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Методическая разработка по теме: " MEALS"



ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ


Данный методическая пособия предназначен для студентов 1 курса.

Основная цель методическая пособия - обучение устной речи на основе развития необходимых автоматизированных речевых навыков, развитие техники чтения и умения понимать английский текст, содержащий усвоенную ранее лексику и грамматику, а также развитие навыков письменной речи в пределах программы для 1 курса.

С целью тренировки речевых образцов даны подстановочные таблицы. После текстами помещены грамматические упражнения, построенные на лексическом материале. После текстов даются: лексический и фонетический комментарии и упражнения, способствующие развитию навыков устной речи на основе овладения фонетическими, лексическими и грамматическими явлениями текста. По мере продвижения в овладении английским языком речевые упражнения все больше будут связаны с чтением текстов.

Большое внимание уделено развитию умения читать про себя, целью которого является извлечение информации из текста. Многократное обращение к тексту при выполнении заданий позволит действительно понять его без перевода на родной язык. Непосредственное понимание обеспечивается также тем, что усвоение новой лексики и грамматического материала предшествует работа над текстом и достигается выполнением различных упражнений. Таким образом, работа по разработки должна заканчиваться чтением текста и беседой о прочитанном.































MEALS

TEXT: AN ENGLISHMAN'S MEALS


Four meals a day are served traditionally in Britain: breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. In many countries breakfast is a snack rather than a meal but the English breakfast eaten at about eight o'clock in the morning, is a full meal, much bigger than on the Continent.

Some people begin with a plateful of porridge but more often cornflakes with milk and sugar. Then comes at least one substantial course, such as kippers or bacon and eggs. Afterwards comes toast with butter and marmalade or jam. The meal is "washed down" with tea or coffee.

Most British people now have such a full breakfast only on Sunday mornings. On weekdays it is usually a quick meal just cornflakes, toast and tea.

English lunch, which is usually eaten at one o'clock, is based on plain, simply-cooked food. It starts with soup or fruit juice English people sometimes say that soup fills them up without leaving sufficient room for the more important course which consists of meat, poultry or fish accompanied by plenty of vegetables.

Apple-pie is a favourite sweet, and English puddings of which there are very many, are an excellent ending to a meal, especially in winter. Finally a cup of coffee — black or white.

Tea, the third meal of the day, is taken between four and five o'clock especially when staying in a hotel when a pot of tea with a jug of milk and a bowl of sugar are brought in. Biscuits are handed round.

At the weekends afternoon tea is a very sociable time. Friends and visitors are often present.

Some people like to have the so-called "high tea" which is a mixture of tea and supper — for example meat, cheese and fruit may be added to bread and butter, pastries and tea.

Dinner is the most substantial meal of the day. The usual time is about seven o'clock and all the members of the family sit down together. The first course might be soup. Then comes the second course: fish or meat, perhaps the traditional roast beef of old England. Then the dessert is served: some kind of sweet. But whether a person in fact gets such a meal depends on his housekeeping budget. Some people in the towns and nearly all country people have dinner in the middle of the day instead of lunch. They have tea a little later, between five and six o'clock, when they might have a light meal — an omelette, or sausages or fried fish and chips or whatever they can afford.

Then before going to bed, they may have a light snack or supper — e. g. a cup of hot milk with a sandwich or biscuit.

The evening meal as we have said already goes under various names: tea, "high tea", dinner or supper depending upon its size and also the social standing of those eating it.



Translate and learn by heart the following words and words combinations:

VOCABULARY

Meals


breakfast

lunch

dinner

supper

first course

second course

dessert

for the first (second) course

a plate

a glass

a cup

a saucer

a tea-pot

a kettle

a fork

a spoon

a knife

bread

meat

fish

butter

eggs

cheese

sugar

sausage

bacon

herring

potatoes

tomatoes

carrots

cabbage

cucumbers

beets

peas

salt

mustard

pepper


water

milk

tea

coffee

cocoa

beer

wine

fruit-juice

honey

soup (clear soup, cabbage soup, pea soup)

porridge

macaroni

salad (mixed salad)

mashed potatoes

fried potatoes, chops

cutlets

beefsteak

chicken

goose

pudding

cake

sweets

pie

ice-cream

jam

jelly

stewed fruit

apples

pears

plums

oranges

tangerines

grapes

bananas

berries

cherries

peaches


Word Combinations

to boil meat (potatoes, cabbage, eggs, water, milk, etc.)

to stew fruit (vegetables, meat)

crust of bread

to taste

to prefer

to sit at table (having a meal)

(cf.: to sit at the table writing a letter, etc.)

to have (take) smth. for dinner (for the first, second course, or dessert)

to butter one's bread (roll, etc.)

to have a snack (a bite of food)

to have another helping of smth.

to roast meat (mutton, pork, beef), fowl (chicken, duck, goose, turkey), potatoes

to fry bacon, eggs, potatoes, fish (cod, perch, pike, haddock, trout, salmon)

to taste good (bad, delicious, etc)

to be done to a turn (overdone, underdone)

crisp toast

to help oneself to smth.

to lay the table

to clear the table (to take away the dirty dishes)

to pass smth. to smb.

to dine in (out)

it's to my liking

there's nothing like ice cream (steak, etc.)

there's nothing else coming for a change


Study the meanings and use of these items of your Vocabulary:

1. Food and Meal. Food is a general term for anything that people eat: bread, meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, milk, tinned goods, sweets, etc.

e. g. Man cannot live without food. The doctor said that the patient needed good nourishing food. Where do you buy your food?

Meal is a generalizing collective term for breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner and supper (cf. the Russian arch, трапеза).

e. g. How many meals a day do you have? Supper is an evening meal. I don't want any hot meal; I think I'll do with a snack.

2. Course is a dish served at a meal; a part of a meal served at one time.

e. g. Dinner may consist of two or more courses. What shall we take for our second course? Soup was followed by a fish course.

3. To fry, to roast, to stew. To fry means "to cook (or be cooked) in boiling fat". We usually fry fish, potatoes, eggs, bacon, pancakes, etc.

To roast means "to cook (or be cooked) in an oven or over an open fire." In this way we may cook meat (veal, pork), fowl (chicken, turkey), etc.

To stew means "to cook by slow boiling in a closed pan with little water." In this way meat may be cooked, also vegetables, fruit, etc.

4. Starter (pi -s) is a dish served before or at the beginning of a meal {it may be salad, fish, olives, soup, fruit juice, etc.) Hors d'oeuvre (pl -s) is usually used on menucards.

5. Omelette is eggs beaten together with milk and fried or baked in a pan. The English for яичница is "fried eggs". We eat fried eggs, soft-boiled eggs, hard-boiled eggs, scrambled eggs, poached eggs, four-minute boiled eggs.

6. Porridge is a dish of oatmeal or other meal (buckwheat, semolina, millet, etc.) boiled in some water. Milk and sugar or milk and salt are added to it.

7. Toast is sliced bread made browr and crisp on the outside by heating in a toaster. Toast is placed on a toast-rack.

8. Chips are fried pieces of potato, often eaten with fried fish.

9. Soft and strong drinks прохладительные и крепкие напитки.

Soft drinks are lemonade, fruit drinks, fruit juice, etc. Strong drinks are wine, liqueurs, brandy, vodka, etc.

10. Jelly is usually made by boiling fruit (cranberries, strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, currants, apricots, etc.) and sugar. Something is added to make the mixture stiff.

11. Marmalade is a kind of jam made from orange or lemon cut up and boiled with sugar.

12. Pudding is a very popular English dish. It is a thick mixture of flour, suet, meat, fruit, etc., cooked by boiling, steaming or baking. There are many kinds of pudding. Some of them are quite substantial and serve as the main course of lunch or dinner. Others are rather like sweet cake and eaten for dessert.

EXERCISES

I. Study Text and

a) spell and translate English equivalents of the following:

(первый) завтрак, каша, корнфлекс, бекон, тост, мармелад, сок, достаточный, пудинг, компот; основательная (еда), ростбиф, омлет, сосиски, сухое печенье.

b) give the four forms of the following verbs:

eat, fry, roast, accompany, fill, bring.

c) explain the meaning of the following phrases:

a full meal, plain food, a sociable time, a housekeeping budget, to go under various names, social standing.

d) explain the meaning of:

delicious (about food), layer-cake, oven, napkin, a big eater, done to a turn, seconds.

e) give the Infinitive of:

overdone, spilt, upset, mashed, stewed.


II. Study Topical Vocabulary and answer the following questions:

1. What kinds of food do you know? Give as many nouns denoting food as you can. 2. What meals do you know? 3. What dishes do you know? Give as many names of dishes as you can. 4. What is understood by a "course"? What attributes may qualify this word? 5.--What can be boiled? 6. Do we fry meat or do we roast it? 7. What is an omelette made from? 8. What are cornflakes generally eaten with? 9. What is the difference between fried potatoes and chips? 10. What kind of meal is five o'clock tea in England? Do you know other names for this meal? 11. What kinds of fruit do you know? 12. Do we roast fish? What is the way to cook it? 13. Do you ever have stewed fruit for dessert? 14. Do you usually have a starter before dinner or do you do without it? 15. Where do you have your meals on weekdays and on Sundays?


Study the text:

Bread-and-Butter Pudding

Beat up two eggs and add to them one pint of milk and a little flavouring. Butter the pie-dish and cut three slices of bread-and-butter in fingers, removing the crusts. Put a layer of bread in the dish, sprinkle with sugar and a few cleaned currants or raisins, add more bread, fruit and sugar and then pour over the milk and the eggs. Leave to soak for one hour, then bake in a slow oven about an hour. Sprinkle with sugar before serving.

Describe the way you cook your favourite dish. You may need some verbs besides those in the text, such as mince, mix, grate, grind, chop, sift, roll, bake.


Read the text below and comment on it

Tea

Britons drink a quarter of all the tea grown in the world each year. They are the world's greatest tea drinkers. Many of them drink it on at least eight different occasions during the day. They drink it between meals and at meals. They drink it watching television. Join the Tea-V set! says one well-known tea advertisement.


Study the text:

Pubs

For many British people, the pub is the centre of their social life. People from some countries find this rather shocking, but for most people in Britain a pub is a place with a friendly atmosphere where they can meet their friends and talk over a drink — and often over a meal.

At lunchtime you can often get sandwiches or a ploughman's lunch (bread and cheese). In the evening many pubs serve 'basket meals' (especially chicken and chips served in a basket) at the bar, and some have restaurants where you can get a complete meal.

It is quite normal for women to go into pubs in Britain, but like everybody else they must follow the licensing laws. These are very complicated and control the time pubs are allowed to open.

Comment on the text adding some more information on the topic.


Brush up your table manners.

Answer the following questions and then check your answers by comparing them with the answers below:

1. What is the correct "way to sit at table? 2. Should you use your fork or your knife for taking a slice of bread from the bread-plate? 3. How should you get a slice of bread from the plate standing on the far end of the table? 4. What is the correct way of using spoon, fork and knife? 5. How should you cut your meat? 6. What are the dishes for which knife shouldn't be used? 7. What is the way to eat chicken? 8. What is one supposed to do with the stones while eating stewed fruit? 9. What should you do with the spoon after stirring your tea? 10. What should you do if your food is too hot? 11. What should you say to refuse a second helping? 12. What should you say if you like the dish very much? 13. What should you say if you dislike the dish? 14. What shouldn't one do while eating? 15. Where should one keep the newspaper or the book during a meal, on the table or on one's lap?


Answers to Exercise

a) "It tastes (really) fine" or "It is delicious."

b) Never eat the stones (trying to be overpolite). Neither would it be a good idea to dispose of them by dropping them under the table, placing them in your pocket or in your neighbour's wine-glass. Just take them from your mouth on your spoon and place them on your own saucer.

c) Nowhere near the table. Reading at one's meals is a bad habit; it is bad for your digestion and impolite towards others sitting at the same table.

d) Sit straight and close to the table. Don't put your elbows on the table. Don't cross your legs or spread them all over the place under the table.

e) Never lean across the table or over your neighbors to get something out of your reach. Just say: "Please pass the bread." Or: "Would you mind passing the bread, please?"

f) Nothing. Keep your impressions to yourself and don't embarrass your hostess.

g) Fish dishes are generally eaten without using knife. If one does, it is considered a serious breach of good table manners. The same refers to rissoles, cereal and, in general, to anything that is soft enough to be comfortably eaten with spoon or fork.

h) Neither. Your hand is quite correct for getting a slice of bread for yourself. After all, it is you who is going to eat it.

i) While eating, one should produce as little noise or sound as possible. It is decidedly bad manners to speak with your mouth full. Don't put your bread in your soup. Don't pour your tea in your saucer. Don't leave much on the plate: it is impolite towards your hostess. If you have liked the dish, it doesn't follow that you should polish the plate with your bread.

j) Don't hold your spoon in your fist, don't tilt it so as to spill its contents. The fork should be held in your left hand, the knife in your right.

к) It is wrong first to cut all the meat you have got on your plate in small pieces and then eat it. Cut off a slice at a time, eat it, then cut off another, holding your knife in the right hand and your fork in the left.

1) "No more, thank you."

m) Cut off and eat as much as possible by using your knife and fork; the remaining parts eat by holding the piece in your hand by the end of the bone.

n) Never cool your food by blowing at it. Just wait a bit, there is no hurry.

o) Don't leave your spoon in the glass while drinking. Put it on your saucer.


In pairs, read the newspaper extract and say:

1 Why are shops going to sell these vegetables?

2 What do the vegetables taste like?

3 Do you think children will like them?

4 Would you like to try them?


Chocolate carrots - tomorrow's vegetables?


How many children do you know who really like vegetables? Probably not many. But it has been proved that eating vegetables in childhood helps to protect you against serious illness in later life. So yesterday chocolate-flavoured carrots went on sale in Britain as part of a campaign to encourage children to eat vegetables. The range of products also includes cheese-and-onion flavoured cauliflower, pizza- flavoured sweetcorn, and peas that taste like chewing- gum.

Underline five vegetables in the text. How many more vegetables can you name? Which do/don't you like?



GRAMMAR

Language notes and possible problems

Countable and uncountable nouns This terminology is adopted (in preference to count and mass nouns) because of its widespread use in standard dictionaries.

The distinction between countable and uncountable nouns is important for correct use of articles and quantifiers. It is, however, a difficult and abstract concept, and some students may lake time to grasp it, especially if it does not correspond to a grammatical distinction in their languages. Even where a student's language does have the same distinction, certain nouns may be countable in English and uncountable in another language.

The distinction is often arbitrary (compare lentils and rice, or soot and ashes, or wheat and oats). Note also that many nouns have both countable and uncountable uses (e.g. paper, potato, glass).

Optional extra materials

You may wish to bring concrete examples of countable and uncountable things into the classroom, for additional practice. Suggestions; salt, sugar, tea, polish, make-up, a brush, a stamp, a toy, a photo, a ring Avoid 'grainy' things like rice, peas, grapes, unground coffee usage here is inconsistent.



1 Presentation of vocabulary

Ask students to look at the picture and to try to write the answers. They can do this in groups, pooling their knowledge - or it can be a dictionary exercise.

Give the answers and practise the pronunciation.

2 Guessing the number of calories

Make it clear that students are not expected to know the number of calories they have to see how many they can guess right- They may get some surprises.

The exercise can be done individually, or in groups (with each group giving an agreed group answer after discussion).


Answers


water 0 bread 115

tomato 7 potato 1 175

orange 40 whisky 200

wine 70 milk 320

banana 80 cheese 636

egg 90 rump steak 1275


Explain the difference.


Grammatically

1 a few/a little

2 much/many

3 How much?/ How many?

4 a lot of/a lot

5 too /too much

6 enough (coffee)/(hot) enough


In meaning

7 I drink a lot of coffee./

I drink too much coffee.

8 We’ve got a few eggs. /

We haven't got enough eggs.

9 How much money have you got?

A little./None.



Use a lot of or lots of before nouns (a lot of money). After a verb use a lot (I eat a lot), a lot can also be used in (-) and (?) especially in conversation.

Use too + adjective.

My coffee's too hot. not My coffoe-a too much hot.

Use (not) enough before nouns but after adjectives. I haven't got enough time. This soup isn't hot enough.

PRACTICE

a Correct the sentences which are wrong.

1 Do you eat much fish? Yes, I eat a lot of.

2 I eat too much sweet things.

3 She doesn't eat vegetables enough.

4 How many milk do you drink a day?

5 I've eaten too many pasta this week.

6 Do you drink much alcohol? No, none.

7 This coffee isn't strong enough.

8 I only eat very few chocolate. It's too much fattening



b Complete with much, many, a lot of, or a lot.

1 A Do you eat_____fruit?

В Yes, I eat _________ apples. I love them.

2 A How_________cups of tea do you have a day?

В ___________. I have at least five, sometimes more.

3 A How _______ mineral water do you drink?

B Not_______. I usually drink tap water. 4 A Do you think your diet is healthy?

В No, I eat too______ sweets. I also drink too ________ coffee.


с Tell a partner how much you eat/drink of these things and why.

A I eat a lot of green vegetables, especially salad, I love it

I don't eat much red meat. в Why not?


VOCABULARY


1. What sort of things do you eat, drink or use in your cooking? Look at the words in the box and put them in lists under these headings: every day, twice a week, every week, on special occasions, never.

apples bananas beef beer biscuits bread butter cabbage carrots cheese chicken coffee eggs fish fruit grapes ham juice lamb lettuce meat milk oil onions orange pasta peaches peas pork potatoes rice salad strawberries tea tomatoes vegetables water wine

Can you think of two or three more things to add to each list?

2. Work in pairs and compare your lists. Which of the things can you see in the photo?


Read about Michel Montignac's theory about modern eating habits.

Answer the questions.

1 Who is Michel Montignac? What's unusual about his method?

2 What makes adults tired and children behave badly?

3 What arc most young Americans and a lot of Western Europeans addicted to?



Eat as much as you like –

and stay HEALTHY


My only ambition is 'to teach you how to eat' says Michel Montignac, a French business executive. He has invented a method of healthy eating, which is based on the idea that we should not eat less, we should simply eat the right things - the right carbohydrates and the right fats -which are traditionally part of a Mediterranean way of eating. The Montignac method is not a diet, it is a philosophy of life, which allows people to be 'fit, healthy, energetic and slim without counting calories'. According to Michel Montignac, traditional methods of cooking and eating are disappearing, and are being replaced by junk food and ready-prepared meals. As a result, he says 'people today (especially children) have a diet which is too high in bad carbohydrates - they have too much sugar, too many sweet drinks, too much white bread, too many potatoes, too much pasta and white rice and too many biscuits'. This makes people's level of blood glucose first go up, but then go down even more. It is this, he says, more than stress and overwork, which causes tiredness, (especially late morning and after lunch) and also irritability, impatience, nervousness and headaches. Among schoolchildren it can also cause low concentration and bad behaviour.

Montignac highlights the fact that

most young Americans and a lot of Western Europeans are addicted to sugar.

the average European consumes 40 kilos of sugar a year compared with the average American who consumes 63 kilos and the average Japanese person who consumes less than 20 kilos.

the average weight of people in the Western world has increas constantly over the last 50 year

one in every five Americans is seriously overweight.

If you follow Montignac's way of eating, he says it will be a passport to a new feeling of vitality which will allow you to be more effective in both your personal and professional life'.


Read the text again. Complete the gaps.

1 In Montignac's method you don't have to worry about how many _you're eating.

2 People today are eating fast food than they did in the past.

3 If you eat too many bad carbohydrates, your level of blood glucose goes ________ and then goes

4 Montignac thinks that________and _____are not the main causes of tiredness.

5 The Japanese cat approximately half as much ________as the Europeans.


MAKING CONVERSATION

Food and diet

In groups, each person choose one topic. Think of at least five things to say to your group about it.

Men always think that their mothers are the best cooks.

Most young people are addicted to junk food.

People's eating habits are changing a lot.

Women worry more about their diet than men.

Vegetarians are healthier than people who eat a lot of meat.

If you do a lot of exercise, it doesn't matter what you eat.


Talk to your group for one minute about your topic. The rest of the group listen and then agree or disagree.


Write two paragraphs about diet.


Paragraph 1 Your country

What do people usually eat and drink in your country for

breakfast/lunch/dinner?

Do they eat at any other times?

Paragraph 2 Your own diet

Is your diet similar to or different from the typical diet in your country?

Do you think it's healthy? Why (not)?


Russian Food

Russia is popular for growing and harvesting their own crops. The average growing season only lasts for about four months which puts a limit to the number of crops that can be grown. Famine has resulted in areas of rich soils, irregular rainfall, and a winter with little snow followed by a dry spring and a windy summer. The bad harvests have an immediate effect on meat as animals have to be slaughtered as they cannot be fed over the winter months. Bread has always been the central role in the Russian diet. They like dark, heavy rye bread. Below are the different meals of the day and what is usually eaten.

ZAVTRAK - BREAKFAST

This is usually a quick meal in the working week. Parents are likely to have an open sandwich with cheese, ham or salami with a cup of tea. The children tend to eat a cooked meal that consists of a boiled egg, omlette or kasha. Kasha is any cooked grain or cereal (eg. buckwheat) that is served with milk, sugar and butter.

OBED - LUNCH

This is the main meal of the day and is eaten between 1pm and 3pm. Obed starts with a small zakuska ( salt herring or some king of salad). It is followed by soup that is made from a homemade stock. If it is a chicken soup then a whole chicken will be put into the pot, if it is meat soup than a chunk of beef is simmered for two to four hours with vegetables, and is eaten with fresh vegetables, dried peas or beans, pats, rice or barley. The favourite soups are cabbage soup, Shchi, and Ukrainian beetroot soup, Borsch.

After soup the main course follows. Fish is a popular food and Russians prefer freshwater fish like carp and pike. If meat stews are eaten then they have flavourings of wild mushroom, pickled cucumber or smetana. Cabbage leaves, Golubtsy, are stuffed with meat and rice in a tomato sauce. Sosiski are frankfurter-type sausages and are also very popular. Meatball dishes are Kotleti, Bitochki, and Tefteli. The main course is served with potatoes, pasta, cereal, salt cucumbers, and are always served with bread.

Obed is finished with either coffee, tea, kompot (stewed fruit) or kisel (fruit juice thickened with cornflour).

UZHIN - SUPPER

This meal is eaten with the family around the table and news is exchanged. Soup can be served again and the main course can be from vegetables like potato cakes with mushroom sauce or tvorog, cottage cheese. Tea or milk follows.

Russian Food - Soups & Recipes

Soup is an important part of every meal in Russia, usually eaten in the afternoon.

Soups:
Borcsh
– the famous Russian soup made of beet and meat, usually served with sour cream.

Vegetable soup (shie) - the soup made of cabbage, potato and meat. There is also the specification called “shie postnie” –the same soup without the meat.
Fishsoup (ukha) – the fishsoup with carrot, spices and potato.
Chicken soup (kuryniy soup)
Mushroom soup (grybnoy soup)
Noodle soup – popular countryside dish made of homemade noodle, potato and meat sometimes.
Cold soup (okroshka)– gold “kvas” with vegetables, potato, eggs and spices

Russian Borsch recipe
Ingredients : 3/1/2c. canned tomatoes , 5or6 med. size potatoes cut in halves ,1 large carrot cut fine, 1 small peeled beet , salt to taste , 1 small onion chopped, butter, 4c. Shredded cabbage, 3/4c. Sweet cream, 1/2c. fresh green pepper chopped , 2tbs. fresh or dried dill
1 celery chopped fine , 2/1/2 qts. water, 1/1/2c. diced potatoes, black pepper .

Method:
Put water to boil in large kettle. Add 1/2 c. canned tomatoes. When water is boiling drop in 5 or 6 med. size
potatoes, chopped carrot and the beet. While this is cooking add 3 tbs butter in frying pan. When melted add chopped
onion, cook tender but do not brown. Add 3c. canned tomatoes and let simmer with onion and butter until a thick sauce. Set to
back of stove.
Into a separate frying pan put 2-3 tbs. butter to melt. Add 2c. shredded cabbage and fry. Cook tender but do not brown. Shred
another 2c. to add later to the borsch.
When potatoes are tender remove them to a bowl. Add 2tbs. butter, mash well, then add 3/4c. sweet cream and mix well and set
aside.
Add 1/1/2c. diced potatoes to the stock and the remainder of the shredded cabbage. When diced potatoes are tender, add the
onion-tomato- sauce, then add the cooked cabbage, and the potato-cream mixture. Add 3 tbs. butter to the borsch. Stir well.
Add fresh chopped fine green pepper. Add 3tbs fresh or dried dill. The more fresh dill the better the flavor. Remove beet,
one hour later after borsch is ready.
Borsch is ready to serve. Serve hot.
Serve with chopped garlic in your soup bowl and a fresh piece of bread and butter... Yummy, enjoy...

Vegetable Okroshka recipe
Ingredients : 1 l kvass , 300 g potatoes , 60 g carrot , 30 g turnip , 60 g red radish , 70 g onion springs, 160 g cucumbers , 90 g sour cream , 3 eggs , dill, salt, sugar to taste.
Method:
Okroshka is a summer vegetable soup, but can also be made with sausages or meat. It is very refreshing in hot sunny days, served right from the fridge. Peel potatoes, boil them, cool down and cut into cubes. Cut carrot, turnip in cubes and stew in the pan with a little water until they are soft. Cut radish and cucumbers in cubes, chop onion springs. Put all vegetables in a bowl. Add salt and dress with kvas. Add sugar to your taste. Serve with chopped dill and sour cream.

Ukha recipe
Ingredients : 400 g small fishes, 300 g pike-perch , 300 g burbot , 6 ea small potatoes , 3 ea small onions , 1 ea parsley root , 1 1/2 l water , pepper, salt, parsley, dill , spices .
Method:
Clean small fishes, put in gauze and tie up. Pour cold water over, bring to boil, take froth away, add 1 onion, parsley root, salt, bay leaf, and leave on a very low heat for an hour. Take the gauze with fishes out. Put chopped potatoes, green parsley and boil until potatoes are ready. 15 minutes before soup is ready, put fish slices in it. Ukha, decorated with greens, is served with Vodka.

CHAI (tea) AND COFFEE

Russia are one of the three top tea drinking nations along with Britain and Japan. Tea is mostly drunk black and sugar and lemon can be added for taste. Tea is kept in a samovar which is a portable water boiler and when the tea is needed, it is made in a small teapot. In Russia people drink tea as often as possible with a sweet cake and a small dish of fruit conserve. Coffee is a common drink in Russia but is not popular. Most people still drink tea though there are still quite a few coffee drinkers in Russia today.

VODKA

Vodka is the national drink of Russia. The basic types of vodka have no additional flavouring but the Russians like to flavour their vodka with cranberries, lemon peel, pepper or herbs. When you are drinking vodka in Russia you must eat something along with it such as sour cucumber, pickled mushrooms, black bread or salt herring.

WINE

Russia is the world's third largest wine producer, with more than three million acres of vineyards in the south of the country. People that live in the northern regions of Russia like to drink vodka but they also drink fortified wines, like port, sherry and madeira, but these are sweetened with sugar. Most of the wine produced in Russia stays in the country but some that are transported include red sparkling Tsimlanskoye Champanskoe and Anapa Riesling. The popular white wines are Tsinandali and Gourdzhuani. The heavy reds are Mukuzani and Saperavi. The classic summer wines are Aligote and Riesling while Cabernet and Romanesti are the types of traditional wine that can be laid down to age and are kept for special occasions. All the wine growing areas, produce excellent brandy as well.

BEER

Beer is as popular in Russia as it is in Europe. Russian beer is still made by the traditional home brewing methods and are of a very high standard. Kvass is a summer drink made from fermented rye bread. It is a very light beer and has a licorice taste with low alcohol content.

OTHER DRINKS

Fermented milk drinks are popular in Russia. Kefir is a drink made from fermented cows milk that is thick and refreshing. Prostokvasha is thicker than Kefir as it has whey added while making cottage cheese to fresh milk and allowing it to ferment overnight. Bottled mineral water is popular that's from the spas of the Russian Republic.

Write down composition about your native food and

  1. tell what difference between your native food and Russia?

  2. which is food do you prefer?

  3. do you know some recipes of cooking? Tell.

  4. do you like cooking or eating?









Literature



  • Musman R. Britain Today. Lnd., 1974

  • "Approaches." Cambridge 1979

  • Potter S. Everyday English for Foreign Students. Lnd., 1963

  • Прак. курс английского языка 1 курс, 2 курс под ред. В.Д.Аракина, 2002

  • Практикум по англ.языку, А.С. Числова, Т.М. Татарчук, 2003

  • English files”

  • HEADWAY”




Методическая разработка по теме: " MEALS"
  • Иностранные языки
Описание:

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

 

            Данный  методическая пособия предназначен для студентов 1 курса.

 Основная цель методическая пособия - обучение устной речи на основе развития необходимых автоматизированных речевых навыков, развитие техники чтения и умения понимать английский текст, содержащий усвоенную ранее лексику и грамматику, а также развитие навыков письменной речи в пределах программы для 1 курса.

            С целью тренировки речевых образцов даны подстановочные таблицы. После текстами помещены грамматические упражнения, построенные на лексическом материале.  После текстов даются: лексический и фонетический комментарии и упражнения, способствующие  развитию навыков устной речи на основе овладения  фонетическими, лексическими и грамматическими явлениями текста. По мере продвижения в овладении английским языком речевые упражнения все больше будут связаны с чтением текстов. 

            Большое внимание уделено развитию умения читать про себя, целью которого является извлечение информации из текста. Многократное обращение к тексту при выполнении заданий позволит действительно понять его без перевода на родной язык. Непосредственное понимание обеспечивается также тем, что усвоение новой лексики и грамматического материала предшествует работа над текстом и достигается выполнением различных упражнений. Таким образом, работа по разработки должна заканчиваться чтением текста и беседой о прочитанном.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MEALS

TEXT:  AN ENGLISHMAN'S MEALS

 

Four meals a day are served traditionally in Britain: breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. In many countries breakfast is a snack rather than a meal but the English breakfast eaten at about eight o'clock in the morning, is a full meal, much bigger than on the Continent.

Some people begin with a plateful of porridge but more often cornflakes with milk and sugar. Then comes at least one substantial course, such as kippers or bacon and eggs. Afterwards comes toast with butter and marmalade or jam. The meal is "washed down" with tea or coffee.

Most British people now have such a full breakfast only on Sunday mornings. On weekdays it is usually a quick meal just cornflakes, toast and tea.

English lunch, which is usually eaten at one o'clock, is based on plain, simply-cooked food. It starts with soup or fruit juice English people sometimes say that soup fills them up without leaving sufficient room for the more important course which consists of meat, poultry or fish accompanied by plenty of vegetables.

Apple-pie is a favourite sweet, and English puddings of which there are very many, are an excellent ending to a meal, especially in winter. Finally a cup of coffee — black or white.

Tea, the third meal of the day, is taken between four and five o'clock especially when staying in a hotel when a pot of tea with a jug of milk and a bowl of sugar are brought in. Biscuits are handed round.

At the weekends afternoon tea is a very sociable time. Friends and visitors are often present.

Some people like to have the so-called "high tea" which is a mixture of tea and supper — for example meat, cheese and fruit may be added to bread and butter, pastries and tea.

Dinner is the most substantial meal of the day. The usual time is about seven o'clock and all the members of the fami­ly sit down together. The first course might be soup. Then comes the second course: fish or meat, perhaps the tradi­tional roast beef of old England. Then the dessert is served: some kind of sweet. But whether a person in fact gets such a meal depends on his housekeeping budget. Some people in the towns and nearly all country people have dinner in the middle of the day instead of lunch. They have tea a little lat­er, between five and six o'clock, when they might have a light meal — an omelette, or sausages or fried fish and chips or whatever they can afford.

Then before going to bed, they may have a light snack or supper — e. g. a cup of hot milk with a sandwich or biscuit.

The evening meal as we have said already goes under various names: tea, "high tea", dinner or supper depending upon its size and also the social standing of those eating it.        

Translate and learn by heart the following words and words combinations:

VOCABULARY

Meals

breakfast

lunch

dinner

supper

first course 

second course

dessert

for the first (second) course

a plate

a glass

a cup

a saucer

a tea-pot

a kettle 

a fork

a spoon

a knife

bread

meat

fish

butter

eggs

cheese

sugar

sausage

bacon

herring

potatoes

tomatoes

carrots

cabbage

cucumbers

beets

peas

salt

mustard

pepper

water

milk

tea

coffee

cocoa 

beer

wine

fruit-juice

honey

soup (clear soup, cabbage soup, pea soup)

porridge

macaro­ni

salad (mixed salad)

mashed potatoes

fried potatoes, chops

cutlets

beefsteak

chicken

goose

pudding

cake

sweets

pie

ice-cream

jam

jelly

stewed fruit

apples

pears

plums

oranges

tangerines

grapes

bananas

berries

cherries

peaches 

Word Combinations

to boil meat (potatoes, cabbage, eggs, water, milk, etc.)

to stew fruit (vegetables, meat)

crust of bread

to taste

to prefer

to sit at table (having a meal)

(cf.: to sit at the table writing a letter, etc.)

to have (take) smth. for dinner (for the first, second course, or dessert)

to butter one's bread (roll, etc.)

to have a snack (a bite of food)

to have another helping of smth.

to roast meat (mutton, pork, beef), fowl (chicken, duck, goose, turkey), potatoes

to fry bacon, eggs, potatoes, fish (cod, perch, pike, had­dock, trout, salmon)

to taste good (bad, deli­cious, etc)

to be done to a turn (over­done, underdone)

crisp toast

to help oneself to smth.

to lay the table

to clear the table (to take away the dirty dishes)

to pass smth. to smb.

to dine in (out)

it's to my liking

there's nothing like ice ­cream (steak, etc.)

there's nothing else coming for a change

 Study the meanings and use of these items of your Vocabulary:

1.  Food and Meal. Food is a general term for anything that people eat: bread, meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, milk, tinned goods, sweets, etc.

e. g. Man cannot live without food. The doctor said that the patient needed good nourishing food. Where do you buy your food?

Meal is a generalizing collective term for breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner and supper (cf. the Russian arch, трапеза).

e. g. How many meals a day do you have? Supper is an evening meal. I don't want any hot meal; I think I'll do with a snack.

2.  Course is a dish served at a meal; a part of a meal served at one time.

e. g. Dinner may consist of two or more courses. What shall we take for our second course? Soup was followed by a fish course.

3. To fry, to roast, to stew. To fry means "to cook (or be cooked) in boiling fat". We usually fry fish, potatoes, eggs, bacon, pancakes, etc.     

To roast means "to cook (or be cooked) in an oven or over an open fire." In this way we may cook meat (veal, pork), fowl (chicken, turkey), etc.

To stew means "to cook by slow boiling in a closed pan with little water." In this way meat may be cooked, also veg­etables, fruit, etc.

4. Starter (pi -s) is a dish served before or at the begin­ning of a meal {it may be salad, fish, olives, soup, fruit juice, etc.) Hors d'oeuvre (pl -s) is usually used on menucards.

5. Omelette is eggs beaten together with milk and fried or baked in a pan. The English for яичница is "fried eggs". We eat fried eggs, soft-boiled eggs, hard-boiled eggs, scrambled eggs, poached eggs, four-minute boiled eggs.

6.  Porridge is a dish of oatmeal or other meal (buck­wheat, semolina, millet, etc.) boiled in some water. Milk and sugar or milk and salt are added to it.

7.  Toast is sliced bread made browr and crisp on the outside by heating in a toaster. Toast is placed on a toast-rack.

8. Chips are fried pieces of potato, often eaten with fried fish.

9.  Soft and strong drinks прохладительные и крепкие напитки.

Soft drinks are lemonade, fruit drinks, fruit juice, etc. Strong drinks are wine, liqueurs, brandy, vodka, etc.

10.  Jelly is usually made by boiling fruit (cranberries, strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, currants, apricots, etc.) and sugar. Something is added to make the mixture stiff.

11.  Marmalade is a kind of jam made from orange or lemon cut up and boiled with sugar.

12.  Pudding is a very popular English dish. It is a thick mixture of flour, suet, meat, fruit, etc., cooked by boiling, steaming or baking. There are many kinds of pudding. Some of them are quite substantial and serve as the main course of lunch or dinner. Others are rather like sweet cake and eaten for dessert. 

EXERCISES

I.  Study Text  and

a)  spell and translate English equivalents of the following:

(первый) завтрак, каша, корнфлекс, бекон, тост, мармелад, сок, достаточный, пудинг, компот; основательная (еда), ростбиф, омлет, сосиски, сухое печенье.

b)  give the four forms of the following verbs:

eat, fry, roast, accompany, fill, bring.

c)  explain the meaning of the following phrases:

a full meal, plain food, a sociable time, a housekeeping budget, to go under various names, social standing.

d)  explain the meaning of:

delicious (about food), layer-cake, oven, napkin, a big eater, done to a turn, seconds.

e)  give the Infinitive of:

overdone, spilt, upset, mashed, stewed.

 II. Study Topical Vocabulary and answer the following questions:

1. What kinds of food do you know? Give as many nouns denoting food as you can. 2. What meals do you know? 3. What dishes do you know? Give as many names of dishes as you can. 4. What is understood by a "course"? What attributes may qualify this word? 5.--What can be boiled? 6. Do we fry meat or do we roast it? 7. What is an omelette made from? 8. What are cornflakes generally eat­en with? 9. What is the difference between fried potatoes and chips? 10. What kind of meal is five o'clock tea in Eng­land? Do you know other names for this meal? 11. What kinds of fruit do you know? 12. Do we roast fish? What is the way to cook it? 13. Do you ever have stewed fruit for dessert? 14. Do you usually have a starter before dinner or do you do without it? 15. Where do you have your meals on weekdays and on Sundays?      

 Study the text:

Bread-and-Butter Pudding

Beat up two eggs and add to them one pint of milk and a little flavouring. Butter the pie-dish and cut three slices of bread-and-butter in fingers, removing the crusts. Put a layer of bread in the dish, sprinkle with sugar and a few cleaned currants or raisins, add more bread, fruit and sugar and then pour over the milk and the eggs. Leave to soak for one hour, then bake in a slow oven about an hour. Sprinkle with sugar before serving.

Describe the way you cook your favourite dish. You may need some verbs besides those in the text, such as mince, mix, grate, grind, chop, sift, roll, bake. 

Read the text below and comment on it

Tea

Britons drink a quarter of all the tea grown in the world each year. They are the world's greatest tea drinkers. Many of them drink it on at least eight different occasions during the day. They drink it between meals and at meals. They drink it watching television. Join the Tea-V set! says one well-known tea advertisement. 

Study the text:

Pubs

For many British people, the pub is the centre of their so­cial life. People from some countries find this rather shocking, but for most people in Britain a pub is a place with a friendly atmosphere where they can meet their friends and talk over a drink — and often over a meal.

At lunchtime you can often get sandwiches or a plough­man's lunch (bread and cheese). In the evening many pubs serve 'basket meals' (especially chicken and chips served in a basket) at the bar, and some have restaurants where you can get a complete meal.

It is quite normal for women to go into pubs in Britain, but like everybody else they must follow the licensing laws. These are very complicated and control the time pubs are allowed to open.

Comment on the text adding some more information on the topic.

Brush up your table manners.

Answer the following questions and then check your answers by comparing them with the answers below:

1. What is the correct "way to sit at table? 2. Should you use your fork or your knife for taking a slice of bread from the bread-plate? 3. How should you get a slice of bread from the plate standing on the far end of the table? 4. What is the correct way of using spoon, fork and knife? 5. How should you cut your meat? 6. What are the dishes for which knife shouldn't be used? 7. What is the way to eat chicken? 8. What is one supposed to do with the stones while eating stewed fruit? 9. What should you do with the spoon after stirring your tea? 10. What should you do if your food is too hot? 11. What should you say to refuse a second helping? 12. What should you say if you like the dish very much? 13. What should you say if you dislike the dish? 14. What shouldn't one do while eating? 15. Where should one keep the newspaper or the book during a meal, on the table or on one's lap?

Answers to Exercise

a) "It tastes (really) fine" or "It is delicious."

b)  Never eat the stones (trying to be overpolite). Neither would it be a good idea to dispose of them by dropping them under the table, placing them in your pocket or in your neighbour's wine-glass. Just take them from your mouth on your spoon and place them on your own saucer.

c)  Nowhere near the table. Reading at one's meals is a bad habit; it is bad for your digestion and impolite towards others sitting at the same table.

d) Sit straight and close to the table. Don't put your elbows on the table. Don't cross your legs or spread them all over the place under the table.

e)  Never lean across the table or over your neighbors to get something out of your reach. Just say: "Please pass the bread." Or: "Would you mind passing the bread, please?"

f)  Nothing. Keep your impressions to yourself and don't embarrass your hostess.

g)  Fish dishes are generally eaten without using knife. If one does, it is considered a serious breach of good table manners. The same refers to rissoles, cereal and, in general, to anything that is soft enough to be comfortably eaten with spoon or fork.

h) Neither. Your hand is quite correct for getting a slice of bread for yourself. After all, it is you who is going to eat it.

i) While eating, one should produce as little noise or sound as possible. It is decidedly bad manners to speak with your mouth full. Don't put your bread in your soup. Don't pour your tea in your saucer. Don't leave much on the plate: it is impolite towards your hostess. If you have liked the dish, it doesn't follow that you should polish the plate with your bread.

j) Don't hold your spoon in your fist, don't tilt it so as to spill its contents. The fork should be held in your left hand, the knife in your right.

к) It is wrong first to cut all the meat you have got on your plate in small pieces and then eat it. Cut off a slice at a time, eat it, then cut off another, holding your knife in the right hand and your fork in the left.

1) "No more, thank you."

m) Cut off and eat as much as possible by using your knife and fork; the remaining parts eat by holding the piece in your hand by the end of the bone.

n) Never cool your food by blowing at it. Just wait a bit, there is no hurry.

o) Don't leave your spoon in the glass while drinking. Put it on your saucer.

In pairs, read the newspaper extract and say:

1    Why are shops going to sell these vegetables?

2   What do the vegetables taste like?

3   Do you think children will like them?

4   Would you like to try them?

Chocolate carrots - tomorrow's vegetables?

How many    children    do  you   know   who   really   like vegetables?  Probably     not     many. But it has been proved that    eating    vegetables    in childhood helps   to protect you   against   serious   illness in   later   life.   So   yesterday chocolate-flavoured  carrots went on sale in Britain as part of a campaign to encourage children   to   eat   vegetables. The range of products also includes      cheese-and-onion flavoured cauliflower, pizza- flavoured     sweetcorn,     and peas that taste like chewing- gum.

Underline five vegetables in the text. How many more vegetables can you name? Which do/don't you like?

GRAMMAR

Language notes and possible problems

Countable and uncountable nouns   This terminology is adopted (in preference to count and mass nouns) be­cause of its widespread use in standard dictionaries.

The distinction between countable and uncountable nouns is important for correct use of articles and quan­tifiers. It is, however, a difficult and abstract concept, and some students may lake time to grasp it, especially if it does not correspond to a grammatical distinction in their languages. Even where a student's language does have the same distinction, certain nouns may be countable in English and uncountable in another language.

The distinction is often arbitrary (compare lentils and rice, or soot and ashes, or wheat and oats). Note also that many nouns have both countable and uncountable uses (e.g. paper, potato, glass).

Optional extra materials

You may wish to bring concrete examples of countable and uncountable things into the classroom, for additional practice. Suggestions; salt, sugar, tea, polish, make-up, a brush, a stamp, a toy, a photo, a ring Avoid 'grainy' things like rice, peas, grapes, unground coffee usage here is inconsistent.

1 Presentation of vocabulary

•   Ask students to look at the picture and to try to write the answers. They can do this in groups, pooling their knowledge - or it can be a dictionary exercise.

•            Give the answers and practise the pronunciation.

2 Guessing the number of calories

•   Make it clear that students are not expected to know the number of calories   they have to see how many they can guess right- They may get some surprises.

 • The exercise can be done individually, or in groups (with each group giving an agreed group answer after discussion).

 

Explain the difference.

 

Grammatically

1    a few/a little

2    much/many

3    How much?/ How many?

4    a lot of/a lot

5    too /too much

6    enough (coffee)/(hot) enough

In meaning

7   I drink a lot of coffee./

     I drink too much coffee.

8   We’ve got a few eggs. /

     We haven't got enough eggs.

9   How much money have you got?

     A little./None.

Use a lot of or lots of before nouns (a lot of money). After a verb use a lot (I eat a lot), a lot can also be used in (-) and (?) especially in conversation.

Use too + adjective.

My coffee's too hot. not My coffoe-a too much hot.

Use (not) enough before nouns but after adjectives. I haven't got enough time. This soup isn't hot enough.

PRACTICE

a  Correct the sentences which are wrong.

1     Do you eat much fish? Yes, I eat a lot of.

2     I eat too much sweet things.

3     She doesn't eat vegetables enough.

4     How many milk do you drink a day?

5     I've eaten too many pasta this week.

6     Do you drink much alcohol? No, none.

7     This coffee isn't strong enough.

8     I only eat very few chocolate. It's too much fattening

b Complete with much, many, a lot of, or a lot.

1    A   Do you eat_____fruit?

      В   Yes, I eat _________ apples. I love them.

2    A   How_________cups of tea do you have a day?

      В   ___________. I have at least five, sometimes more.                                                                             

3    A   How _______ mineral water do you drink?

      B   Not_______. I usually drink tap water.                                                                                                                                                                 4    A   Do you think your diet is healthy?

В No, I eat too______sweets. I also drink too________ coffee.                                                                                                             

с Tell a partner how much you eat/drink of these things and why.

A    I eat a lot of green vegetables, especially salad, I love it

      I don't eat much red meat. в Why not?

VOCABULARY

1. What sort of things do you eat, drink or use in your cooking? Look at the words in the box and put them in lists under these headings: every day, twice a week, every week, on special occasions, never.

apples   bananas   beef  beer   biscuits   bread   butter  cabbage   carrots   cheese chicken   coffee   eggs   fish   fruit   grapes   ham   juice   lamb   lettuce   meat milk   oil onions  orange  pasta   peaches peas pork  potatoes   rice  salad strawberries   tea tomatoes   vegetables   water   wine

  Can you think of two or three more things to add to each list?

2. Work in pairs and compare your lists. Which of the things can you see in the photo?

Read about Michel Montignac's theory about modern eating habits.

Answer the questions.

1   Who is Michel Montignac? What's unusual about his  method?

2   What makes adults tired and children behave badly?

3   What arc most young Americans and a lot of Western Europeans addicted to?

Eat as much as you like –

and stay HEALTHY 

My only ambition is 'to teach you how to eat' says Michel Montignac, a French business executive. He has invented a  method of healthy eating, which is based on the idea that we should not eat less, we should simply eat the right things - the right carbohydrates and the right fats -which are traditionally part of a Mediterranean way of eating. The Montignac method is not a diet, it is a philosophy of life, which allows people to be 'fit, healthy, energetic and slim without counting calories'. According to Michel  Montignac, traditional methods of cooking and eating are disappearing, and are being replaced by junk food and ready-prepared meals. As a result, he says 'people today (especially children) have a diet which is too high in bad carbohydrates - they have too much sugar, too many sweet drinks, too much white bread, too many potatoes, too much pasta and white rice and too many biscuits'. This makes people's level of blood glucose first go up, but then go down even more. It is this, he says, more than stress and overwork, which causes tiredness, (especially late morning and after lunch) and also irritability, impatience, nervousness and headaches. Among schoolchildren it can also cause low concentration and bad behaviour.

Montignac highlights the fact that

•    most young Americans and a lot of Western Europeans are addicted to sugar.

•   the average European consumes 40 kilos of sugar a year compared with the average American who consumes  63 kilos and the average Japanese person who consumes less than 20 kilos.                                                                

•   the average weight of people in the Western world has increas constantly over the last 50 year

•    one in every five Americans is seriously overweight.

If you follow Montignac's way of eating, he says it will be a passport to a new feeling of vitality which will allow you to be more effective in both your personal and professional life'

Read the text again. Complete the gaps.

1  In Montignac's method you don't have to worry about how many  _you're eating.

2  People today are eating fast food than they did in the past.                                                                                                                                                                 

3 If you eat too many bad carbohydrates, your level of blood glucose goes ________ and then goes

4  Montignac thinks that________and _____are not the main causes of tiredness.

5  The Japanese cat approximately half as much ________as the Europeans.

MAKING CONVERSATION

Food and diet

In groups, each person choose one topic. Think of at least five things to say to your group about it.

Men always think that their mothers are the best cooks.

Most young people are addicted to junk food.

People's eating habits are changing a lot.

Women worry more about their diet than men.

Vegetarians are healthier than people who eat a lot of meat.

If you do a lot of exercise, it doesn't matter what you eat.

Talk to your group for one minute about your topic. The rest of the group listen and then agree or disagree.

Write two paragraphs about diet.

Paragraph 1   Your country

What do people usually eat and drink in your country for

breakfast/lunch/dinner?

Do they eat at any other times?

Paragraph 2   Your own diet

Is your diet similar to or different from the typical diet in your country?

Do you think it's healthy? Why (not)?

 Russian Food

Russia is popular for growing and harvesting their own crops. The average growing season only lasts for about four months which puts a limit to the number of crops that can be grown. Famine has resulted in areas of rich soils, irregular rainfall, and a winter with little snow followed by a dry spring and a windy summer. The bad harvests have an immediate effect on meat as animals have to be slaughtered as they cannot be fed over the winter months. Bread has always been the central role in the Russian diet. They like dark, heavy rye bread. Below are the different meals of the day and what is usually eaten.

ZAVTRAK - BREAKFAST

This is usually a quick meal in the working week. Parents are likely to have an open sandwich with cheese, ham or salami with a cup of tea. The children tend to eat a cooked meal that consists of a boiled egg, omlette or kasha. Kasha is any cooked grain or cereal (eg. buckwheat) that is served with milk, sugar and butter.

OBED - LUNCH

This is the main meal of the day and is eaten between 1pm and 3pm. Obed starts with a small zakuska ( salt herring or some king of salad). It is followed by soup that is made from a homemade stock. If it is a chicken soup then a whole chicken will be put into the pot, if it is meat soup than a chunk of beef is simmered for two to four hours with vegetables, and is eaten with fresh vegetables, dried peas or beans, pats, rice or barley. The favourite soups are cabbage soup, Shchi, and Ukrainian beetroot soup, Borsch.

After soup the main course follows. Fish is a popular food and Russians prefer freshwater fish like carp and pike. If meat stews are eaten then they have flavourings of wild mushroom, pickled cucumber or smetana. Cabbage leaves, Golubtsy, are stuffed with meat and rice in a tomato sauce. Sosiski are frankfurter-type sausages and are also very popular. Meatball dishes are Kotleti, Bitochki, and Tefteli. The main course is served with potatoes, pasta, cereal, salt cucumbers, and are always served with bread.

Obed is finished with either coffee, tea, kompot (stewed fruit) or kisel (fruit juice thickened with cornflour).

UZHIN - SUPPER

This meal is eaten with the family around the table and news is exchanged. Soup can be served again and the main course can be from vegetables like potato cakes with mushroom sauce or tvorog, cottage cheese. Tea or milk follows.

Russian Food - Soups & Recipes

Soup is an important part of every meal in Russia, usually eaten in the afternoon.

Soups:
Borcsh
– the famous Russian soup made of beet and meat, usually served with sour cream.

Vegetable soup (shie) - the soup made of cabbage, potato and meat. There is also the specification called “shie postnie” –the same soup without the meat.
Fishsoup (ukha) – the fishsoup with carrot, spices and potato.
Chicken soup (kuryniy soup)
Mushroom soup (grybnoy soup)
Noodle soup – popular countryside dish made of homemade noodle, potato and meat sometimes.
Cold soup (okroshka)– gold “kvas” with vegetables, potato, eggs and spices
 
Russian Borsch recipe
Ingredients : 3/1/2c. canned tomatoes , 5or6 med. size potatoes cut in halves ,1 large carrot cut fine, 1 small peeled beet , salt to taste , 1 small onion chopped, butter, 4c. Shredded cabbage, 3/4c. Sweet cream, 1/2c. fresh green pepper chopped , 2tbs. fresh or dried dill
1 celery chopped fine , 2/1/2 qts. water, 1/1/2c. diced potatoes, black pepper .

Method:
Put water to boil in large kettle. Add 1/2 c. canned tomatoes. When water is boiling drop in 5 or 6 med. size
potatoes, chopped carrot and the beet. While this is cooking add 3 tbs butter in frying pan. When melted add chopped
onion, cook tender but do not brown. Add 3c. canned tomatoes and let simmer with onion and butter until a thick sauce. Set to
back of stove.
Into a separate frying pan put 2-3 tbs. butter to melt. Add 2c. shredded cabbage and fry. Cook tender but do not brown. Shred
another 2c. to add later to the borsch.
When potatoes are tender remove them to a bowl. Add 2tbs. butter, mash well, then add 3/4c. sweet cream and mix well and set
aside.
Add 1/1/2c. diced potatoes to the stock and the remainder of the shredded cabbage. When diced potatoes are tender, add the
onion-tomato- sauce, then add the cooked cabbage, and the potato-cream mixture. Add 3 tbs. butter to the borsch. Stir well.
Add fresh chopped fine green pepper. Add 3tbs fresh or dried dill. The more fresh dill the better the flavor. Remove beet,
one hour later after borsch is ready.
Borsch is ready to serve. Serve hot.
Serve with chopped garlic in your soup bowl and a fresh piece of bread and butter... Yummy, enjoy...

Vegetable Okroshka recipe
Ingredients : 1 l kvass , 300 g potatoes , 60 g carrot , 30 g turnip , 60 g red radish , 70 g onion springs, 160 g cucumbers , 90 g sour cream , 3 eggs , dill, salt, sugar to taste.
Method:
Okroshka is a summer vegetable soup, but can also be made with sausages or meat. It is very refreshing in hot sunny days, served right from the fridge. Peel potatoes, boil them, cool down and cut into cubes. Cut carrot, turnip in cubes and stew in the pan with a little water until they are soft. Cut radish and cucumbers in cubes, chop onion springs. Put all vegetables in a bowl. Add salt and dress with kvas. Add sugar to your taste. Serve with chopped dill and sour cream.

Ukha recipe
Ingredients : 400 g small fishes, 300 g pike-perch , 300 g burbot , 6 ea small potatoes , 3 ea small onions , 1 ea parsley root , 1 1/2 l water , pepper, salt, parsley, dill , spices .
Method:
Clean small fishes, put in gauze and tie up. Pour cold water over, bring to boil, take froth away, add 1 onion, parsley root, salt, bay leaf, and leave on a very low heat for an hour. Take the gauze with fishes out. Put chopped potatoes, green parsley and boil until potatoes are ready. 15 minutes before soup is ready, put fish slices in it. Ukha, decorated with greens, is served with Vodka.

CHAI (tea) AND COFFEE

Russia are one of the three top tea drinking nations along with Britain and Japan. Tea is mostly drunk black and sugar and lemon can be added for taste. Tea is kept in a samovar which is a portable water boiler and when the tea is needed, it is made in a small teapot. In Russia people drink tea as often as possible with a sweet cake and a small dish of fruit conserve. Coffee is a common drink in Russia but is not popular. Most people still drink tea though there are still quite a few coffee drinkers in Russia today.

VODKA

Vodka is the national drink of Russia. The basic types of vodka have no additional flavouring but the Russians like to flavour their vodka with cranberries, lemon peel, pepper or herbs. When you are drinking vodka in Russia you must eat something along with it such as sour cucumber, pickled mushrooms, black bread or salt herring.

WINE

Russia is the world's third largest wine producer, with more than three million acres of vineyards in the south of the country. People that live in the northern regions of Russia like to drink vodka but they also drink fortified wines, like port, sherry and madeira, but these are sweetened with sugar. Most of the wine produced in Russia stays in the country but some that are transported include red sparkling Tsimlanskoye Champanskoe and Anapa Riesling. The popular white wines are Tsinandali and Gourdzhuani. The heavy reds are Mukuzani and Saperavi. The classic summer wines are Aligote and Riesling while Cabernet and Romanesti are the types of traditional wine that can be laid down to age and are kept for special occasions. All the wine growing areas, produce excellent brandy as well.

BEER

Beer is as popular in Russia as it is in Europe. Russian beer is still made by the traditional home brewing methods and are of a very high standard. Kvass is a summer drink made from fermented rye bread. It is a very light beer and has a licorice taste with low alcohol content.

OTHER DRINKS

Fermented milk drinks are popular in Russia. Kefir is a drink made from fermented cows milk that is thick and refreshing. Prostokvasha is thicker than Kefir as it has whey added while making cottage cheese to fresh milk and allowing it to ferment overnight. Bottled mineral water is popular that's from the spas of the Russian Republic.

Write down composition about your native food and

a)      tell what difference between your native food and Russia?

b)     which is food do you prefer?

c)      do you know some recipes of cooking? Tell.

d)     do you like cooking or eating?

  

Literature

 

 

v Musman R. Britain Today. Lnd., 1974

v "Approaches." Cambridge 1979

v Potter S. Everyday English for Foreign Students. Lnd., 1963

v Прак. курс английского языка  1 курс, 2 курс под ред. В.Д.Аракина, 2002

v Практикум по англ.языку, А.С. Числова, Т.М. Татарчук, 2003

v “English files”

 

v “HEADWAY”

Автор Рахматуллаева Севара Торажановна
Дата добавления 14.12.2014
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другое
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