How to Protect and Nourish your Brain and Boost your Memory.
Any language student knows that learning and remembering new vocabulary words are two totally different things.
It’s easy to remember words for a short time, but then we forget them even faster than we learn them. It’s a huge problem and it slows down our learning a lot.
To make sure that you never forget a new word, you need to do a few things.
With over a hundred billion brain cells each – that’s more than the stars in the galaxy – you’d think we’d remember eveything.
But even with so much grey matter between our ears, many of us struggle to remember names, routes and our mental to-do lists, whatever our age. Dr Catriona Morrison, a cognitive psychologist from Leeds University, explains: “Your memory isn’t like a muscle, it’s not something specific you can exercise. It’s a way of organizing information in your brain. So to improve your memory you need to change and reorganize the way you think. This will help to support how your memory works.”
This work is how to protect and nourish your brain – and boost your memory...
Chief executive of the Alzheimer’s Society Neil Hunt, says: “There are many ways that you can keep your brain healthy and enjoy a high quality of life.
“A healthy heart means a healthy brain so it’s important to take regular exercise and eat well.
“Social activity has also been linked to your overall wellbeing, so combining activities with meeting others, or learning something new, is a great way to feel young and stay fit.”
Most students, unless they have a photographic memory, have problems with short term memory to some degree.
You may have problems remembering because you don't challenge your brain with new material or fun activities. When you are learning something new, like a new language, your brain starts building new pathways of nerve networks, so you can retrieve information when you need it. You can exercise your brain by playing games similar to the concentration game.
There are other ways to improve your memory. I have a problem remembering new English words. It is imperative to reduce stress when you are trying to improve your memory. If there is a lot of clutter in my mind from distractions, it is hopeless to even try. Before getting busy with the task of trying to memorize a lesson for school, or work do something to clear your mind. You can do stretching exercises, put on some soft music, or do some yoga exercises. Once you feel rejuvenated you can concentrate on the task at hand. Another thing that is important, that you might not think about, is regular exercise. Exercise stimulates circulation to all parts of the body, which includes your brain.
Did you know your diet is important to memory? Eating fruits and vegetables like strawberries, blueberries, broccoli and spinach are full of the vitamins and minerals and antioxidants that your brain needs to be healthy. It also helps to eat 6 small meals a day rather than 3 larger ones each day, because with 3 meals a day your blood sugar has a chance to dip down low. When your blood glucose is low your brain functioning is less efficient.
If you are studying for a test, repeat the information that you expect to be on the test. Do more than repeat words, but make mental pictures also. If you are studying chemistry, and you have to remember an equation, think about the finished product. Just for an easy example, when I was studying chemistry the equation for sodium chloride (NaCl-table salt), I thought of a salt shaker full of salt. The point I am making is to make an association in your mind to better remember what it is you need to remember. The more you practice, the better you will get doing it. Most of us are visual, meaning that we remember more of the images we see, so it makes sense to form images in our minds when trying to learn new things.
I have found it helps me to free their mind up of other things if they don't have to remember so much of the trivial stuff, by keeping a daily planner on their desk. Some people write down doctor appointments, make notes of everything so they won't forget. It might help you if you do that, or keep a pocket pilot to enter in all your information. I also keep a backup of things I need to remember in my cell phone.
If I don't get enough sleep, my short term memory is just gone. I believe you have to have adequate sleep for your brain to function efficiently. Taking care of myself, and taking small measures to help improve my recall helped me a great deal in improving my memory. I believe if you practice some of these techniques you will also have a better memory.
Building a sufficient vocabulary is an important part of mastering English. It is also the kind of work that may seem endless and frustrating. There are so many words! How could you even hope to know them all? How many words are enough? What is the best way to study words? How can you memorize words?
How to memorize words
There are several golden rules on how to study words and how to memorize words effectively. I recommend the following:
Combine words in topical groups: People, Home, Work, Traveling, Money, Food, etc. A good idea is to combine topical words with topical phrases.
Organize words in other meaningful groups, for example, Verbs of Motion, Useful Verbs, Synonyms, Synonyms and Antonyms, Necessary Adjectives.
Always memorize words in associations (in typical word combinations and phrases), not as isolated words. The ties between words in phrases will help you to remember the word you need. Good dictionaries usually give typical phrases as examples of usage, and you can use them as your associations.
Looking at words from the point of view of conversation, your top priority is to memorize:
a. Words with general meaning that can be used in many situations and instead of more specific synonyms.
b. Common, useful, simple, standard (polite and friendly) words.
Topical vocabulary lists
The files of the subsection Topical Vocabulary in the section Vocabulary contain concise lists of topical words, expressions, and related phrases. Some of the files also contain a sample story on the specified topic. Use these files as a basis for your own collections of topical words and expressions.
Every group of related topical words and expressions should be combined in your file with a group of related topical phrases.
Bear in mind that it is very difficult and not very effective to memorize single words from a list, especially if the words are listed alphabetically. For example, when you are studying the topic Clothes, memorization of the words in your list of clothes will be much easier if you find pictures of people dressed in various clothes, describe them in class, and have a discussion about clothes, for example, what clothes you'd like to buy, what's in fashion these days, who's wearing what. And you will need certain phrases for such discussions.
Synonyms are quite difficult to study. Even if you know the exact meanings of synonyms, choosing the right synonym still remains a problem for language learners. The best way to overcome this difficulty is to make short lists of collocations, i.e., typical word combinations that illustrate the use of synonyms.
For example, the following collocations illustrate the differences in the use of the adjectives "female, feminine": female baby, female friend, female species, female cat, female voice – feminine delicacy, feminine beauty, feminine features, feminine dress, feminine voice.
The following collocations illustrate the differences in the use of the verbs "do, make": DO homework, do housework, do the dishes, do the cooking, do one's job (well), do one's best, do (me) a favor, do something, do a number of things, do the right thing, do good – MAKE a mistake, make coffee, make dinner, make plans, make money, make a telephone call, make an appointment, make arrangements, make sense, make progress, make a decision, make sure.
An antonym is a word that has the opposite or approximately the opposite meaning to that of another word. Like synonyms, antonyms may have several meanings, and antonyms of some word may or may not be synonyms among themselves. For example, the opposites of the word "friendly", the adjectives "unfriendly, hostile", are synonyms, while the opposites of the word "short", the adjectives "long, tall", are not synonyms.
Synonyms and antonyms are organized in word lists of frequently used adjectives, nouns, verbs, adverbs. It is necessary to stress that the lists can be useful to you only if you thoroughly study the synonyms and antonyms in them. This work should include studying the use of the synonyms, learning by heart their typical collocations, doing exercises on choosing the right synonym, sorting out the synonyms in your lists (e.g., practical, useful, formal, informal, British, American), and using the most useful synonyms in your speech and writing.
The meanings of idioms and phrasal verbs are explained with the help of synonyms which you can use in your speech. Main synonyms and substitutes for modal verbs (can, be able to; must, have to; may, might, could) are described in the files Modal Verbs in the section Grammar.
Typical word combinations that regularly occur in English speech and writing are called collocations. In other words, collocations are those word combinations and short phrases that your English teacher asked you to memorize as examples of use when you studied new words. The verb "to collocate" has the following meanings: to place together, to arrange in proper order.
Collocations consist of two or more words that frequently go together. They show how words combine with each other in a group of words: play a game, play football; do an exercise, make a mistake; arrive in London, arrive at a conclusion; a computer monitor, the monitor of a computer; keep going, keep me posted, keep silence, keep it to yourself; looks quiet, speaks quietly; a little girl, rest a little, a little better.
How to study collocations
Frequently used words occur in a large number of collocations. It is advisable to arrange them in certain order for easier memorization when you are studying them. English words collocate with each other according to several typical patterns of use. For example, let's look at some collocations of the noun "question". We can organize them in groups according to word classes: verb + noun: ask a question, she asked several questions, I asked him a question; raise a question, answer a question, respond to a question, discuss (various) questions;
adjective + noun: a good question, a difficult question, a serious question, a tricky question, a rhetorical question, an embarrassing question, a stupid question;
noun + noun: examination questions, test questions;
noun + preposition + noun: a question of time, questions about her relatives;
preposition + noun: out of the question, in question, without question, beyond question.
Collocations of the verb "to question" (verb + noun): question a witness, question someone's sincerity, question someone's authority.
You don't have to write verb + noun, verb + adverb, adverb + adjective all the time; just arrange collocations with your new words in such groups on one page.
Using collocations will considerably improve your ability to speak English. Collocations are large building blocks for sentences; just adapt them a little grammatically, and they are ready for use. Knowing collocations will also improve your listening and comprehension skills: you will be able to expect the next word of the speaker, and consequently, to understand and respond quicker. Besides, collocations are much easier to remember than isolated words, because the ties between words in a phrase work as associations for your memory.
Synonyms and their collocations
English words have several meanings. This makes synonyms very difficult to study. A word may be synonymous with another word in one meaning but not in another meaning, and a third word may be a synonym for it in yet another meaning. In many cases, it's not enough to know the meanings of the synonyms in a group and have one or two examples of their use, and it's sometimes difficult to single out the most general synonym that can substitute for the other synonyms in a group.
In such cases, it is useful to make short lists of collocations that illustrate the use of difficult synonyms and help you to see their differences. For example, the synonyms "to strike, to hit" are often interchangeable in the meaning "to deliver a blow". The verb "strike" is more general in meaning. The verb "hit" is a little less formal than the verb "strike" and often implies a strong aimed hit. The combinability of the verbs "strike, hit" in their collocations shows more clearly the similarities and differences in their use.
English adjectives usually have several meanings. Besides, adjectives usually have a large number of synonyms and antonyms.
Adjectives may be synonymous with each other in one meaning but different in another, and they often differ in use in this or that situation. It is better to repeat a simple, familiar word than use a synonym that is not very clear to you.
Antonyms of some word may or may not be synonyms among themselves. Note that in many cases when you want to express exactly the opposite, you can use NOT + adjective as a very useful substitute for an antonym: important – not important, young – not young, necessary – not necessary.
There are two great hobbies that can help language learners to improve their pronunciation and speaking skills. The first is watching films in English with English subtitles, writing out phrases, discussing the language in situations, learning useful dialogues by heart, and so on. Unfortunately, I can't help you with it because this task is pretty difficult to do within the framework of this work.
The second hobby that I recommend as very interesting and useful is learning by heart and singing loudly the lyrics of English songs. This work is not as difficult or time-consuming as the work with movies, but it also gives excellent results. You sing the songs you like, and the tune helps you to remember the words correctly.
When you look for the songs to study, you should keep the following in mind:
You should like the song a lot.
The lyrics should be interesting.
The lyrics should be audible.
The tune should be easy to remember.
The lyrics of English songs in the section Hobby are given with Russian translation and linguistic commentary. Don't carp at the translation; it's word-for-word and rough in linguistic purposes! Listen to the song, read the translation of the lyrics, and listen to the song again with the English lyrics before your eyes. Then sing it often and loudly together with the singer, first with the English lyrics, then without them, and soon you will notice that the words and phrases you need at work or in class come to you from the songs that you've learned. Sing and learn English!
Songs are a great source of everyday phrases, and the phrases are easy to remember because you listen to them together with the melody. Analyzing grammatical structures in songs will help you to understand standard patterns of usage and how they can change in everyday speech. Songs are also a useful means for learning English rhythm. Try repeating the lyrics of the songs with the stress and rhythm that you hear in the song. You can practice singing or just saying the lyrics loudly, like poems. I think that, the students who like to sing English songs master English pronunciation easier and faster.
Of course, you can sing any songs you like. Don't forget about English folk songs and children's songs – they are very interesting and useful in language learning.
What are the Characteristics of Memory?
Sensory – we remember things that involve our five senses. So, the more senses that get activate, the easier it will be to recall.
Intensity – when something is more intensely funny, absurd, etc. it tends to stand out in our memories.
Outstanding – things that are dull and unoriginal are more difficult to remember because there is nothing to distinguish them from all the other memories.
Emotional – the amygdale – a round, pea-sized part in the middle of the brain - acts as a gate keeper, so when something happens that has high emotional content – positive or negative – the amygdale says, “This is important!” and we tend to remember it more easily.
Survival – the brain is wired for survival. This means that anything we perceive as important to survival we will remember more easily. It’s not just physical survival. Survival can include, emotional survival, psychological survival and financial survival.
Personal importance – we naturally remember things that interest us and that have some personal importance.
Repetition – the more often we recall information, the better we get at recalling on demand.
First and last – the brain most easily recalls things from the beginning and the ending of any session or lecture.
What are the Keys to Memory?
Pay attention – often times the biggest problem is that people’s minds are not focused in the moment. Instead, they are thinking about something in the past of future.
Visualization – create a visual in your mind because the brain thinks in pictures and concepts, not paragraphs.
Association – find something to connect the information to similar to word association. Ask, “What does this remind me of?”
Imagination – get creative when visualizing or making associations.
1. Our brain loves color. Use colored pens – good quality, not gel pens – or use colored paper. Color helps memory.
2. Our brain can effectively focus and concentrate for up to 25 minutes (adults). Take a 10-minute break after every 20-30 minutes of studying. Go do some chores: rake the lawn, iron a shirt, vacuum. Come back after 10 minutes and do another focused, intense session.
3. Our brain needs to be rested to learn fast and remember best. If you are tired take a 20-minute nap first otherwise you are wasting your study time.
4. Our brain is like a motor: it needs fuel. You wouldn’t put dirty fuel in your Lamborghini (if you had one) or you wouldn’t put low quality fuel in a rocket, would you? Well, your brain is a much more valuable, intricate machine than either of those so feed it properly. Junk food and imitation food and all the chemicals and preservatives weaken both your body and your mind. In fact, a recent study in England showed that your IQ is affected by your diet.
5. Our brain is like a sea of an electro-chemical activity. And both electricity and chemicals flow better in water. If you are dehydrated you just don’t focus as well. Drink enough water (colored liquids – pop, juice, coffee, etc. – are not the same). Often headaches are connected to dehydration, too.
6. Our brain loves questions. When you come up with questions or read a book, your brain automatically searches for answers, making the learning faster. A good question has more than one answer.
7. Our brain and body have their own rhythm cycles: there are times during the day when you are more alert than others. You will save time learning if you study during your peak periods. If you have a part-time job that happens during your peak period you may want to reconsider if it is wise to be giving your employer your best learning time.
8. Our brain and body communicate constantly. If your body is slouched down, the message the brain gets is that “this is not important” and so it doesn’t pay as close attention. In any learning situation, sit up and lean forward to help keep your mind alert. Buy a good quality, adjustable office chair.
9. Our brain is affected by smells. Use aromatherapy to keep your brain alert. Peppermint, lemon and cinnamon are good ones to experiment with.
10. Our brain needs oxygen. Get out there and exercise.
11. Our brain needs space. Be sure that you are not trying to study in a small cramped area.
12. Our brain needs your space to be organized. One recent study showed that kids who grow up in tidy, organized homes do better academically. Why? Because by being trained to organize the outside environment, the brain learns to organize the internal knowledge…which makes recall faster. Buy a 4-drawer legal-sized filing cabinet.
13. Our brain cells in the hippocampus, a part of the brain that deals with putting information from short-term to long-term memory, are destroyed by cortisol, which is created when you are stressed. So, yes, stress affects memory. How do you get rid of cortisol? Exercise.
14. Our brain doesn’t know what you can’t do until you tell it.
What are you telling it? Listen to your self-talk. Stop the negativity. Replace it with more positive, encouraging talk.
15. Our memory is like a muscle: it can be trained and strengthened, at any age. No excuses. Stop being a mental couch potato. Professional athletes practice every day; you can practice homework every day. If “you don’t have any”, make some up for yourself. Read ahead, review…do SOMETHING.
16. Our brain needs repetition. It is better to do short frequent reviews than one long review because what counts is how many times your brain sees something, not how long is sees it in one sitting.
17. Our brain can understand faster than you can read. Use a pencil or finger to “lead” your eyes. By doing so you help your eyes move more quickly.
18. Our brain needs movement, especially if you are mostly a kinesthetic (body movement) learner instead of a visual or auditory learner. You might find your productivity go up if you have a standing desk. Buy one or make one by raising your desk/table on blocks. This allows you to move more easily and stay more alert.
19. Our brain seeks patterns and connections. When you are learning something, ask yourself, “What does this remind me of?” This will also help your memory because it connects the new knowledge to something you already know.
20. Our brain loves fun. We learn in direct proportion to how much fun we are having. Learning is life. Live it up!
husband, wife, spouse;
father, mother, parents;
son, daughter, child, children;
brother, sister, siblings, twins;
grandfather, grandmother, grandparents;
grandson, granddaughter, grandchild, grandchildren;
great-grandfather, great-grandmother, great-grandchild;
stepfather, stepmother, stepbrother, stepsister;
adopted son, adopted daughter, adopted child;
foster family, foster father, foster mother, foster parents,
foster son, foster daughter, foster child;
uncle, aunt; nephew, niece;
cousin, first cousin, second cousin;
close relatives, distant relatives;
my family, my relatives, my folks, my kin;
Relatives by marriage
in-laws, father-in-law, mother-in-law,
son-in-law, sons-in-law, daughter-in-law, daughters-in-law;
brother-in-law, brothers-in-law, sister-in-law, sisters-in-law;
child, baby, infant; boy, girl;
teenager, adolescent; adult, grownup;
young man, young woman, middle-aged man, middle-aged woman, old man, old woman;
Marital status and related words
single, married, engaged, separated, divorced; widower, widow;
fiance, engagement, engagement ring;
bride, bridegroom, wedding, wedding rings, honeymoon;
divorce, ex-husband, ex-wife; alimony, child support;
lover, paramour, beau, mistress;
Other related words
pregnancy, birth; the baby is due in June;
child care, kindergarten, day-care center, babysitter;
illness, sickness, disease;
death, funeral, burial, cemetery, grave.
Jobs, Professions, Occupations
president, vice-president, executive officer (CEO);
director, deputy director, financial director;
manager, general manager, assistant manager, PR manager, supervisor;
office clerk, receptionist, secretary, typist, stenographer;
banker, bank officer, accountant, bookkeeper, economist, teller, cashier, auditor;
doctor, physician, family doctor, general practitioner;
eye specialist, throat specialist, heart specialist / cardiologist, surgeon, pediatrician, psychiatrist, dentist, dietician, pharmacist, veterinarian;
chef, head cook, cook; headwaiter, waiter, waitress, bartender / barman;
Sales and stores
sales representative, sales manager;
salesperson, salesman, saleswoman / salesgirl; seller, sales clerk, cashier;
wholesale buyer, wholesaler, retailer, distributor, advertising agent;
Art and creative work
artist, painter; musician, composer, singer, dancer;
film director, producer, actor, actress, cameraman;
writer, author, playwright, dramatist, scenarist;
reporter, journalist, photographer;
architect, designer, interior designer, web-designer;
School and college
principal, dean, professor, teacher, student, pupil;
engineer, technician, mechanic; builder, construction worker, repairer;
welder, bricklayer / mason, carpenter, plumber, painter;
scientist, scholar, researcher, explorer;
mathematician, physicist, chemist, astronomer, biologist, historian, archeologist, economist, philosopher, psychologist;
Law and order
judge, lawyer, attorney; police officer, policeman, traffic officer, detective;
expert, specialist, consultant, advisor (adviser);
pilot, flight attendant / stewardess;
computer programmer, computer operator;
driver, taxi driver, bus driver, truck driver;
firefighter, librarian, farmer, tailor, model, politician, priest;
hairdresser / hairstylist, barber, beautician, cosmetologist;
cleaning lady / cleaning woman;
Places of work
office, agency, enterprise, company, business, plant, factory, hospital.
to hire, to fire, to quit; unemployed, jobless, to look for a job;
letter of application for a job, resume, CV, interview; contract, work agreement;
employer, employee, staff member, to be on staff; temporary worker, season worker;
to work full-time, to work part-time, to have a part-time job, to work overtime;
pay, wages, salary, income;
to be paid by the hour, to be paid by the month;
monthly pay, weekly pay, hourly pay, yearly pay / annual pay;
gross pay, net pay, take-home pay, bonus, overtime pay;
taxes, expenses, deductions;
fringe benefits, sick leave, medical insurance;
She gets ten dollars an hour. She is paid ten dollars an hour. Her hourly pay is ten dollars.
He gets two thousand dollars a month. His monthly pay is two thousand dollars.
They get twenty-three thousand dollars a year. Their annual pay is twenty-three thousand dollars.
His salary is thirty-four thousand dollars a year.
Appearance and Character
Note: Words on the same line are NOT synonyms. They are just grouped together for easier studying.
attractive, good-looking, beautiful, handsome, pretty, cute, nice;
plain, plain-looking, unattractive, ugly;
well-dressed, casually dressed, poorly dressed;
neat, clean, untidy, dirty;
tall, pretty tall, short, pretty short, medium height, average height, six feet tall;
Weight and Build
thin, quite thin, slim, slender, medium-build, overweight, fat, strong, muscular, athletic;
dark, fair, black, red, brown, blond, chestnut brown, white, gray;
long, short, medium-length, shoulder-length, straight, curly, wavy, thick, thinning, bald;
shiny, smooth, neatly combed;
dull, tousled, disheveled;
blue, green, gray, brown, light-blue, dark-gray, grayish-blue, dark;
big, bright, expressive, with long lashes;
young, old, middle-aged, twenty years old, in her thirties, about forty;
pleasant personality, good-tempered, good-natured, easy-going;
terrible character, bad-tempered, ill-natured;
friendly, sociable, outgoing, unfriendly, hostile, unsociable;
strong, tough, independent, mature, weak, immature;
dependable, reliable, trustworthy, honest, unreliable, dishonest;
reasonable, sensible, unreasonable, unpredictable, impulsive;
ambitious, hard-working, energetic, careless, lazy;
disciplined, organized, careful, accurate;
undisciplined, disorganized, careless;
attentive, alert, perceptive, observant, insightful, thoughtful, considerate;
aggressive, pushy, self-confident, shy, timid, modest, humble;
self-centered, selfish, egoistical;
haughty, stubborn, obstinate;
moody, melancholic, self-conscious, touchy, sensitive;
humorous, amusing, funny, interesting, dull, boring;
generous, unselfish, kind, kind-hearted;
economical, thrifty, stingy, miserly, greedy;
formal, official, informal, relaxed, casual;
strange, odd, weird, eccentric, crazy;
intelligent, broad-minded, sharp, keen, bright, quick, agile, wise, clever;
foolish, stupid, narrow-minded;
Other related words
Note: Some of the words below are slang words. Use with caution.
a bookworm, a history buff, a sports fan, a music fan, a movie fan, a TV addict;
a computer whiz kid, a computer freak, a number-cruncher;
a fashion-monger, a fashion plate, a dandy;
a junk collector, a pack rat, a miser, a squanderer;
a homebody, a couch potato, lazybones, a workaholic, a Jack of all trades;
an adventurer, a thrill seeker, an oddball, a weirdo;
a prude, a hypocrite, a chronic liar, a gambler, a smooth operator, a city slicker, a simpleton;
a superachiever, an underachiever, a winner, a loser, a tough guy, a softy;
a woman-chaser, a womanizer, a lady's man / a ladies' man, a lady-killer;
a black sheep, a scapegoat, a scarecrow, a white crow, a night owl;
Clothes and Accessories
clothes, garments, wear, dress, outfit;
ladies' wear, men's wear, children's wear, baby clothes;
footwear, headgear, underwear, beachwear, sportswear, sleepwear;
winter clothes, summer clothes; casual clothes, formal clothes;
expensive clothes, cheap clothes; nice clothes, shabby clothes;
designer clothes, hand-made clothes, ready-made clothes;
fashion, vogue, haute couture;
winter coat, warm coat, fur coat, sheepskin coat, storm coat, parka, snowsuit;
coat, topcoat, overcoat, trench coat;
raincoat, waterproof (coat), slicker;
leather jacket, bomber jacket, car coat,
windbreaker, windcheater, sports jacket;
casual dress, formal dress; summer dress, woolen dress;
cocktail dress, low-cut dress, evening dress / evening gown;
business suit, pants suit;
button-through dress, pinafore dress, house dress;
maternity wear, maternity dress;
sweater, jersey, cardigan; jacket, vest;
blouse, shirt, tunic, T-shirt, tank top, halter top;
skirt, miniskirt, long skirt, pleated skirt, black skirt, culotte;
pants, slacks, trousers, jeans, denims, shorts;
bathing suit / swimsuit, bikini;
jumpsuit, warm-up suit;
business suit, three-piece suit; tuxedo, tail coat / tails; black tie, white tie;
trousers, slacks, jeans, denims, shorts;
jacket, blazer, vest;
sweater, turtleneck sweater, pullover, jumper, sweatshirt;
shirt, polo shirt, T-shirt, tank top;
warm-up suit / training suit, trunks,
bathing trunks / swimtrunks;
overalls, work clothes, uniform;
Underwear, hosiery, sleepwear, robes
panties, bra, slip, half slip;
briefs, underpants, T-shirt, undershirt;
pantyhose, tights, leggings, stockings,
socks, slouch socks, knee-high socks;
pajamas, sleepshirt, nightgown;
housecoat / robe, bathrobe, terry-cloth robe;
Parts of clothes and their types
collar, turtleneck collar, shawl collar, stand-up collar, V-neck, crew neck, collarless;
sleeve, long sleeve, short sleeve, sleeveless; padded shoulders, cuffs;
pocket, front pocket, back pocket, side pocket, patch pocket; slash pocket, inside pocket;
Fabric and material
cotton, linen, silk, wool, mohair;
velvet, corduroy, denim, suede, leather;
synthetics, nylon, polyester, Lycra, spandex;
artificial fur, natural fur, mink, fox, sable, chinchilla, beaver, rabbit, astrakhan, sheepskin;
knitted, knitted cap (socks, sweater, etc.);
embroidery, embroidered dress (blouse, shirt, etc.)
Patterns and colors
floral pattern / floral print, animal print, paisley print, bright print, all-over print;
print skirt, print shirt, printed top, printed sleeves;
striped, checked / checkered, plaid, polka dot, paisley;
bright colors, colorful, pastel colors, soft colors;
light-blue, dark-green, bright-red, black-and-white;
black, blue, brown, gray, green, navy, pink, orange, red, yellow, white;
bag, handbag, purse, clutch, briefcase, attache case;
wallet, pocketbook, billfold, purse;
make-up kit, cosmetic case, shaving kit, travel kit;
travel bag, carry-on bag, flight bag, duffel bag, sport bag, backpack / rucksack, tote bag;
suitcase, garment bag, Pullman bag, trunk;
belt, suspenders, straps, umbrella;
zipper, buckle, clasp, Velcro, button;
hat, fur hat, beret, cap, baseball cap, hood, headband, helmet;
scarf, kerchief, silk scarf, woolen scarf, knitted scarf, muffler, shawl;
gloves, mittens, earmuffs;
handkerchief, sunglasses, glasses, contact lenses;
necktie / tie, silk tie, bow tie;
winter boots, ladies' boots, hiking boots, rubber boots;
walking shoes, Oxfords, loafers, moccasins;
pumps, evening shoes, patent leather shoes;
high-heel shoes, low-heel shoes, flat-heel shoes;
sandals, open-toe shoes, slippers, mules, rubber thongs;
tennis shoes, running shoes, sneakers, training shoes / trainers, athletic shoes;
sole, insole, lining, cushioning, heel, tongue, buckle, shoe laces;
gold ring, diamond ring, engagement ring, wedding ring;
necklace, bracelet, brooch, earrings;
chain, pendant, charms;
cuff links, tie tack, tie pin;
precious stone / gemstone, diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald, alexandrite, opal, topaz, pearls;
watch / wristwatch.
Нет синонимов, которые имеют полностью одинаковое значение и могут быть взаимозаменяемы во всех случаях. Иногда разница между двумя (или более) синонимами небольшая, и они кажутся взаимозаменяемыми, по крайней мере, в некоторых значениях: to begin – to start; big – large; wrong – incorrect.
Но всегда есть оттенки значения и различия и предпочтения в употреблении. Например, синонимы big, large значат «более крупного размера, чем средний» и часто взаимозаменяемы в этом значении: a big / large house, country, family, dog – большой дом, большая страна, большая семья, большая собака. Можно сказать big success, large success; big problem, large problem (большой успех; большая проблема), где big более разговорное, а large более официальное. Можно сказать large numbers, big numbers, имея в виду очень большие числа в физике и математике (миллиард, триллион, квадриллион), но large кажется предпочтительным в этом словосочетании. И только large употребляется во фразе a large number of: a large number of people, a large number of automobiles, a large number of books, a large number of examples.
Очень часто синонимы употребляются с одним и тем же существительным, но значение разное. Например, оба выражения big business, large business значат «крупная организация, предприятие или компания», в то время как только big business также имеет значение «огромные финансовые или промышленные корпорации, особенно монополии». A big girl (большая девочка) значит «взрослая, больше не ребенок», в то время как a large girl (крупная девочка) будет понято как «крупнее, чем нормально для ее возраста».
Синонимы часто отличаются по степени официальности. Еще один синоним глаголов to begin, to start, глагол to commence весьма официален (начать судебное производство) и был бы не к месту вместо begin, start в таких обычных выражениях как to begin / start work, eating, running, a vacation (начать работу, еду, бег, отпуск). Глаголы с послелогами менее официальны, чем их синонимы из одного слова: continue – go on (продолжать); compensate for – make up for (компенсировать); tolerate – put up with (терпеть); deceive – put on (обмануть); accelerate – speed up – pick up (ускорить); decline – turn down (отклонить).
Нам часто трудно выбрать правильный синоним для той или иной ситуации. Хорошие словари обычно дают синонимы и антонимы, но отдельный словарь синонимов и антонимов (с объяснениями и примерами употребления) может быть очень полезным для изучающего язык.
Когда вы начинаете изучение группы синонимов, ваш первый шаг – ознакомление с их значениями. Например,рассмотрим следующие синонимы: известный / знаменитый, прославленный, выдающийся, хорошо известный, пользующийся дурной славой. Эти прилагательные говорят о широко известном человеке или предмете.
Famous – более общее слово и подразумевает широкое и благосклонное общественное внимание и интерес: знаменитый актер, знаменитый писатель, знаменитое место. Renowned подразумевает публичные почести снова и снова: прославленный художник, прославленные вина. Distinguished подразумевает выделение как лучшего в какой-то области: выдающийся ученый, выдающаяся карьера. Well-known просто говорит о широко известном человеке или вещи: хорошо известный писатель, хорошо известный факт. Notorious говорит о широкой известности с плохой стороны: печально известный гангстер, печально известный инцидент.
Который синоним вы употребите, говоря об известном / знаменитом человеке или предмете? Имейте в виду, что для изучающего язык часто лучше употребить более простое, более нейтральное или более общее слово вместо его более конкретного, но усложненного синонима, который может передавать такие оттенки значения, которые вы не подразумеваете. Из синонимов в предыдущем абзаце, famous или well known наверное будут подходящими в большинстве случаев. А может вы предпочтете еще более общие прилагательные good, interesting: a good actor, an interesting writer, an interesting place.
Синонимы весьма трудны для изучения. Даже если вы знаете точные значения синонимов, выбор правильного синонима все же остается проблемой для изучающих язык. Лучший способ преодолеть эту трудность – делать краткие списки типичных словосочетаний, которые иллюстрируют употребление трудных синонимов и помогают вам увидеть их различия. Например, синонимы to strike, to hit часто взаимозаменяемы в значении «нанести удар». Глагол strike имеет более общее значение. Глагол hit немного менее официальный, чем глагол strike, и часто подразумевает сильный прицельный удар. Сочетаемость глаголов strike, hit в их типичных сочетаниях более ясно показывает сходства и различия в их употреблении.
Словосочетания с глаголом strike:
to strike a blow; he struck her; she struck the dog with a stick; to strike someone on the head; he struck his head on the wall; to strike home; to strike hard; to strike repeatedly; to strike a match; to strike a bargain; to strike hands; the clock struck 5; the ship struck a rock; the lightning struck the tree; to strike someone speechless; it strikes me as strange that; the enemy struck at dawn.
Словосочетания с глаголом hit:
he hit her; she hit the dog with a stick; to hit someone on the head; to hit the nail with a hammer; he hit his elbow on the door; to hit home; to hit hard; to be badly hit by inflation; he was hit by a car; the car hit the tree; to hit the ball; to hit the target; the enemy hit at dawn; prices hit a new low.
Я считаю очень полезным составлять списки слов, противоположных по значению. Своим мини-словарем хочу поделиться.
Synonyms – Antonyms
accurate – inaccurate
верный / точный – неверный / неточный
active, energetic – inactive, passive
активный, энергичный – бездействующий, пассивный
attentive – inattentive
внимательный – невнимательный
awful, terrible – great, excellent, wonderful
ужасный – отличный, чудесный
awkward, clumsy – skillful (BrE: skilful)
неловкий, неуклюжий – искусный
beautiful, attractive, good-looking, pretty – ugly
красивый, привлекательный, с приятной внешностью, хорошенький – безобразный
best – worst
лучший – худший
big, large – little, small
большой – маленький
bold, confident – timid, shy
смелый, уверенный – робкий, застенчивый
brave, bold – afraid, frightened
храбрый, смелый – боящийся, испуганный
bright, colorful – dull, colorless
яркий, красочный – тусклый, бесцветный
busy, occupied – free
занятый – свободный
calm, quiet – noisy, excited
спокойный, тихий – шумный, взволнованный
careful, cautious – careless
осмотрительный, осторожный – беспечный
cheerful – gloomy
радостный – мрачный
clean, neat – dirty
чистый, опрятный – грязный
clever – foolish, stupid
сообразительный / умный – глупый, тупой
cold, cool – hot, warm
холодный, прохладный – горячий, теплый
comfortable, cozy – uncomfortable
удобный / комфортный, уютный – неудобный
confident, sure – not sure
уверенный – не уверенный
constructive – destructive
конструктивный – разрушительный
convenient – inconvenient
удобный / подходящий – неудобный / неподходящий
correct – incorrect, wrong
правильный – неправильный
crazy – reasonable, sensible
сумасшедший – разумный, здравый
cruel, merciless – kind, humane
жестокий, безжалостный – добрый, гуманный
dangerous – safe
опасный – безопасный / в безопасности
dead – alive
мертвый – живой
decent – indecent, obscene
приличный / пристойный – неприличный, непристойный
deep – shallow
глубокий – мелкий
definite, clear – vague, indefinite
определенный, ясный – неясный, неопределенный
delicious, tasty – tasteless, inedible
вкусный – безвкусный, несъедобный
different – the same, similar
разный – одинаковый, схожий
difficult, hard – easy
трудный – легкий
dry – wet
сухой – мокрый
eager – reluctant
страстно желающий – неохотный
early – late
ранний – поздний
educated – uneducated, ignorant
образованный – необразованный, невежественный
empty – full
пустой – полный
even, smooth – rough, uneven
ровный, гладкий – неровный, негладкий
evident, obvious, clear – vague, obscure
очевидный, явный, ясный – неясный, смутный
exact, precise – inaccurate, inexact
точный – неточный
expensive, valuable – inexpensive, cheap
дорогой / дорогостоящий, ценный – недорогой, дешевый
experienced, qualified – inexperienced, unqualified
опытный, квалифицированный – неопытный, неквалифицированный
fair, just – unfair, unjust
справедливый – несправедливый
faithful, loyal – unfaithful, disloyal
верный / преданный – неверный
famous, well-known – unknown
знаменитый / известный, хорошо известный – неизвестный
far, distant – near, close
далекий, отдаленный – близкий
fast, quick – slow
быстрый – медленный
a) female; b) feminine
a) женский, женского пола, характерный для женского пола; b) женский, женственный, присущий, подходящий женщине; (лингв.) женского рода
fine, refined – common, ordinary
тонкий, утонченный – обычный, обыкновенный
firm, stable – shaky, unstable
твердый, устойчивый – шаткий, неустойчивый
first – last
первый – последний
flexible – rigid, inflexible
гибкий – негнущийся, негибкий
foreign – domestic, local
иностранный – отечественный, местный
frequent – rare
частый – редкий
fresh – stale
свежий – несвежий
friendly – unfriendly, hostile
дружелюбный – недружелюбный, враждебный
front – back, rear
передний – задний
funny, amusing – serious
смешной, забавный / занимательный – серьезный
general – special, specific
общий – специальный / особый, конкретный
generous – greedy
щедрый – жадный
gentle, soft, mild – rough, severe
мягкий, нежный – грубый / жесткий, суровый
good, nice, pleasant – bad, unpleasant
хороший, приятный – плохой, неприятный
happy, glad – unhappy, sad
счастливый, довольный – несчастный, печальный
hard – soft
твердый – мягкий
heavy – light
тяжелый – легкий
high – low
высокий – низкий
honest, sincere – dishonest, insincere
честный, искренний – нечестный, неискренний
huge, enormous – small, tiny
огромный, громадный – маленький, крохотный
important, significant – unimportant, insignificant
важный, значительный – неважный, незначительный
independent, free – not free
независимый, свободный – не свободный
intelligent, wise – foolish, stupid
умный, мудрый – глупый, тупой
interested, curious – indifferent, bored
заинтересованный, любопытный – безразличный, скучающий
interesting – dull, boring
интересный – скучный
kind, good-natured – strict, ill-natured
добрый, добродушный – строгий, злобный / недоброжелательный
lazy – hard-working
ленивый – работящий
light – dark
светлый – темный
long – short, brief
длинный – короткий, краткий
loud, noisy – quiet, soft
громкий, шумный – тихий, приглушенный
loving, tender – unloving, harsh
любящий, нежный – нелюбящий, суровый
lucky, fortunate – unlucky, unfortunate
удачный / удачливый – неудачный / невезучий
magnificent – shabby, miserable
великолепный, величественный – убогий, жалкий
main, chief – secondary, additional
главный, основной – второстепенный, дополнительный
a) male; b) masculine
a) мужской, мужского пола, характерный для муж. пола; b) мужской, мужественный, присущий, подходящий мужчине; (лингв.) мужского рода
narrow – wide
узкий – широкий
natural – unnatural
естественный – неестественный
necessary, required – unnecessary, optional
необходимый, требуемый – ненужный, необязательный
new, modern – old, old-fashioned
новый, современный – старый, старомодный
noble – mean
благородный – подлый
original – ordinary, banal
оригинальный – обычный, банальный
outstanding, remarkable – ordinary
выдающийся, замечательный – обычный
patient – impatient
терпеливый – нетерпеливый
polite – impolite, rude
вежливый – невежливый, грубый
positive – negative
позитивный – негативный
previous, former – next
предыдущий, бывший – следующий
possible – impossible
возможный – невозможный
proper – improper
надлежащий – неподобающий
proud – modest
гордый – скромный
real, genuine – artificial, fake
настоящий, подлинный – искусственный, поддельный
reasonable, sensible, logical – unreasonable, illogical, absurd, crazy
разумный, здравый, логичный – неразумный, нелогичный, абсурдный, бредовый
reliable, dependable – unreliable
надежный – ненадежный
rich, wealthy – poor
богатый, состоятельный – бедный
right – left
правый – левый
right, correct, true – wrong, incorrect, not true
правильный, верный – неправильный, неверный
round – square, triangular
круглый – квадратный, треугольный
sharp, keen, acute – dull, blunt
острый – тупой
shy – confident, self-confident
робкий / застенчивый – уверенный, самоуверенный
sick, ill – healthy
больной – здоровый
simple – complex, complicated
простой – сложный, усложненный
strange, unusual – normal, usual
странный, необычный – нормальный, обычный
strong, tough – weak, delicate, fragile
сильный, крепкий – слабый, нежный, хрупкий
sufficient, enough – insufficient, not enough
достаточный – недостаточный
suitable – unsuitable
подходящий – неподходящий
surprising, amazing – ordinary
удивительный, изумительный – обычный
sweet – sour, bitter, salty
сладкий – кислый, горький, соленый
tall – short
высокий – низкий (о росте)
tense – relaxed
напряженный – расслабленный
thick, fat – thin, slim
толстый, жирный – тонкий, стройный
true – false
верный – неверный / ложный
understandable, clear – unclear, not clear
понятный, ясный – неясный, непонятный
useful, helpful – useless
полезный – бесполезный
whole, complete, full – incomplete, limited
целый, полный – неполный, ограниченный
young – middle-aged, old
молодой – среднего возраста, старый
allow, permit, let
ALLOW (разрешить, позволить): allow the children to watch TV; allow the students to leave early; he allowed them to stay in his house; I was not allowed to visit her; smoking is not allowed here; allow me to help you; allow me to explain; allow me to introduce myself; she allows herself no chocolate; his parents allow him ten dollars a day for books; she spends more than her budget allows; allow at least two hours for changing planes;
PERMIT (разрешить, позволить): the law permits it; they permitted him to visit the prison; she wasn't permitted to talk to him; permit me to explain; his tone permitted of no objection; these facts permit of no doubt; call me when time permits; we'll go there, weather permitting;
LET (informal: разрешить, позволить): let me help you; let me do it for you; let me talk to him; let me explain; let me tell you; let me introduce myself; let me see; let me think; let me guess; let me know; I'll let you know about it; he let them stay in his house; let me pass; let him go; let her try; let her finish; don't let it happen again; let it be; let it go; let go of my hand; let me in; let me out; let him be; let him alone; he can't sit, let alone walk; she lets rooms to students; let's go; let's wait for him; let us say; let us not forget that he is only 20 years old;
BEAR (нести ношу, выдержать, родить): bear the burden of something; bear the cost; bear the consequences; bear responsibility; bear the blame; bear the cross; the right to bear arms; bear a resemblance; bear witness; bear a grudge against someone; bear oneself with dignity; bear in mind; the ice won't bear his weight; I can't bear this heat; I can hardly bear to see him; the trees bear fruit; she bore him three sons; he was born in 1993;
CARRY (нести): carry a bag; carry a suitcase; I'll carry this bag for you; carry a baby in one's arms; carry a gun; carry small change in the pocket; carry one's head high; this pipe carries water to the village; wind carries sound; she carried the news to all neighbors; carry something too far; carry to extremes; don't get carried away;
beat, hit, strike, knock
BEAT (бить): her heart was beating fast; rain was beating against the windows; beat the rhythm; beat the drum; beat an alarm; beat the rug; they beat an old man; they beat him to death; beat someone black and blue; beat with a stick; you can't beat anything into his head; beat a path; beat the eggs; beat the record; she beat him at chess; it beats me how she did it; he beat me to it;
HIT (ударить): hit the ball; hit the nail with a hammer; he hit her; hit someone on the head; he hit his elbow on the door; hit hard; hit with a stick; he was hit by a car; the car hit the tree; prices hit a new low; the bullet hit the target; hit the mark; hit home; hit the nail on the head; hit below the belt; hit someone where it hurts; hit the ceiling; hit the road; hit the hay; hit someone's fancy;
STRIKE (ударить): strike a blow; strike the nail with a hammer; he struck her; strike someone on the head; he struck his elbow on the door; strike with a stick; strike hard; strike repeatedly; the ship struck a rock; the lightning struck the tree; the clock struck nine; strike a match; strike a bargain; strike a deal; strike hands; strike a balance; strike home; strike oil; strike it rich; strike someone's fancy; strike someone speechless; it strikes me as strange;
KNOCK (стучать, ударить): knock at the door; knock on the door; knock on wood; knock twice; knock lightly; knock loudly; the engine is knocking badly; knock a glass from the table; knock a vase to pieces; the blow knocked him unconscious; knock into a table; knock down; knock out; knock over;
begin, start, commence
BEGIN (начать): begin work at nine o'clock; the concert begins at seven; I don't know where to begin; begin at the beginning; we begin tomorrow; she began to cry; she began crying; let's begin; Shall I begin? I can't begin to understand it; beginning with January; the day began with good news;
START (начать, особенно новое): start work at nine o'clock; When do I start? we start tomorrow; she started to cry; she started crying; start a journey; start a car; start a conversation; start a fight; start a family; start a new company; he started his own business; the fire started in the basement; starting with January; the day started with good news; start from the beginning; start from scratch; the bell rang so loudly that I started; she started with fear when she heard his voice;
COMMENCE (formal: начать): commence legal proceedings; commence proceedings in court; commence a court action; commence a lawsuit; commence prosecution;
CLEAN (очищать): clean the shoes; clean the clothes; clean the carpet; clean your room; clean the window; clean out the closet; clean out one's savings; clean one's plate;
CLEAR (очищать, прояснять): clear the table after dinner; clear a path; clear the way; clear snow from the driveway; clear the room of people; clear out the closet; clear up the mess; clear the meaning; clear up the mystery; clear one's throat; clear one's voice; clear one's mind; clear one's name; clear oneself of a charge; the sky is clearing; the weather is clearing up;
CLOSE (закрыть): close the door; close the window; the window will not close; close with a bang; close your books; close your eyes; close your mouth; close the store for the night; the stores are closed now; the bank closes at 5:00; close a bank account; close a road; close the border; close down a factory; close a hole; close a case; close a meeting; the discussion is closed; close a deal; close a sale on a house; his wounds closed;
SHUT (закрыть): shut the door; shut the window; shut the lid; shut your books; shut your eyes; shut your mouth; Shut up! shut the store for the night; shut the dogs in the barn; shut down a factory; my computer shut down; they shut him from their circle;
Note: LOCK (запирать на замок): lock the door; lock the gate; lock the building; lock the store; lock the dogs in the barn; lock up a prisoner; he locked her in his arms; gears locked into place; it locks automatically;
collect, gather, pick up
COLLECT (собирать): collect stamps; collect coins; collect rare books; collect information; collect data; collect facts; collect signatures; collect taxes; collect a debt; collect a bill; collect on delivery; he went to the post office to collect his mail; collect oneself; collect one's courage; collect one's thoughts; students collected in the hall; a crowd collected at the scene of the accident; rain water collected in the tank;
GATHER (собирать): gather your toys from the floor; gather the pieces of a broken cup; gather in a heap; gather flowers; gather berries; gather a good crop; gather information; gather facts; gather strength; gather speed; gather experience; gather dust; gather oneself; gather one's courage; gather one's thoughts; the street show gathered a crowd; students gathered in the hall; they gathered around the table; clouds are gathering;
PICK UP (поднимать, подбирать): pick up a penny from the floor; pick up flowers; pick up berries; I'll pick you up at seven o'clock; he went to the post office to pick up his mail; she picked up several nice hats very cheaply at the fair; the dog picked up the scent; pick up strength; pick up speed; the wind is picking up; business is picking up; a cup of strong tea will pick me up; pick up your room;
COME (приходить): come home; come here; come to my house; come over for dinner; Can you come? come in; come back; come with me; come quickly; come early; come again; I came here by bus; the train from Boston comes at noon; she comes from Texas; June comes after May; winter is coming; come of age; come true; come what may; come in handy; come into effect; come into a fortune; come to light; come to an end; come to nothing; come to a decision; come to a conclusion; it came to me that I had seen him before; you had it coming; they come and go;
ARRIVE (прибыть): arrive in London; arrive by train; arrive in the evening; the train arrives at three; arrive early; arrive at the hotel at night; arrive at the airport an hour before the flight; arrive at a decision; I arrived at the conclusion that he lied to me;
cry, shout, yell
CRY (плакать, кричать): I saw her crying; Why are you crying? she cried when she saw it; cry like a baby; cry oneself to sleep; cry one's eyes out; cry bitter tears; cry with grief; cry with anger; cry with pain; cry loudly; cry out;
SHOUT (кричать): don't shout at children; I heard her shouting; shout loudly; shout angrily; shout with pain; shout for help; shout orders; shout out;
YELL (орать): Don't yell at me! Stop yelling! she is always yelling; yell angrily; yell with pain; yell orders;
DO (делать): do housework; do the dishes; do the room; do the cooking; do the shopping; do homework; do an exercise; do a sum; do math; do research; do business with someone; do one's work; do one's job; do one's duty; do one's part; I'll do my best; she did her hair; don't do it; she has already done it; do me a favor; do something; do nothing; do anything you want; do a number of things; do the right thing; do good; do justice to someone; do harm; do magic; do wonders; do the trick; do fifty miles an hour; do five years in prison; do right; do wrong; he did well at the exam; well done; How do you do? How are you doing? I'm doing fine; What can I do for you? What does she do? What is she doing? I don't know; I have work to do; I have nothing to do; I have nothing to do with it; easy does it; That does it! that will do;
MAKE (делать, создавать): make breakfast; make dinner; make lunch; make a meal; make soup; make pizza; make a pie; make a sandwich; make coffee; make tea; make a drink; make a dress; make furniture; make cars; make money; make a living; make a fortune; make a telephone call; make an appointment; make a reservation; make plans; make changes; make a request; make a suggestion; make an offer; make a promise; make a decision; make a complaint; make a deal; make a speech; make a will; make a wish; make an attempt; make a discovery; make a mistake; make a difference; make a fuss; make a mess; make progress; make sense; make trouble; make peace; make love; make room for something; make sure; make certain; make friends; make believe; make do; make the best of it; make the most of it; make him do it; it made him rich; it made her angry; make yourself at home; make up your mind; two and two makes four; I can't make it at 8:00; he will make a good teacher; she had it made;
FALL (падать): I fell and hurt my elbow; she tripped over a stone and fell; the cup fell and broke; snow is falling; rain is falling; the temperature fell ten degrees; prices fell by 20 percent; leaves fall from the trees in autumn; he fell from the bicycle; he fell on his knees; fall down; fall to the ground; fall to the floor; his voice fell to a whisper; his birthday falls on a Sunday this year; the stress falls on the first syllable; their choice fell on him; suspicion fell on her; the river falls into the sea; fall into place; fall into a trap; fall into a habit; fall in love; fall to pieces; fall on one's feet; fall out of use; fall victim to someone's trick; fall asleep; fall ill; fall flat; fall short;
DROP (падать, ронять, прекращать, капать): the temperature dropped twenty degrees; prices dropped sharply; sales dropped by 50 percent; the number of visitors dropped from 500 to 75; he dropped to his knees; he dropped his voice; Drop dead! I dropped my keys; she dropped her glasses; drop me at the corner; drop me a line; drop a word for me; drop a hint; drop into a habit; let's drop the subject; she dropped old friends; he dropped his studies; she drops her t's at the end of words; she dropped out of school; he dropped from sight; drop from a competition; light rain dropped; water drops from the roof; drop a tear over something;
Note: DRIP (капать): the water tap is dripping; I was dripping wet; he was dripping with blood;
FIND (найти): find an answer; find a solution; find a way to do it; find a mistake; find a dollar in the street; he found his keys; I can't find my glasses; Where can I find it? find a doctor; find a cure for cancer; find oil; find gold; find money for the project; find happiness; find time; find courage; find one's tongue; find by chance; I find it strange; I find it necessary; I found his room empty; she found him sleeping; they found him guilty; he finally found himself; find fault with someone; find out the truth; find out where she is going; I found out that she had left for Paris;
DISCOVER (обнаружить, сделать открытие): discover a new island; discover a new planet; Columbus discovered America; Who discovered electricity? I discovered that I made a mistake; I discovered that several files were missing;
FINISH (закончить): I finish work at six; finish school; finish dinner; finish a book; finish reading; finish writing a report; finish early; finish first; she finished before they did; the course finishes in June; Are you finished with the cooking? she is finished with that impudent young man; they finished off the rest of the cake; he finished up in prison; he will finish up by breaking his neck; the disease almost finished him; the table is finished in brown laquer;
END (закончить): the meeting ended at three o'clock; the war ended in 1945; How does the story end? all is well that ends well; the project ended in failure; he ended up in a hospital; he will end up by hurting himself; he ended his life; he ended his speech with a joke;
forbid, prohibit, ban
FORBID (запрещать): he forbids her to go there; she forbids her daughter to visit night clubs; I forbid you to touch my things; she forbids smoking in this room; smoking is forbidden here; they forbade him entry to their house; my health forbids going there; God forbid!
PROHIBIT (запрещать): the law prohibits the sale of cigarettes to children; she prohibits smoking in this room; smoking is prohibited here; they prohibit him from visiting her; he was prohibited from going there;
BAN (запрещать): ban nuclear tests; ban a book; ban a film; ban a play; ban a newspaper; ban a demonstration; ban a protest meeting; ban the import of foreign cars;
GO (идти, ехать): go home; go to work; go to school; go to Spain; go to prison; go to the kitchen; go to the park; go for a walk; go for a ride; go for a drive; go by bus; go by plane; go by train; go on foot; Does this bus go to the center? go down this street; go this way; go upstairs; go abroad; she is gone; I have to go now; this old sofa will have to go; go broke; go Dutch; go mad; go crazy; go wrong; go easy on something; go too far; go for it; go shopping; go fishing; I'm going to see Anna; he is going to leave next week; How is your new job going? How did the meeting go? time goes quickly; if all goes well; let her go; let yourself go; coffee and pizza to go;
WALK (идти пешком, гулять): walk in the park; walk after supper; walk down this street; walk this way; walk two blocks; walk along the road; walk fast; walk slowly; her baby is learning to walk; she usually walks to work; she walked the baby around the room; he walked me to the bus stop; walk the dog; walk the streets; walk the floor; walk on air;
have, own, possess
HAVE (иметь): have a car; have a nice house; she has a good job; he doesn't have a telephone; they don't have much money; I have a younger brother; he has a lot of friends; she has blue eyes; he has dark hair; he has the right to do it; have breakfast; have lunch; have dinner, have a sandwich; have a cup of tea; have a drink; have a baby; have a problem; have a question; have an opportunity; have an idea; have a suspicion; have doubts; have a good time; have fun; have a look; have a talk; have a walk; have a seat; have a bath; have a cold; have a headache; have a heart attack; have a fight; have an accident; have patience; have influence; have pity on him; he doesn't have time; you have an hour for this task; I have to go; we have to help him; I don't have to work today; have him do it; have her call me; I will not have it! I've had it!
OWN (владеть, признавать своим): she owns a car; he owns a nice house; he owns land; Do you own property? she doesn't own the house in which she lives; they own their own home; he owns a gun legally; she owns the estate jointly with her brother; the company is partly owned by his uncle; the building is privately owned; he owned his child in court; he owned his faults; he owned to being wrong;
POSSESS (владеть, обладать): possess property; possess wealth; possess a house; possess courage; possess patience; possess good qualities; possess oneself; he was possessed by anger; he is possessed by ambition; she is possessed by the desire to become rich; she is possessed by envy; he is possessed by demons; What possessed her to do it?
LAY (положить, класть): lay – laid – laid – laying; lay the book on the desk; lay the child on the bed; lay the carpet on the floor; lay the table for dinner; lay the foundation; lay the cable; lay the pipeline; lay bricks; lay eggs; lay a tax on imported goods; lay the blame on someone; lay siege to a city; lay down one's life; lay someone to rest; lay oneself open; the story is laid in a small village; many workers were laid off;
PUT (положить, поставить): put your bag on the floor; put your coat on the bed; put the cups on the table; put the books on the shelf; put the keys into the bag; put your money in the bank; put a child to bed; put a child into nursery school; put a criminal into prison; put everything in order; put an end to something; put a tax on imported goods; put the blame on someone; put yourself in my place; put two and two together; I don't know how to put it; to put it mildly;
Note: LIE (лежать): lie – lay – lain – lying; lie on the bed; lie on the floor; the cat is lying on the sofa; lie awake; lie still; lie sick; lie idle; lie in ambush; lie in wait; the village lies to the north of the city; the land that lies in front of you; the town lay in ruins; the trouble lies in poor nutrition; the remedy lies in good education; the decision lies with him;
LEARN (изучать, познавать, узнать): learn English; she learned French from her parents; learn the poem by heart; he learned his lesson; learn by example; learn by experience; learn from mistakes; learn from watching others; learn to speak; learn to read; her baby is learning to walk; my son is learning to swim; she is learning to drive; she is learning to be patient; she learns quickly; learn the truth; learn the sad news; she learned that he left for London; I was surprised to learn that he was 70 years old;
STUDY (изучать, заниматься): study law; study mathematics; study English; study languages; study medicine; study a problem; study a case; study a book; study the situation; study the map of Manhattan; study people's faces; she is studying to become a doctor; study for an examination; I have to study; he studies hard; she studied the material thoroughly;
LEND (дать взаймы): banks lend money; libraries lend books; Can you lend me fifty dollars till Sunday? he lent a hundred dollars to his roommate; lend a dictionary; lend a bicycle; lend a hand;
LOAN (дать взаймы): banks loan money at interest; libraries loan books; he loaned a hundred dollars to his roommate;
Note: Antonym – BORROW (взять взаймы): borrow money; borrow a hundred dollars till Monday; she borrowed money from a bank; borrow a dictionary; borrow a bicycle; I borrowed his CD player; Can I borrow your pen?
look for, search, seek
LOOK FOR (искать): look for a job; look for a new apartment; look for a place to live; look for a book; look for an answer; look for advice; look for help; I'm looking for my keys; I'm looking for Mr. Smith; I'm looking for black leather shoes in size 8; I'm looking for Oak Street; What are you looking for?
SEARCH (искать, обыскать): search for truth; search for beauty; search for a book; search for an answer; he searched his memory but couldn't remember her name; he searched her face for a clue; she searched her apartment for the lost ring; the police searched the house; search the prisoner; Search me!
SEEK (искать, пытаться найти): seek the truth; seek advice; seek someone's approval; seek employment; seek a place (as a driver); seek fame; seek wealth; seek one's fortune; seek shelter; seek protection; be sought after; experienced managers are much sought after by employers;
offer, suggest, propose
OFFER (предлагать): offer help; offer to help; he offered her a drink; they offered him a good job; he offered to drive me to the store; offer money; offer $100 for the carpet; offer goods at a reduced price; the school offers various night courses; hotels offer various services; offer an apology; offer advice; offer an opinion; offer a suggestion; offer a solution to a problem; offer a plan;
SUGGEST (предлагать): suggest an idea; suggest a plan; suggest a solution to a problem; suggest a candidate for a job; suggest him as the committee chairman; he suggested staying at the Green Hotel; he suggested that we should wait a little longer; she suggested that the meeting be postponed; evidence suggests that she was at the scene of the crime; Do you suggest that she is lying? his name doesn't suggest anything to me;
PROPOSE (предлагать): propose a plan; propose a toast to someone's health; I propose Mr. Doyle for chairman; she proposed that the meeting be postponed; propose marriage; he proposed to her;
RAISE (поднять): raise your hands; raise your head; raise a hat to someone; raise a glass to someone; raise him from his knees; the noise raised him from his bed; raise a building; raise a monument; raise a tower; raise funds; they raised 500 dollars for the flood victims; raise a question; raise an issue; raise objections; raise a protest; raise prices; raise salaries; raise children; raise a family; raise cattle; raise corn; raise one's voice; raise one's hopes; raise one's spirits; raise suspicion; raise memories; raise hell; raise the dead; raise someone from the dead;
LIFT (поднять): she lifted her hand; she lifted the child from the floor; he lifted the bag and put it on the table; this box is too heavy to lift; lift the ban on a book; he managed to lift himself from poverty; she didn't even lift a finger to help me; the plane lifted off;
Note: RISE (подняться): rise from the floor; she rose from a chair; he rose from his knees; a bird rose in the air; the plane rose above the clouds; she rose early today; rise high; the sun rises in the East; the tower rises to the height of 200 meters; the river rose five feet in three hours; prices are rising again; his temperature is rising; she felt her temper rising; he rose from the dead;
SAY (сказать): He said, "I am busy." What did he say? he said that he was busy; say it loudly; say these words after me; say something; say anything; he said nothing; he didn't say a word; say hello; say good-bye; say yes; say no; say thank you; What can I say? I'm afraid I couldn't say; it is often said that life is unfair;
TELL (рассказать): tell me your name; tell me about your family; What did he tell you? he told me that he was busy; tell a story; tell a secret; tell a lie; tell the truth; tell the time; tell the news; tell the facts; Could you tell me where the bank is? tell him to do it; tell her to stop;
SPEAK (говорить): I spoke with him yesterday; May I speak to Ann Jones, please? the lecturer spoke for an hour; he will speak at the meeting; Do you speak English? speak fast; speak slowly; speak loudly; speak in a low voice; speak openly; speak for yourself; speak up; so to speak;
TALK (разговаривать): she is talking with her friends; I'll talk to her about it; Are you talking to me? people are already talking; What are you talking about? talk shop; talk politics; stop talking; she will talk you to death; talk it over with your family;
STOP (остановить, перестать): stop talking; stop working; stop playing; stop joking; stop complaining; stop crying; stop the car; stop the bus; stop work; stop the game; stop the war; stop fire; stop payment; stop delivery; stop it; I can't stop it; Stop thief! stop him; stop him from doing it; What's stopping you? Stop bothering me! she can't stop; stop immediately; stop suddenly; stop abruptly; stop short; stop completely; the rain stopped; he stopped at the corner; stop at the traffic light; Does this bus stop at the bank? he stopped at a small hotel for the night; he will stop at nothing; he stopped to read a note in the window; he stopped to light his cigarette; stop a leak; stop a hole; stop a bottle with a cork;
QUIT (перестать, бросить): quit school; quit one's job; quit work at seven o'clock; quit smoking; quit complaining; quit the city for the village in the woods;
throw, cast, toss
THROW (бросать): throw a ball; throw a stone at someone; throw a piece of paper into the wastebasket; throw a rope to someone; throw a man into prison; throw a glance at something; she threw me a kiss; throw a shadow on something; throw light on something; throw doubt on something; throw one's voice; throw a party; throw a fit; she threw herself into his arms; he threw himself into making films; he threw all his energy into the project; throw out the garbage; the horse threw its rider;
CAST (бросать): cast stones; cast a net; cast a fishing line; cast a vote; cast a glance at something; cast a shadow on something; cast light on something; cast doubts; cast pearls before swine; cast a spell on someone; cast lots; cast actors; he was cast for the part of the villain; snakes cast the skin / snakes shed the skin; birds cast feathers / birds shed feathers;
TOSS (бросать): toss a piece of paper into the wastebasket; toss a ball; toss a bone to the dog; toss a coin; toss a pancake; she made tossed green salad; she tossed and turned all night;
wait, expect, anticipate
WAIT (ждать): wait for a bus; wait for a telephone call; wait for me; don't wait for me; I'm waiting for an answer; wait for your turn; wait for an hour; wait a minute; wait till eight o'clock; wait patiently; wait here; wait in the hall; How long have you been waiting? wait and see; it can wait; it can't wait any longer; this work will have to wait until next week; I can't wait; I can't wait to see you; keep someone waiting; wait tables; wait on someone;
EXPECT (ожидать): expect guests for dinner; expect a present; she expected an answer, but he remained silent; I didn't expect it; I hope you don't expect me to do it; we expect good work from you; you are expected to know it; I expect him to come back about six o'clock; I expect that he will come to the meeting; they expect their second child in June; she is expecting;
ANTICIPATE (ожидать, предвидеть): anticipate pleasure; anticipate success; anticipate a favorable decision; anticipate trouble; anticipate refusal; anticipate disaster; anticipate someone's wishes; anticipate a blow;
WANT (хотеть): I want to see you; she wants to sleep; I don't want it; I want something to read; I want something to eat; I want a sandwich; I want a pound of Swiss cheese, please; What does he want? What do you want to do? What do you want from me? I want the truth; he wants me to write a report; the manager wants you in his office; he is wanted by the police; the house wants painting; this shirt wants washing; you want the number 15 bus (not the 16); she will never want for anything;
WISH (желать): I wish you luck; I wish you the best; I wish she were here now; I wish he would come back; I wish I could help him; wish on a falling star; wish on a penny;
WATCH (наблюдать, смотреть, караулить): watch a film; watch a play; watch TV; watch television; watch a football game; watch the birds in the garden; I watched him clean the yard; she watched the children playing in the sand; watch me; watch the baby; the feeling of being watched; I have to watch my diet; watch his progress; watch the development of the situation; watch with interest; watch attentively; watch at the door; watch for a signal; watch for an opportunity; watch with a sick person; watch your step; watch your language; Watch it! Watch out!
OBSERVE (наблюдать, соблюдать, заметить): observe weather phenomena; observe the eclipse of the sun; observe the behavior of ants; observe the patient's reaction to medicines; observe the experiment; observe the operation; she feels that she is being observed; observe silence; observe discipline; observe the laws; observe the rules; observe traditions; observe a holiday; he observed coldly that nobody asked her to do it;
wear, dress, put on
WEAR (носить, быть одетым в): wear a coat; wear warm clothes; wears jeans; she is wearing a blue dress today; he is wearing a suit; wear a hat; wear leather shoes; wear glasses; wear jewels; wear a wig; wear a mask; wear a disguise; I have nothing to wear; What size clothes do you wear? I wear clothes in size 50; wear one's clothes into rags; wear one's shoes into holes; wear a man to a shadow; this fabric will wear for years; this fabric won't wear; this color will wear well; his coat is worn out; she is worn by anxiety; wear a smile; wear an air of happiness; wear one's head high; wear one's hair short; my patience is wearing thin; her patience is worn out;
DRESS (одевать): dress warmly; she dressed her little daughter in a nice dress; she is dressed in black; dress for dinner; What are you dressed up for? dress a store window with garlands; the surgeon dressed the wound;
PUT ON (надевать): put on a dress; put on a coat; put on a sweater; put on your glasses; put on weight; put on airs; he is putting you on;
Материалы для исследовательской работы по английскому языку "Что мы знаем о нашей памяти". Данный материал позвволит подготовить учащегося к выступлению на научно-практической (школьной) конференции, дать идей для собственного исследования, проверить факты, которые являются научными достижениями в области физиологии и человеческих возможностей. Кроме того, материалы для работы позволяют воспользоваться практическими советами по улучшению памяти и запоминанию английских слов и выражений.
Данная разработка не является конечным продуктом, предполагает создание плана и собственного исследования по данной теме.
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