to the everyday views with its black cabs and red double-decker buses.
The heart of London is the City, the oldest area, which is rich in historic traditions. Today it is well known as one of the world’s leading financial and commercial centres, where all the major British and foreign banks and finance houses are represented.
The Tower of London comes first among the historic buildings of the City. If you want to get some glimpses of London it’s just from here that you had better start sightseeing. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and rebuilt in1066 by William the Conqueror. The Tower served as fortress, palace and state prison. Its history is associated with the place of murder and execution. Now it is a museum of armour and attracts thousand of visitors. The large black ravens have a long association with the Tower; it is believed that if they ever disappear England will fall and that ill-fortune will befall anyone who harms them. Consequently they are very well cared for.
A twenty minutes walk from the Tower will take you to another historic building – St. Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built by a famous English architect Sir Christopher Wren, who spent 35 years of his life supervising every part of its construction. St. Paul’s Cathedral with its huge dome and rows of columns is considered to be a fine specimen of Renaissance architecture. Nelson and other great men of England are buried in the Cathedral.
Not far away, in Westminster another important part of London where most of the Government buildings are situated is Westminster Abbey. Many outstanding English statesmen, painters and poets with Newton, Darwin and Tennyson among them are buried here. Westminster Abbey has been the coronation place of all 39 English Kings and Queens since William the Conqueror in 1066.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey there is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. Its two graceful towers stand high above the city. The higher of the two contains the largest clock in the country and the famous Big Ben. The name actually refers not to the clock tower or the clock itself but to the huge 13,5-ton bell that strikes every quarter of the hour.
If we walk along Whitehall which is not at all a hall but just a street where the chief government offices are to be found, we shall soon come to Trafalgar Square. It was so named in memory of the victory at the battle of Trafalgar, where on October 21, 1805 the English fleet under Nelson’s command defeated the combined fleet of France and Spain. The victory was won at the cost of Nelson’s life. In the middle of Trafalgar Square stands Nelson’s monument – a tall column with the figure of Nelson at its top. The column is guarded by four bronze lions. Nowadays Trafalgar Square is a favourite gathering place for both locals and visitors.
The fine building facing the square is the National Gallery and adjoining it (but just round the corner) is the Portrait Gallery.
Not far away is the British Museum – the biggest museum in London. It contains the priceless collection of different things: ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc. The British museum is famous for its library – one of the richest in the world.
Buckingham Palace has been the London residence of the Queen since the 18th century. It is around Buckingham Palace and nearby St James’s Palace that London’s most powerful pageantry takes place, where the sights of the daily Changing of the Guard, or the procession of Life Guards riding down the Mall cannot fail to attract attention.
And you cannot leave the city without visiting one more place of interest – Hyde Park (or “the Park” as Londoners call it) with Kensington Gardens adjoining it in the west is the largest in London. When you are walking along its shady avenues, sitting on the grass, admiring its beautiful flowerbeds or watching swans and ducks floating on the ponds, it seems almost unbelievable that all around there is a large city with its heavy traffic and smoke.
Exercise 1. Find English equivalents of the following.
Завоеватель, наследство, разнообразие, пышное зрелище, смена караула, ценою жизни, купол, достопримечательности, местные жители, казнь, несчастье, ворон, образец, невероятный, древний, торговый, изящный, примыкающий, восхищаться, привлекать внимание, хоронить, высоко ценить, исчезать, наносить поражение, причинять вред, приключаться.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions.
What is London famous for?
What's the City? Where is it situated?
What building is considered to be one of the oldest in London?
Who was the Tower of London founded by?
What beliefs are associated with the Tower?
Do you know the famous Englishmen who are buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral?
In what part of London are the most important Government buildings situated?
Which street leads to Trafalgar Square?
How is Admiral Nelson’s victory commemorated?
Where is the National Gallery situated?
Why does Buckingham Palace attract so much attention?
What kind of museum is the British Museum?
Why are Londoners proud of their parks?
Exercise 3. Describe the most fascinating place in London.
Exercise 4. Fill in prepositions.
Scotland Yard is the headquarters ... the Metropolitan Police ... London ... most people, its name immediately brings ... mind the picture ... a detective - cool, collected, efficient, ready to track down any criminal.
Scotland Yard is situated ... the Thames Embankment close ... the Houses ... Parliament and the familiar clock tower ... Big Ben. The name ‘‘Scotland Yard’’ originates ... the plot ... land adjoining Whitehall Palace where, ... about the 14th century, the royalty and nobility ... Scotland stayed when visiting the English Court. The popular nickname ... the London policeman ‘‘bobby’’ is a tribute ... Sir Robert Peel, who introduced the police force ... 1829, and whose Christian name attached itself ... members ... the force.
Text B. Sightseeing.
- Is it possible to see anything of London in one or two days?
- Well, yes, but of course not half enough.
- What do you think I ought to see first?
- Well, if you are interested in churches and historic places, you should go to Westminster Abby, the Houses of Parliament, St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower. Do you like art galleries?
- Then, why not go to the National Gallery?
- I’m told one ought to see the British Museum. Do you think I shall have time for that?
- Well you might, but if I were you I should leave that for some other day. You could spend a whole day there. It’s much too big to be seen in an hour or so.
- I suppose it is. What about going to the Zoo?
-That’s not a bad idea. You could spend a couple of hours there comfortably or even a whole afternoon, watching the wild animals, birds and reptiles.
- Perhaps I’ll do that. How do I get there?
- Let me see… I think your best way from here is to walk across Regent’s Park.
- Is it much of a walk?
- Oh, no a quarter of an hour or so, but if you are in a hurry, why not take a taxi?
- I think I will. Oh, here’s one coming. Taxi! The Zoo, please.
Exercise 1. Learn Text B by heart and recite it in pairs.
Exercise 2. Imagine the situation when you are in London on a tour. Ask a passer-by to recommend you the most interesting places to visit.
Exercise 5. Memorize and recite the following anecdotes. Render them in Reported Speech.
Two young men were travelling together in the tube in the rush hour, one of them was sitting back with closed eyes.
‘‘What’s the matter?’’ asked his friend. ‘‘Are you well? Why are you sitting with your eyes closed?’’
‘‘I’ve closed my eyes because I simply can’t bear to see so many ladies standing,’’ was the sad reply.
Hotel keeper: Here are a few views of our hotel for you to take with you, sir.
Guest: Thanks, but I have my own views of your hotel.
Customer: May I see the editor? My dog is lost. I sent an advertisement. Has anything been heard? A reward of $100 was offered for the dog.
Office boy: Sorry, all the editors are out looking for the dog.
Exercise 6. Talk about your home town. Use the following dialogue as a model.
A.: You’re from Wales, aren’t you?
D.: Yes, that’s right. I come from Swansea actually.
A.: Ah, Swansea! I’ve never been there. It’s a port, isn’t it?
D.: Oh yes - big docks, steel works and a lot of heavy industry round about. But it’s funny, just outside the town there’s really beautiful country. It’s extremely beautiful along the coast - the Gower Peninsular. No industry or nothing - just like it was a hundred years ago.
A.: Sounds great. And how large is Swansea?
D.: Oh, it’s a big city. You mustn’t think that all the people in Wales live in villages. We have cities too!
A.: Yes, I suppose so.
Exercise 7. Comment on the following proverbs and sayings. (Explain their meaning, give their Russian equivalents.)
East or West, home is best.
There is no place like home.
So many countries, so many customs.
When at Rome, do as the Romans do.
Some Useful Hints for Russians.
Read and translate the text.
How to Keep the English Happy.
All countries have unwritten but powerful rules of social behaviour, which can only be interpreted by other natives. The efforts of foreigners to explain to other foreigners become ridiculous: ‘Englishmen upon being introduced, shake hands and say, “How do you do?”’
Do they? Sometimes they do. It’s like being told, “In Russia at the beginning of the meal, the host pours out some vodka and everybody has to drink it in one gulp.’ Life is not as rigid as ceremonious or as repetitious as that.
So, no rules! Remember that we know that foreigners are going to be unfamiliar with our ways, and so long as they are obviously friendly and polite from the heart, it does not matter if they seem to us to behave slightly strangely. You will be miserable if you keep asking yourself, ‘Have I done this right or that right?’ And don’t feel that you have to apologize in case you have done something wrong. Apologies will distress your English friends and acquaintances. But don’t forget to thank them. And they will always appreciate a card or note from your home when you return.
In the last thirty years we have become much more informal than your textbooks suggest. Many of the rituals they describe no longer exist. But our informality conceals a pattern, an expectation of behaviour that can suddenly rise up strongly within us. For example, a group of English people, casual, friendly and easy-going, is making arrangements for the next day. They will have a much stronger expectation of punctuality than you may realize. Asked to arrive at ten o’clock, the English will arrive at ten o’clock, unless they are invited to a party or dinner, when they will carefully arrive a few minutes – but not twenty minutes – later. (Chronically unpunctual Englishmen exist, but try not to imitate them.)
Then, life in the country is more organized, people are much more tired by work than you may realize. Busy people have complex timetables. If you are invited for a meeting from half past ten to eleven, expect to leave at eleven – unless your host presses you to stay. It’s wiser not to launch into another long story as the Englishman opposite shuffles his papers or begins to wriggle in his chair.
Most English people get up and go to bed earlier than you do. So, expect to be up and around and working by about nine and nobody will be surprised if you are washing yourself around seven a.m. On the other hand, don’t try to telephone acquaintances after 10 p.m. unless you know them well. Some people don’t mind being phoned at midnight, but they are very rare.
The English, though you will find them friendly, do not rush to invite people to their homes – a great pity, but a fact. However, a minority is extremely hospitable and you may find yourself invited to someone’s home for an evening or at midday – or indeed for afternoon tea. With such people there should be no problems. They will want to make you feel comfortable, they will enjoy showing you all sorts of things with which you may be perfectly well acquainted, and they will display astonishing ignorance about your own home life. My advice is: ‘Ask, if you don’t know what to do next, whenever you don’t understand something which seems important.’ People enjoy explaining. And if you are asked questions, try to explain in answer. People enjoy trying to understand. But don’t feel that a simple question needs a ten-minute answer. Stop before you have completed your story, so that your friend can ask further questions. First, you may find that they have completely misunderstood you, and you need to start again. Secondly, English culture unlike Russian culture, doesn’t normally include monologues.
Homes and individuals differ so much that it is impossible to generalize about what you will find. But there is an underlying ‘pattern’ to English hospitality, which differs from the Russian ‘pattern’. Let us suppose you have been invited out for the evening. You will be given a meal but it will not be waiting for you as soon as you arrive. First, there is a period of anticipation, when people sit around, talking, getting to know each other, and sipping a preparatory drink. Don’t expect much to drink at this stage: you may be offered a second drink but very rarely more. This is a period when the English often seem to talk about nothing. Call people by the names by which they are introduced to you. And you will have already discovered that since we do not use patronymics you will have to reconcile yourself to the use of your first name only.
Meals will certainly have two courses and if the occasion is fairly formal, quite probably three courses: a ‘first course’/’starter’ which will be light and probably cold, or a soup; a ‘main course’ which will have meat or fish and vegetables, and a sweet course – a pudding or cheese or fruit. There will probably be bread around, but it is not eaten at such meals as often as with you, so by all means ask for a slice, but don’t expect to eat half the loaf.
After the meal (and by all means offer to help clear up, but accept your hosts’ word if they say, ‘No, thank you’) you may move to another room, to drink coffee or tea and continue talking. People may play music, get out books or photos, and show you round the house or just talk.
Don’t feel that you have to leave immediately. This is a leisurely part of the evening when the English become most relaxed. You can more easily ask them about the things, which have really puzzled you. If you don’t know when to leave, take your cue from other guests - though if they have to leave early, you may be asked to stay a bit longer. Otherwise, go by the atmosphere. If conversation is animated, stay. If your host shuffle, grow silent or fall asleep, take the hint! The English will never tell you to leave, but if these are people you don’t know well, normally you will have to leave around 11 p.m.
Exercise 1.Give Russian equivalents of the following.
Acquaintances, behaviour, casual, to distress, ridiculous, easy-going, expectation, arrangement, timetable, ignorance, hospitable, to display, to generalize, anticipation , a first course / starter, a main course, a sweet course, delightful, to puzzle, hint, animated.
Exercise 2. Find the corresponding adjectives in the text.
Power, ceremony, repeat, friend, politeness, misery, silence, difference, familiarity, preparation, leisure, delight, strength, length, possibility, comfort.
Exercise 3. Make up 10 questions on the text.
Exercise 4. Give a summary of the text.
Exercise 5. Translate into English.
Во всех странах есть неписаные, но существенные правила поведения в обществе. За последние тридцать лет англичане стали намного естественнее. Но даже в их раскованности кроется некоторая заданность, ожидание определенного поведения.
Представление о пунктуальности остается довольно четким. Договорившись о встрече в 10 часов, англичане приходят в 10, если речь не идет о приглашении в гости - в этом случае они постараются прийти на несколько минут позже.
У английского гостеприимства есть свои особенности. Сначала гостей ожидает предварительная беседа как бы ни о чем, знакомство с людьми, некрепкие напитки, сэндвичи. Затем трапеза, которая, как правило, состоит из двух блюд, в официальной обстановке - из трех: закуска или суп, главное блюдо (мясо или рыба с овощами) и сладкое - пудинг, сыр или фрукты. Англичане предпочитают наслаждаться вкусом вина или пива на протяжении всей трапезы. После еды гостей могут пригласить в другую комнату, где разговор продолжится за чаем или кофе.
Read and translate.
(Mr. Green has invited the students at the Summer School to bring their language problems to him. He, his wife and the students are talking after supper.)
Mario: We’ve all heard a lot of slang while we’ve been here. Should we learn it and use it?
Mr. Green: I don’t advise you to use it. It’s difficult to say whether you should learn its meaning. It depends on your aims in learning English. If you expect to talk to English people of all classes, then you’ll certainly hear a good deal of slang and you ought to learn the meanings of all slang words and expressions. If you want to listen to broadcasts in English and go to English talking films, you’ll find it useful to know something about slang. But if your chief aim is to read books on such subjects as medicine, economics or engineering, there’s no need at all to study slang. It would be a waste of time.
Emil: Why do you advise us not to use slang even if we learn it?
Mr. Green: Because it’s too difficult. You could learn the meaning of slang words and expressions without much difficulty, perhaps, but you’d almost certainly use them in the wrong way and to the wrong people. There’s schoolboys’ and schoolgirls’ slang. There’s Army slang and Air Force slang. Sailors have their own slang words and expressions. It’s the easiest thing in the world to learn a bit of slang and then to make yourself look silly by using it to the wrong people.
Mrs. Green: There’s another good reason for not using slang. It very quickly goes out of date. Slang’s always changing. You might learn a slang phrase that was in common use ten years ago. And if you used it today, you’d be laughed at.
Mario: So it’s much safer not to use slang.
Mrs. Green : Very much safer.
Anne: Slang is dangerous, I know. But there’s something else that worries me. How can I learn to talk English naturally? I don’t want to talk like a book.
Mr. Green: I know what you mean. You sometimes use words that you’ve learnt from your reading. And then sometimes someone tells you not to use them when you are speaking.
Rosa: Yes, that’s what happens to me. The other day I said, ‘I fear it’s going to rain.’ Mrs. Green told me not to say ‘fear’. She told me to say, ‘I’m afraid it’s going to rain.’
Mr. Green: Quite right, too. ‘Fear’, the verb, is not much used in speaking. That’s quite a difficult problem. You can learn a lot by reading modern English novels and plays. They must be modern, though. They’ll give you good examples of conversational English. But don’t always use the words that are the nearest to the words of your own language.
Hans: I’ve met a lot of Americans. Most of them say ‘Do you have’. I was taught to say ‘Have you’. Which is better?
Mr. Green: That’s another difficult question. ‘Do you have” is good American English in many sentences where English people would say /Have you’. If an American asks you, ‘Do you have any sisters or brothers?’, it’s quite correct, but it’s American English. If you go to America, use American English if you wish. But in this country we say, ‘Have you any brothers or sisters?’, or, more probably, ‘Have you got any brothers or sisters?’ ‘Have you got’ is very common in spoken English and it’s quite good English. It’s not at all slangy. Who’s got another question?
Lucille: When I first began listening to the B.B.C. broadcasts to France, I couldn’t understand ‘Here is the news’. I thought it ought to be ‘Here are the news’. I’ve learnt that ‘news’ is singular now, but I still find it difficult to understand why words like ‘news’, ‘advice’, ‘information’ and ‘furniture’ are never plural. They can be plural in French.
Mr. Green: You want to know how to recognize words of this kind, don’t you? The only way I can think of is to keep your eyes and ears open. When you see or hear them, notice how they are used. If they ‘re used with ‘much’ you mustn’t make them plural. ‘Not much news’, ‘not much advice’, ‘not much information’, that’s the way to remember them. Not by themselves, but with ‘not much’. Or you could learn them as ‘an item of news’, a piece of advice’, ‘an interesting bit of information’. ‘Knowledge’, ‘machinery’ and ‘poetry’ are other nouns that are never used in the plural.
Paul: And what’s the difference between ‘small’ and ‘little’? You crossed out ‘little’ in something I wrote for you last week and put ‘small’ instead.
Mr. Green: Yes, I remember, I didn’t explain my correction. I ought to have done so. Can anyone suggest an answer?
Pedro: Don’t we use ‘little’ when we want to suggest a sentiment of some sort?
Mr. Green: That’s right. I’ll give you some examples. Suppose you want to buy a house. You might advertise in the paper for ‘a small house in the country’. You’d use the word ‘small’, not the word ‘little’. You get replies to the advertisement and you go to see the house. What do you say if you like it? You might say, ‘Oh, what a delightful little house!’ or perhaps, ‘Oh, what a nice little garden it has!’ “Little’, you see, is used with adjectives that show feeling. We speak of ‘small letters’ and ‘capital letters’, don’t we? Never ‘little letters’. We have no feeling about the alphabet.
Mrs. Green: We have three small children at home. If you met them, you might say, ‘Oh, what nice little children!’ Or ‘Aren’t they naughty little children!’
Olga: I’m sure they’re nice little children, Mrs. Green.
Exercise 1. Enumerate all language problems which the students discuss with Mr. Green.
Exercise 2. Think and discuss the following questions.
What are your aims of learning English?
What information in the text was quite new to you?
Do you ever use slang in your speech?
Can you give your own examples of British and American English?
Have you got any language problems?
Quiz: Do you know Britain well?
Give the names of
the longest river,
the highest mountain,
the largest lake,
the largest city outside London,
the busiest port in the British Isles.
How wide is the English Channel at its narrowest part?
Which river does Oxford stand on?
What is the main difference between the Cumbrians and the Cambrians?
What is Wales rich in?
What is the average winter temperature in Great Britain?
Why did the Romans call Britain Albion?
What is the name of the English state flag?
What is the name of the building in which the British Parliament sits?
How many buildings do the Houses of Parliament consist of?
Which of the two Houses of Parliament has more power?
What is Downing Street in London known for?
Where are most of the government offices situated in London?
Why is a district in the centre of England called The Black Country?
What is the name of one of the biggest textile industry centers in England?
What is the name of the biggest city in Scotland, famous for its shipyards?
Where is industry chiefly found in London?
What’s the City?
What important events took place in London’s history in 1066 (1577; 1666; 1836; 1863; 1952.)?
What is the ceremony which takes place daily in the forecourt of the official residence of the Queen?
What are English buses called?
What is the name of the tower which contains the famous Big Ben?
What is the name of a famous English architect who built 50 churches in London?
Who guards Nelson in the Trafalgar Square?
What is the name of the headquarters of London police?
Who was the first monarch who took residence in Buckingham Palace?
What is the name of London underground?
Can you name the person of England whose final Battle was at Trafalgar?
Who lives in the Tower of London?
What is the money system of Great Britain?
What is the famous place in Hyde Park where people can say anything they like?
Which park is the largest in London?
Who was the famous English general and statesman who won the victory of Waterloo?
At what annual ceremony does the Queen of the UK wear a crown?
How are the fur hats of the Queen’s lifeguards called?
Who were important prisoners of the Tower of London a long time ago?
What are the English policemen called?
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